Cover image for Cleaner cars : the history and technology of emission control since the 1960s
Title:
Cleaner cars : the history and technology of emission control since the 1960s
Author:
Mondt, J. Robert.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Warrendale, Pa. : Society of Automotive Engineers, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xvii, 262 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780768002225
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

A retired GM engineer chronicles and lauds US auto industry and government efforts in reducing vehicle air pollution. Appendices include a timeline for control of automotive emissions listing standards from 1946-99. Features diagrams of catalytic converters and graphs of pertinent variables. Annotat


Table of Contents

Forewordp. ix
Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Chapter 1 California Crusade to Control Emissionsp. 1
Chapter 2 The Air We Breathep. 7
What is Smog?p. 8
Hydrocarbons, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxides of Nitrogenp. 10
1989 Study to Understand Ozone Chemistryp. 13
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 1970p. 16
Clean Air Act Classification for Urban Areasp. 17
Chapter 3 Automotive Emissions Identifiedp. 21
Hydrocarbonsp. 25
Carbon Monoxidep. 26
Oxides of Nitrogenp. 27
Particulatesp. 27
A Word on Diesel Enginesp. 28
Chapter 4 The Role of Industry and the Role of Governmentp. 29
Clean Air Act Legislationp. 31
U.S. Driving Test Proceduresp. 32
European Emissions Test Proceduresp. 38
Japanese Emissions Test Proceduresp. 42
The Role of Industryp. 43
Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Programp. 45
A Final Word on the Roles of Industry and Governmentp. 48
Chapter 5 U.S. Emission Controls Prior to Catalytic Convertersp. 51
Emission Controls in the 1960sp. 53
1971 Emission Controlsp. 58
Inter-Industry Emission Control One (IIEC1)p. 75
Chapter 6 U.S. Emission Controls and the Catalytic Converterp. 79
Chronology of the Development of Catalytic Converters for Automobilesp. 81
1966 California Emissions Requirementsp. 86
Inter-Industry Emission Control Two (IIEC2)p. 91
Catalysts and Lead in Gasolinep. 93
Dual Converter Systemsp. 95
Catalyst Elementsp. 96
Alternative Catalyst Elementsp. 96
The Contributions by Catalyst Companiesp. 98
Catalyst Agingp. 99
Development of Catalytic Converters by the Auto Industryp. 100
The Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converterp. 106
Catalyst Processesp. 107
1975 Catalytic Converter Emission Control Systemp. 115
Catalysts for Diesel Enginesp. 119
Temperature Effectsp. 121
Limitations on Engine Operationp. 125
Three-Way Catalytic Converter Erap. 126
Three-Way Catalyst Transient Testingp. 128
Closed Loop Emission Controlp. 129
Audit and Customer Inspectionsp. 137
Summaryp. 139
Chapter 7 Revised Clean Air Act of 1990 and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systemsp. 143
Impact of the 1990 Revised Clean Air Act on Exhaust Engineeringp. 149
Exhaust System Thermal Managementp. 149
Multidimensional Modelingp. 155
Three-Way Converter Modelingp. 157
Thermal Durabilityp. 159
Alternative Subsystemsp. 160
Passive Subsystemsp. 161
Active Subsystemsp. 167
Exhaust System Pressures and Pressure Dropp. 176
Flow Processesp. 177
Sources of Pressure Dropp. 180
Loss Coefficientsp. 184
Vehicle Applicationsp. 187
Chapter 8 Alternative Fuels and Global Emissionsp. 193
Alternative Fuelsp. 193
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Programp. 199
Fuel Compositional Changesp. 200
Ozone Modelingp. 201
Global Warming (Greenhouse Effect)p. 202
Lean Burn NO[subscript X] Catalyst Consortiump. 206
Acid Rainp. 209
Chapter 9 Future Perspectivep. 213
Fuel Qualityp. 213
Alternative Fuelsp. 213
Emission Standardsp. 215
Emissions Control Progressp. 217
Air Quality Datap. 218
Future Projectionsp. 223
Appendices
A Timeline for Control of Automotive Emissions in the United Statesp. 227
B People and Placesp. 231
General Motorsp. 231
Ford Motor Companyp. 233
Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Programp. 233
Catalytic Converter Developmentp. 233
Chrysler Corporationp. 234
C Acronymsp. 237
Indexp. 241
About the Authorp. 261