Cover image for Almanac of African American heritage : a book of lists featuring people, places, times, and events that shaped Black culture
Almanac of African American heritage : a book of lists featuring people, places, times, and events that shaped Black culture
Miles, Johnnie H.
Publication Information:
Paramus, NJ : Prentice Hall Press, [2001]

Physical Description:
xxiv, 430 pages ; 24 cm
Added Author:
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
E185 .A448 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
E185 .A448 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
E185 .A448 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Black History Non-Circ
E185 .A448 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
E185 .A448 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf

On Order



This unparalleled resource celebrates the remarkable contributionsof black men and women to the United States, beginning with theearliest slave ships to cross the Atlantic and culminating at theclose of the 20th century.

Witten by four African-American professionals with over 75 years ofcollective experience in education and counseling, this compendiumdocuments the vital impact of African-Americans on America s pastand present.

Spanning history, popular culture, education, religion, science,technology, business, law, government, fine arts, sports, and themilitary, the authors spotlight dozens of trail blazers, fromDorothy Height to Warren Thompson, from Dr. Benjamin Carson toBarbara Jordan.

Entries include:
* Enduring African-American folk remedies and innovativecontributions in medical research.
* Pioneering African-American attorneys, judges, governors, andsenators.
* Notable Broadway plays and award-winning movies withAfrican-American themes.
* A tribute to African-American soldiers, including the fearlesswomen nurses in World War I.
Published just in time for African-American History Month inFebruary, Almanac of African-American Heritage will become aninstant backlist title and will remain a wonderful tribute andstrong resource for years to come.

Author Notes

Johnnie H. Miles, Ed.D., Juanita J. Davis, Ed.D., Sharon F. Ferguson-Roberts, Ed.D., and Rita G. Giles, Ed.D., have all taught at the college level and worked as professional counselors, mediators, trainers, and career consultants. Proud of their African-American heritage, the co-authors are committed to increasing knowledge and understanding about diverse populations in education, industry, and government. Each lives in the state of Virginia.

Reviews 1

School Library Journal Review

Gr 9 Up-This book attempts to catalog a multitude of facts and information about African-American history, culture, and contributions to U.S. society. While it presents 400 years of important events and people within clear chapters and subheadings, its usefulness is not always apparent. Hundreds of books have been written on topics that have been converted into a series of lists and time lines and one-sentence descriptions here. Categories such as legislation and slavery, abolitionists, firsts in education, women in religion, popular singers, civil rights organizations, and military history are covered in these formats, which do not lend themselves to browsing or easy access. Scattered "Spotlights" in the text focus on famous figures such as Mae Jemison or Colin Powell but are not accompanied by photos, and the brief outlines of accomplishments are not inspiring. Molefi K. Asante and Mark T. Mattson's The African-American Atlas: Black History and Culture-An Illustrated Reference (Macmillan, 1998), James and Lois Horton's A History of the African American People (Wayne State, 1997), and the "African Americans: Voices of Triumph" series (Time-Life, 1999) are better books and include full-color illustrations.-Janet Woodward, Garfield High School, Seattle, WA (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Table of Contents

