Cover image for Human rights in the United States : a dictionary and documents
Human rights in the United States : a dictionary and documents
Cartwright, Rita Cantos.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, [2000]

Physical Description:
2 volumes (lvi, 931 pages) : illustrations, form ; 26 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
KF4747.5 .C37 2000 V.1 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating
KF4747.5 .C37 2000 V.2 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating

On Order



This two volume set offers easy to grasp explanations of the basic concepts, laws, and case law in the field, with emphasis on human rights in the historical, political, and legal experience of the United States.

* Offers 240 dictionary entries of human rights terms--ranging from asylum and cultural relativism to hate crimes and torture. Each entry discusses the significance of the term, gives examples, and cites appropriate documents and court decisions

* Provides a documents section containing 59 conventions, treaties, and protocols related to the most up to date international action on ethnic cleansing; freedom of expression and religion; violence against women; and much more

* Includes a bibliography

* A comprehensive introduction provides an overview of the coverage

Author Notes

Rita Cantos Cartwright is a visiting professor at Trinity Law School and Trinity Graduate School, Santa Ana, CA specializing in women's issues. She is one of the co-founders of the Center for Human Rights and Freedom.

H. Victor Cond#65533; is an attorney and adjunct professor of international human rights at Trinity International University and Trinity Law School, Santa Ana, CA.

Reviews 2

Booklist Review

According to the preface, this resource is intended as "a window through which the average American reader can start to develop a broader, deeper, and clearer view and understanding of the field of human rights as they exist in the U.S. historical and legal experience." The authors include within the field of human rights "that body of law known as international humanitarian law," as well as some terms related to international criminal law. Condeis the author of another human rights book, Handbook of International Human Rights Terminology (1999), and Cartwright did her dissertation on women's rights. Key elements in this set are the definitions of human rights in the U.S. context and the legal documents "that are part of the U.S. human rights landscape." The "Dictionary" portion has entries for approximately 240 terms, most related to legal concepts. Examples include Amnesty, Hate crime, Most Favored Nation (MFN) trading status, Police brutality, and Torture Victim Protection Act of 1992; there are no entries for persons or events. Length ranges from one-third of a page to two pages, and each entry consists of a definition, a brief discussion of significance, and references to pertinent materials in the "Documents" section and appendixes. "Documents" contains excerpts from 59 representative international human rights documents arranged by source (United Nations, Organization of American States, etc.). Among them are the Declaration of Independence, the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and the 1945 Nuremberg Principles. The text of each document is preceded by a summary that includes subject, official citation, type of document, brief commentary, cautions, and a Web location for status updates, among other background information. Eight appendixes provide such valuable information as charts delineating the U.N. system for the protection of human rights, a report on a public opinion survey conducted by a group of U.S. human rights organizations, and selected U.S. and non-U.S. case decisions. The appendixes are followed by a bibliography arranged by topic. Other current books in the field include the Dictionary of International Human Rights Law (1996) and Historical Dictionary of Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations (1997), both published by Scarecrow. Human Rights in the United States is unique because of its U.S. emphasis and its inclusion of extensive primary source material. It is nicely organized and written at a level that makes it useful for high-school and college students, as well as the general reader, and is recommended for high-school, public, and academic libraries with the hope that its cost will not make it out of reach for some.

Choice Review

The first half of volume 1 of this set emphasizing the US contains the dictionary, "accountability" to "xenophobia"; the second half begins the documents portion, which continues through volume 2. There is also a lengthy introduction. The documents sections reprint many international human rights documents from a variety of sources. The authors note that since so much US activity in international human rights occurs in the context of the UN, most of the documents originate with that organization. To be included, documents had to either contain human rights standards to which the US subscribes, or be examples of documents issued by various international institutional associations in which the US is involved. Some documents critical of the US are included, according to the authors, not to make the country "look bad," but to show researchers the actual processes, policies, positions, and perspectives as they relate to the US. This interesting contribution to human rights literature from the point of view of a particular nation could be used as a reference source for university classes, but general readers will probably not be attracted to it. E. W. Webking; University of Lethbridge