About this Bookp. ix
Forewordp. xxv
1. History of African Americans in the United Statesp. 1
African Americans in the United Statesp. 2
Coming to the Shores of the Americas (1400-1700)p. 2
Resistance and Servitude: Two Worlds Clash (1700-1800)p. 3
War, Freedom, and Institutional Oppression (1800-1900)p. 4
African American Leaders in the Forefront (1900-1950)p. 7
Nonviolence to Activism (1950-2000)p. 9
Economics of Slaveryp. 13
The Middle Passagep. 13
Slave Shipsp. 14
Names of Selected Slave Shipsp. 15
Economics of the Slave Tradep. 16
Slavery in the United Statesp. 17
Recognition and Abolition of Slavery in Original Coloniesp. 17
States in Rebellion Against the United States in 1863p. 18
Plantation Lifep. 18
Life on the Plantationp. 18
Workp. 19
Housingp. 20
Foodp. 21
Day-to-Day Life on the Plantationp. 22
Punishmentp. 23
The Slave Marketp. 24
Resistance to Slaveryp. 26
Slave Resistance and Revoltsp. 26
Escape to Freedom--The Underground Railroad (1780s-1860s)p. 27
Routesp. 28
Selected Underground Conductorsp. 29
Abolitionistsp. 29
The Courts and Slaveryp. 33
Legislation and Slavery (1600-1863)p. 33
Legislation and the Reconstruction Era (1865-1877)p. 35
Legislation and Segregation of African Americans (1877-1953)p. 35
Violence Against African Americansp. 37
Recorded Lynchings (1882-1969)p. 37
Fight for Freedomp. 38
The Civil Rights Movement in Review (1600s-1999)p. 38
Nonviolent Resistance to Segregationp. 41
Civil Rights Leadersp. 44
Civil Rights Organizationsp. 45
Spotlight: Martin Luther King, Jr.p. 48
Spotlight: Dorothy Irene Heightp. 50
African American Demographicsp. 53
African Americans in U.S. Population (1870-1990)p. 53
States with Largest African American Populationsp. 54
2. Cultural Traditionsp. 55
Familiesp. 56
Family Demographicsp. 56
Family Structuresp. 56
Family Lifep. 57
Languagesp. 58
Proverbs in African American Culturep. 58
Languages of Black Races (Native and Foreign)p. 60
Styles of Languagesp. 60
Slang in the 1990sp. 61
Celebrations and Holidaysp. 63
African American Celebrations/Holidaysp. 63
African American Festivalsp. 63
The Holiday of Kwanzaap. 63
Funeral Practicesp. 64
Selected Historic Cemeteriesp. 64
Music and Dancep. 66
Freedom Songsp. 66
Styles of Musicp. 67
Alternative Instrumentsp. 67
Popular Dancesp. 67
Slave Dancesp. 68
Traditional African Dancesp. 68
Fashionp. 69
Fashion Statusp. 69
Styles of Dressingp. 70
Textures and Types of Materialsp. 70
Hair Fashionsp. 71
Finishing Touches for the Hairp. 71
Fashions and Churchp. 71
Spotlight: FUBUp. 72
Fashion Designersp. 73
Games and Storytellingp. 75
Children's Gamesp. 75
Animal Tales and Fablesp. 75
History Remembered Storiesp. 76
Tales of Ghosts and Witchesp. 76
Humorous Tales and Anecdotesp. 76
Raps, Rhythms, and Rhymesp. 77
Sermonsp. 77
Food and African American Culturep. 77
Dessertsp. 77
Meats and Main Dishesp. 78
Vegetablesp. 78
Side Dishesp. 78
Spotlight: Ms. B. Smithp. 79
Names and Titles Used to Describe African Americansp. 80
Names and Titlesp. 80
Beauty Pageant Winnersp. 80
Miss Black America (1969-1996)p. 80
Miss Americap. 81
3. Educationp. 83
African Americans in Educationp. 84
Firsts in Educationp. 84
Noted Educatorsp. 86
Spotlight: Booker T. Washingtonp. 88
Civil Rights and Desegregation Developmentsp. 91
Chronology of Major Desegregation Developmentsp. 91
Key Dates in African American Educationp. 92
Civil Rights and Desegregation Policiesp. 94
Prominent U.S. Supreme Court Casesp. 94