Table of Contents

William F. Schulz
Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Introductionp. xxi
How to Use This Bookp. xlix
Volume I Dictionaryp. 1
Accountability/Accountablep. 3
Advice and Consent of the U.S. Senatep. 4
Affirmative Actionp. 5
Aid Conditionalityp. 6
Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA)p. 6
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)p. 7
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)p. 7
Amnestyp. 8
Anti-Semitismp. 9
Apartheidp. 10
Arbitrary Arrest/Detentionp. 10
Arrestp. 11
Asylump. 12
Atrocityp. 14
Basic Human Rightsp. 15
Bearerp. 15
Bigot(ed)/Bigotryp. 17
Bill of Rightsp. 17
Bindingp. 18
Breachp. 19
Bricker Amendmentp. 20
Broad-mindednessp. 21
Bureau of Human Rights, Democracy and Laborp. 22
Capital Punishmentp. 23
Charterp. 25
Civil Human Rightsp. 25
Civil Libertiesp. 26
Civil Rightsp. 27
Civil Societyp. 27
Civil Warp. 28
Collateral Damagep. 29
Collective Human Rightsp. 30
Collective Punishmentp. 30
Command Responsibilityp. 31
Commission on Human Rightsp. 32
Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europep. 33
Communication/Complaint Proceduresp. 34
Complementarity of Judicial Systemsp. 35
Compliance with Human Rights Normsp. 36
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)p. 37
Conscientious Objectionp. 37
Conventionp. 38
Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)p. 38
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)p. 39
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)p. 39
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocidep. 39
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)p. 40
Corporal Punishmentp. 40
Country Reportsp. 41
Country-Specific Legislationp. 42
Covenantp. 42
Crimes against Humanityp. 43
Crimes against Peacep. 44
Cruel Treatment or Punishmentp. 45
Cultural Human Rightsp. 46
Cultural Relativismp. 47
Culture of Human Rightsp. 48
Culture of Impunityp. 48
Culture of Peacep. 50
Customary International Lawp. 51
Declaration/Declarationsp. 53
Declaration of Independencep. 54
Degrading Treatment or Punishmentp. 54
Demonize/Demonizationp. 55
Deportationp. 57
Derogation/Derogable Human Rightsp. 58
Detentionp. 59
Disappearancep. 60
Discriminationp. 61
Diversityp. 62
Domestic Remedyp. 63
Double Standard/Dual Standardp. 65
Due Process of Lawp. 66
Dutyp. 68
Economic Human Rightsp. 71
Effective Domestic Remedyp. 72
Entry into Force (EIF)p. 73
Equality/Equality before the Lawp. 74
Ethnic Cleansingp. 76
Ethnic Minorityp. 77
Excessive Forcep. 78
Executive Agreements (EA)p. 79
Executive Orders (EO)p. 80
Exhaustion of Domestic Remediesp. 81
Expropriationp. 82
Extraditionp. 82
Extrajudicial Killingp. 83
Fact Findingp. 85
Fair Trialp. 86
Federal Clausep. 87
First Generation Human Rightsp. 87
Forced Disappearancep. 89
Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)p. 90
Forum of Shamep. 90
"Four Freedoms"p. 91
Free and Fair Electionsp. 92
Freedomp. 92
Freedom of Expressionp. 93
Fundamental Rights/Freedomsp. 94
General Human Rights Legislationp. 97
Geneva Conventions of 1949 (GC)p. 97
Genocide/Genocide Conventionp. 98
Grave Breachesp. 100
Gross Human Rights Violationp. 100
Habeas Corpus Proceedingsp. 103
Hard Core Human Rightsp. 103
Harkin Amendmentp. 104
Hate Crimep. 104
Hate Speechp. 105
Helsinki Final Act of 1975/Helsinki Accordsp. 106
High Commissioner for Human Rightsp. 107
Holocaustp. 107
Human Dignityp. 108
Human Right(s)p. 109
Human Rights Committeep. 110
Human Rights Reportsp. 112
Human Rights Violationp. 113
Humanitarian Interventionp. 113
Humanitarian Lawp. 114
Illegal Alienp. 115
Immunityp. 116
Implementing Legislationp. 116
Impunityp. 117
Inalienable Rightsp. 118
Incommunicado Detentionp. 119
Independent and Impartial Judiciaryp. 119
Indigenous Peoples or Populationsp. 120
Indiscriminate Attack/Forcep. 122
Individual Complaintp. 123
Individual Criminal Responsibilityp. 123
Individual Rightsp. 124
Inherent Human Rightsp. 124
Inhuman Treatment or Punishmentp. 125
Inhumane Treatmentp. 127
Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO)p. 128
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)p. 128
International Bill of Rightsp. 129
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)p. 130
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)p. 131
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)p. 133
International Criminal Court (ICC)p. 133
International Criminal Lawp. 135
International Financial Institution (IFI) Legislationp. 136
International Human Rights Lawp. 137
Interstate Complaintp. 138
Intolerancep. 139
Involuntary Servitudep. 140
Jackson Vanik Amendmentp. 141
Law of Armed Conflictp. 143
Libertyp. 145
Liberty and Security of Personp. 145
Lieber Codep. 146
Limitationp. 146
Link/Linkagep. 147
Massacrep. 149
Methods or Means of Combatp. 149
Minority/Minority Rightsp. 151
Monitorp. 152
Most Favored Nation (MFN) Trading Statusp. 153
Multilateral Forump. 154
National Self-Interestp. 157
Nationalismp. 158
Natural Lawp. 158
Nondiscriminationp. 159
Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)p. 160
Noninterference with Internal Affairsp. 161
Non-Refoulementp. 162
Non-Self-Executing Treatyp. 163
Norm/Normativep. 164
Nuremberg Charter and Rulesp. 164
Nuremberg Principlesp. 165
On-Site Investigation/Fact Findingp. 167
Oppressionp. 167
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)p. 168
Organization of American States (OAS)p. 169
Perpetratorp. 171
Persecutionp. 171
Pluralismp. 172
Police Brutalityp. 173
Police Statep. 174
Political Asylump. 175
Political Correctness/Politically Correctp. 175
Political Human Rightsp. 176
Political Willp. 176
Preamblep. 177
Pretrial Detentionp. 178
Prisoner of Conscience (POC)p. 179
Prisoner of War (POW)p. 179
Procedural Rightsp. 180
Prolonged Arbitrary Detentionp. 180
Proportionalityp. 182
Protocolp. 183
Public International Lawp. 183
Racial Discriminationp. 185
Racism/Racistp. 186
Ratificationp. 187
Refugeep. 188
Regional Human Rights System or Regimep. 189
Reparationsp. 189
Reports/Reportingp. 190
Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings (RDUs/RUDs)p. 192
Reverse Discriminationp. 194
Rule of Lawp. 194
Sanctionsp. 197
Second Generation Human Rightsp. 197
Segregationp. 198
Self-Determinationp. 199
Self-Executing Treatyp. 199
Sign/Signatoryp. 200
Slaveryp. 200
Social Human Rightsp. 202
Social Justicep. 203
Soft Lawp. 203
Sovereigntyp. 204
Sovereignty Provisop. 205
Special Rapporteurp. 205
Standard Settingp. 206
Statep. 207
State Partyp. 207
State Responsibility for Injury to Aliensp. 208
Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minoritiesp. 209
Substantive Rightsp. 209
Summary Executionp. 210
Third Generation Human Rightsp. 213
Torturep. 213
Torture Victim Protection Act of 1992 (TVPA)p. 215
Transparencep. 216
Treaty/International Instrumentp. 216
Treaty Monitoring/Supervising Bodyp. 218
United Nations (U.N.) Charterp. 219
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)p. 220
Universal Jurisdictionp. 220
Universalityp. 221
Unnecessary Sufferingp. 222
War Crimesp. 223
War Crimes Act of 1996p. 224
Women's Human Rightsp. 225
Worldviewp. 226
Xenophobiap. 229
Documentsp. 231
A Word of Introductionp. 233
U.S. Documentsp. 237
1. Declaration of Independencep. 237
2. U.S. Constitutionp. 239
3. Executive Order 13107 on Implementation of Human Rights Treatiesp. 243
U.S.-Related Documentsp. 246
4. Charter of the United Nationsp. 246
5. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)p. 248
6. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)p. 252
7. U.S. Ratification of the ICCPR, with Reservations, Declarations, and Understandingsp. 264
8. First Optional Protocol to the ICCPRp. 266
9. Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPRp. 269
10. Initial Report of the United States of America to the U.N. Human Rights Committee under the ICCPRp. 271
11. Consideration by the U.N. Human Rights Committee of Reports Submitted by the United States under the ICCPRp. 331
12. General Comment 15(27) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on the Position of Aliens under the ICCPRp. 336
13. General Comment 22(18) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion under the ICCPRp. 338
14. General Comment 23(27) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on the Rights of Minoritiesp. 341
15. General Comment 24(14) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on Issues Relating to Reservations under the ICCPRp. 344
16. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)p. 350
17. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocidep. 357
18. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Genocide Conventionp. 360
19. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)p. 361
20. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Convention against Torture (CAT)p. 369
21. U.S. Initial Report to the U.N. Committee against Torturep. 371
22. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)p. 421
23. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Racial Discrimination Conventionp. 429
24. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minoritiesp. 430
25. Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoplesp. 433
26. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)p. 440
Volume II Documentsp. 449
27. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)p. 449
28. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugeesp. 461
29. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugeesp. 470
30. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Beliefp. 472
31. Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups, and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedomsp. 475
32. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Womenp. 480
33. Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonmentp. 484
34. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisonersp. 489
35. Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penaltyp. 500
36. U.N. Special Rapporteur Report on Extrajudicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions (U.N. Commission on Human Rights)p. 502
37. Written Intervention by Human Rights Advocates Concerning the Death Penalty for Juvenile Offendersp. 524
38. U.N. Special Rapporteur Report on Religious Intolerance and Discrimination (U.N. Commission on Human Rights)p. 528
39. U.N. Special Rapporteur Report on Violence against Women in State and Federal Prisons (U.N. Commission on Human Rights)p. 541
40. U.N. Special Rapporteur Report on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (U.N. Commission on Human Rights)p. 553
41. Response of the U.S. Government to the Special Rapporteur Report on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerancep. 577
42. Report of the U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detentionp. 578
43. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Actionp. 580
44. U.N. General Assembly Resolution proclaiming the "U.N. Decade for Human Rights Education,"p. 598
International Labour Organization Documentsp. 601
45. Convention No. 182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, with U.S. Ratificationp. 601
Organization of American States Documentsp. 604
46. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)p. 604
47. American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)p. 608
48. First Protocol to the ACHRp. 620
49. Second Protocol to the ACHRp. 625
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Documentsp. 627
50. Helsinki Final Actp. 627
Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law Documentsp. 634
51. 1907 Hague Convention IV, Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Landp. 634
52. 1945 Nuremberg Principlesp. 638
53. Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Lawp. 639
54. Geneva Convention IV of 1949 Relative to Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflictsp. 641
55. 1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventionsp. 667
56. 1977 Protocol II to the Geneva Conventionsp. 694
57. Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)p. 699
58. Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)p. 702
59. Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (with Land Mine Protocol)p. 711
Appendixesp. 723
A. Charts of the International Protection of Human Rightsp. 725
B. Charts of the U.N. System for the Protection of Human Rightsp. 729
C. What Americans Think About Human Rights in the United Statesp. 734
D. Substantive Human Rights Found in the International Bill of Rightsp. 740
E. How an International Human Rights Norm Becomes U.S. Lawp. 742
F. Status of Human Rights Treaties in the United Statesp. 743
G. Selected U.S. Legislationp. 745
H. Selected Case Decisionsp. 803
I. Spectrum of Law Applicable in the United Statesp. 907
Bibliographyp. 909
Indexp. 915
About the Authorsp. 931