Resistance Efforts to Desegregationp. 95
Special Emphasis Programsp. 96
Special Emphasis Programsp. 96
Youth Organizationsp. 97
Youth Organizationsp. 97
Rhodes Scholarsp. 98
Rhodes Scholars (1997-1999)p. 98
First Doctoral Degrees Conferredp. 98
First Recipientsp. 98
Colleges and Universitiesp. 101
Historically Black Colleges and Universitiesp. 101
Sororitiesp. 106
Fraternitiesp. 106
First Presidents of Colleges and Universitiesp. 107
Top Fifty Colleges for African Americansp. 108
Ten Richest African American Institutionsp. 110
Scholarshipsp. 110
Publications (A Selected List)p. 111
Associations, Professional, and Collegiatep. 111
Magazines (with a circulation of more than 100,000)p. 112
Organizations that Promote African American Educationp. 112
Organizationsp. 112
4. Religionp. 115
The Organized African American Churchp. 116
The Early Churchp. 116
Antebellump. 117
Growth Between 1860-1900p. 118
Twentieth Centuryp. 119
Pioneers in Religionp. 120
African American Firsts in Religionp. 120
African American Women in Religionp. 122
Denominational Traditions and Ritualsp. 124
Baptistp. 124
Catholicp. 125
Episcopalp. 127
Holiness/Pentecostalp. 128
Jehovah's Witnessp. 129
Methodistp. 130
Nation of Islam and Black Muslimsp. 131
Unconventional Religious Organizationsp. 133
Religious Conferences and Conventionsp. 135
Denomination: Baptistp. 135
Denomination: Catholicp. 135
Denomination: Methodistp. 135
Educational Institutionsp. 136
Church-Affiliated Colleges and Universitiesp. 136
African American Seminariesp. 138
Bible Collegesp. 139
Ministerial Titlesp. 140
Ministerial Degreesp. 140
Preaching Stylesp. 141
Music in the African American Churchp. 142
Musical Traditionsp. 142
Gospel Performers of the Twentieth Centuryp. 144
Contemporary Gospel Singers and Groupsp. 145
Music Resourcesp. 145
Religious Organizationsp. 146
Councilsp. 146
Nondenominational Organizationsp. 146
Service Agencies and Organizationsp. 147
Ministerial Leadershipp. 148
Ministers Who Became Civil Rights Leadersp. 148
Ministers Elected to National Political Officep. 148
Prominent Religious Leadersp. 149
Spotlight: Johnnie Colemon Neddp. 150
Bishops and Archbishops (Catholic)p. 151
Spotlight: Peter John Gomesp. 152
Acronyms and Glossaryp. 153
Acronymsp. 153
Glossary of Religious Termsp. 154
5. Medicine, Science, and Technologyp. 159
Firsts in Sciencep. 160
Firsts in Medicine, Science, and Technologyp. 160
Firsts in Nursingp. 162
Innovative Contributionsp. 163
Inventions in Science, Medicine, and Technologyp. 163
Contemporary Inventions (1950-Present)p. 166
Research Contributionsp. 168
Contributions to Aerospacep. 169
Spotlight: Mae C. Jemisonp. 170
Key Datesp. 171
Science, Medicine, and Technology (1966-Present)p. 171
Years of Birth of African American Scientists (1900-1956)p. 172
Health Issuesp. 173
Children's Health Issuesp. 173
Spotlight: Mother Halep. 174
Black Infant Mortalityp. 175
Warning Signs of Drug Use in Childrenp. 175
Women's Health Issuesp. 176
Men's Health Issuesp. 177
Elderly Health Issuesp. 178
Screening Tests for African Americansp. 179
Researchp. 179
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1932-1972)p. 179
Spotlight: Dr. Charles R. Drewp. 180
Spotlight: Dr. Benjamin Carsonp. 182
Folk Medicine and Healersp. 183
Folk Medicinesp. 183
Folk Practitioners and Traditional Healersp. 183
Faith and Spiritual Healing Practicesp. 183
Home Remediesp. 184
Folk Practices for Various Ailmentsp. 184
Organizations and Associationsp. 185
Medicine, Science, and Researchp. 185
Science and Technologyp. 186
African American Hospitalsp. 187
Historical Sitesp. 188
Literaturep. 189
Science Books for Children and Young Adultsp. 189
6. Business and Industryp. 191
African Americans in Business and Industryp. 192
Firsts in Business and Industryp. 192
Young Entrepreneursp. 194
Largest Industrial/Service Companiesp. 195
African American Business Schoolsp. 196
Businessp. 196
Construction/Manufacturingp. 196
Cosmetics and Hair Carep. 197
Educational Products and Servicesp. 197
Engineeringp. 198
Entertainmentp. 198
Ethnic Collectiblesp. 201
Food Industryp. 201
Graphic Designp. 202
Health and Nutritionp. 202
Information Technologyp. 202
Investment Firmsp. 203
Marketing and Advertisingp. 204
Publishingp. 204
Spotlight: Warren Thompsonp. 205
Spotlight: Robert Johnsonp. 206
Telecommunicationp. 207
Spotlight: Madam C. J. Walkerp. 208
Spotlight: Arthur George (A.G.) Gastonp. 210
Web Developmentp. 212
Financial Companiesp. 212
African American Financial Companiesp. 212
Insurance Companiesp. 213
African American Insurance Companiesp. 213
Auto Dealersp. 214
African American Auto Dealersp. 214
7. Law and Governmentp. 215
African Americans in Law and Governmentp. 216
Firsts in Law and Governmentp. 216
Past and Present Notable Personalitiesp. 219
Reconstructionp. 224
African Americans in Politics During Reconstruction (1865-1877)p. 224
Voting Rights Legislationp. 225
Voting Rights Legislation (1865-1993)p. 225
Judiciary Systemp. 226
Chronology of Cases, Laws, and Legal Decisionsp. 226
Supreme Court Justicesp. 228
Federal Judgesp. 228
Spotlight: Thurgood Marshallp. 230
Pioneering Attorneysp. 235
Outstanding Lawyersp. 236
Government Leadersp. 238
Governorsp. 238
Senatorsp. 238
Presidential Cabinet Membersp. 238
Ambassadorsp. 239
Members of Congress (1870-1999)p. 240
Spotlight: Barbara Jordanp. 242
Local Civil Service Officesp. 244
Mayors Representing Major Citiesp. 244
Women Mayorsp. 244
Police Chiefs of Major Citiesp. 245
Presidential Medal-of-Freedom Honoreesp. 245
Presidential Medal-of-Freedom Honoreesp. 245
President and Vice President Candidates/Nomineesp. 247
Presidential Candidates/Nomineesp. 247
Vice Presidential Candidates/Nomineesp. 247
Organizationsp. 247
Organizationsp. 247
8. Arts, Letters, and Mediap. 249
Firsts in Arts, Letters, and Mediap. 250
Firsts in Arts, Letters, and Mediap. 250
Art and Artistsp. 254
Painting, Drawing, Printmakingp. 254
Photographyp. 257
Sculpture, Installation, Performance Artp. 257
Self-Taught Artistsp. 258
Spiral Groupp. 259
Harlem Renaissance, 1920s-1940p. 259
Expressionist Paintersp. 260
Some African American Artists and Their Artworksp. 260
African American Art Collectionsp. 264
Musicp. 265
Popular Singersp. 265
Performing Groups: The Famous and the Obscurep. 268
Instrumentalists, Band Leaders, Composersp. 269
Choreographers and Dancersp. 272
Opera Singersp. 273
Classical Instrumentalists, Conductors, and Composersp. 274
Literaturep. 277
Poetsp. 277
Playwrightsp. 279
Fiction Writersp. 280
Books Written By or About African Americansp. 283
Children and Young Adult Literaturep. 287
Radio and Televisionp. 288
Chronology of Early African American Radiop. 288
Spotlight: Ed Bradleyp. 289
Spotlight: Bryant Gumbelp. 290
Radio Pioneersp. 290
Plays and Moviesp. 293
Broadway Plays with African American Themesp. 293
Movies with African American Themesp. 293
Filmmakersp. 294
Actors and Actressesp. 294
TV and Film Appearancesp. 294
Spotlight: Oprah Winfreyp. 296
Spotlight: Spike Leep. 299
Spotlight: Queen LatiahHp. 301
Academy Award and Emmy Nominations and Recipientsp. 302
TV Seriesp. 303
TV Movies, Mini-Series, and Specialsp. 304
Documentary Videos and Filmsp. 304
Performing Arts Organizations and Facilitiesp. 305
Performing Arts Organizations and Facilitiesp. 305
Trade Publications and Resource Guidesp. 306
Trade Publications and Resource Guidesp. 306
9. Sportsp. 307
African Americans in Sportsp. 308
Firsts in Sportsp. 308
Notable Athletesp. 315
Footballp. 319
Heisman Trophy Winnersp. 319
Notable Football College Coachesp. 319
Spotlight: Deion Sandersp. 320
All-Time National Football League Leadersp. 321
Horse Racingp. 321
Winners of the Kentucky Derbyp. 321
Spotlight: Isaac Murphyp. 322
Boxingp. 323
Notable Boxersp. 323
Spotlight: Muhammad Alip. 324
Baseballp. 325
Negro Leaguesp. 325
Highest Paid African Americans in Major League Baseballp. 328
Major League Leadersp. 328
Basketballp. 329
Top Ten Earners in NBA (1997-1998)p. 329
All-Time Top Scorers in NBA-ABAp. 329
NBA's Greatest African American Playersp. 329
All-Time National Basketball Association Leadersp. 330
NBA Finals Most Valuable Playersp. 330
Spotlight: MICHAEL JORDANp. 331
Track and Fieldp. 332
Track and Field Olympic Champions (Gold Medalists)p. 332
Spotlight: Florence Griffith-Joynerp. 334
Outstanding Performers in Track and Fieldp. 336
Four-Minute Milersp. 337
Notable Track Coachesp. 337
Olympic Weightlifting Championsp. 338
Powerlifting Championsp. 338
Bodybuilding Champions (Male and Female)p. 338
Sports on Filmp. 339
Sports on Filmp. 339
Spotlightsp. 340
Spotlight: Tiger Woodsp. 340
Spotlight: Marshall W. "Major" Taylorp. 342
Spotlight: Venus and Serena Williamsp. 343
Spotlight: Dominique Dawesp. 344
10. The Militaryp. 345
Military Historyp. 346
Chronology of Military Historyp. 346
First African Americans to Participate in Battlesp. 351
Women in the Militaryp. 354
First African American Women in the Militaryp. 354
Nurses in World War Ip. 355
Specific Military Branchesp. 355
Firsts in Specific Military Branchesp. 355
Medal-of-Honor Recipientsp. 358
Soldiersp. 358
Buffalo Soldiersp. 361
Military Officersp. 363
U.S. Air Force Flag and General Officersp. 363
Army Officers-Nonactive Dutyp. 363
Navy and Marine Corps Flag and General Officersp. 366
Navy Captainsp. 367
National Guard Generals (Late 1800s)p. 367
Air National Guard General Officersp. 368
Army and Air Force Reserves General Officersp. 368
Active Duty Generals and Admirals in All Branchesp. 369
Spotlight: Colin Powellp. 372
Spotlight: Clara L. Adams-Enderp. 374
Military vesselsp. 375
Military Vessels Named for African American Individuals or Institutionsp. 375
Military Filmsp. 375
Soldiers in Films, Documentaries, and Semi-Documentariesp. 375
Feature Filmsp. 376
Veterans' Organizationsp. 377
Veterans' Organizationsp. 377
Military Publicationsp. 378
Booksp. 378
Periodicalsp. 379
11. Miscellaneap. 381
The Western Frontierp. 382
Trailblazers of the American Westp. 382
Cowboys and Pioneersp. 383
Rodeo Factsp. 385
Landmarksp. 386
African American Landmarksp. 386
Postage Stamps Honoring African Americansp. 393
Personsp. 393
Eventsp. 394
Groupsp. 394
Spingarn Medalsp. 395
Spingarn Medal Recipientsp. 395
Little-Known Factsp. 398
Little-Known Factsp. 398
Organizations that Hatep. 399
Organizations That Hatep. 399
Newspapersp. 401
African American Newspapersp. 401
Selected Bibliographyp. 403