Cover image for Corrosion : understanding the basics
Corrosion : understanding the basics
Davis, J. R. (Joseph R.)
Publication Information:
Materials Park, Ohio : ASM International, 2000.
Physical Description:
x, 563 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Format :


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TA462 .C668 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating

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This book presents a practical "how to" approach to understanding and solving the problems of corrosion of structural materials. Although it is written mainly for those having a limited technical background in corrosion, it also provides more experienced engineers with a useful overview of the principles of corrosion and can be used as a general guide for developing a corrosion-control program.

Includes identification of the various forms of corrosion, critical factors leading to a specific type of corrosion, necessary preventive steps to eliminate or reduce corrosion damage, protective-coating selection, corrosion characteristics of common structural materials, corrosion-testing programs, and failure-analysis procedures.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

This book is not intended for the corrosion expert but for the corrosion novice; consequently it is essentially an encyclopedic presentation of a wide range of corrosion related subjects. The 12 chapters include topics on the economic aspects, basic principles, forms of corrosion (recognition and prevention), types of corrosive environments, structural materials, corrosion control by design, materials selection and cathodic and anodic protection, corrosion testing, and diagnosis of corrosion failures. The presentation is basic and qualitative in nature, with numerous illustrations, photos, etc., but there is no detailed treatment of the quantitative aspects of the subject. There are no "examples" or "exercises," since the book is not intended as a textbook. A list of selected references is given in each chapter, but no citations to the origins of the information are presented. An excellent resource for those interested in an introduction to corrosion, as well as for those looking for general guidance in the field. Upper-division undergraduates; professionals; two-year technical program students. R. Darby; Texas A&M University

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Chapter1 The Effects and Economic Impact of Corrosionp. 1
The Definition of Corrosionp. 2
The Effects of Corrosionp. 3
The Many Forms of Corrosionp. 4
Methods to Control Corrosionp. 6
Material Selectionp. 6
Coatingsp. 7
Inhibitorsp. 8
Cathodic Protectionp. 8
Designp. 8
Opportunities in Corrosion Controlp. 9
The Economic Impact of Corrosionp. 10
Sources of Informationp. 14
Appendix Addresses of Trade Associations and Technical Societies Involved with Corrosionp. 17
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts Important to Corrosionp. 21
Behavior of a Metal in an Environmentp. 21
The Four Requirements of a Corrosion Cellp. 23
Metal Characteristics Important to Corrosionp. 25
Metallurgical Characteristicsp. 25
Inherent Reactivityp. 35
Formation of Corrosion Productsp. 37
Important Solution Characteristicsp. 38
Corrosion Rate Expressions and Allowancesp. 45
Chapter 3 Principles of Aqueous Corrosionp. 49
The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Corrosionp. 50
Corrosion Reactions and Free-Energy Changep. 50
Free Energy and Electrochemical Potentialp. 53
Tendency for Metals to Corrodep. 55
Effect of Ionic Concentration on Electrode Potentialp. 56
Electromotive Force Seriesp. 59
Galvanic Seriesp. 60
Standard Electrode Potentials for Other Reactionsp. 62
Potential-pH Diagrams: General Aspectsp. 62
Potential-pH Diagrams for Specific Metalsp. 67
Strategies for Corrosion Control from E-pH Diagramsp. 74
Limitations of E-pH Diagramsp. 76
The Kinetics of Aqueous Corrosionp. 77
Electrochemical Reactionsp. 77
Mixed-Potential Theoryp. 79
Types of Polarizationp. 82
Applications of Mixed-Potential Theory Diagramsp. 88
Exchange Currentsp. 95
Chapter 4 Forms of Corrosion: Recognition and Preventionp. 99
Uniform Corrosionp. 100
Pitting Corrosionp. 102
Crevice Corrosionp. 107
Tuberculationp. 114
Deposit Corrosionp. 118
Filiform Corrosionp. 122
Poultice Corrosionp. 125
Galvanic Corrosionp. 125
General Descriptionp. 125
Galvanic Seriesp. 126
Polarizationp. 129
Factors Influencing Galvanic Corrosion Behaviorp. 129
Situations That Promote Galvanic Attackp. 130
Prevention of Galvanic Corrosionp. 133
Erosion-Corrosionp. 134
General Descriptionp. 134
Critical Factors Influencing Erosion-Corrosionp. 137
Prevention of Erosion-Corrosionp. 144
Cavitationp. 146
Fretting Corrosionp. 149
Intergranular Corrosionp. 151
General Descriptionp. 151
Intergranular Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steelsp. 152
Intergranular Corrosion of Other Alloy Systemsp. 155
Exfoliationp. 157
Dealloying Corrosionp. 158
Dezincificationp. 158
Graphitic Corrosionp. 162
Stress-Corrosion Crackingp. 164
Corrosion Fatiguep. 175
Hydrogen Damagep. 180
Hydrogen Embrittlementp. 180
Hydrogen-Induced Blisteringp. 184
Cracking from Precipitation of Internal Hydrogenp. 185
Hydrogen Attackp. 186
Hydride Formationp. 187
Prevention of Hydrogen Damagep. 188
Liquid-Metal Embrittlementp. 189
Chapter 5 Types of Corrosive Environmentsp. 193
Characteristics of Corrosive Environmentsp. 194
Biologically Influenced Corrosionp. 199
Industries and Organisms Involvedp. 200
Tuberculationp. 203
Prevention of MICp. 204
Atmospheric Corrosionp. 205
Underground/Soil Corrosionp. 211
Factors Affecting Underground/Soil Corrosionp. 211
Types of Underground/Soil Corrosionp. 213
Corrosion Controlp. 215
Natural and Treated Watersp. 216
Understanding Corrosion in Acidsp. 217
Corrosion by Sulfuric Acidp. 220
Materials Selection Guidelines for Sulfuric Acidp. 220
Use of Steel in Sulfuric Acidp. 221
Use of Cast Irons in Sulfuric Acidp. 223
Use of Stainless Steels in Sulfuric Acidp. 223
Use of Nickel Alloys in Sulfuric Acidp. 224
Other Metals Used in Sulfuric Acidp. 225
Nonmetallic Materials Used in Sulfuric Acidp. 225
Corrosion by Nitric Acidp. 226
Materials Selection Guidelines for Nitric Acidp. 227
Corrosion by Hydrochloric Acidp. 227
Materials Selection Guidelines for Hydrochloric Acidp. 228
Corrosion by Hydrogen Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acidp. 228
Materials Selection Guidelines for Hydrofluoric Acidp. 229
Corrosion by Phosphoric Acidp. 230
Materials Selection Guidelines for Phosphoric Acidp. 231
Corrosion by Organic Acidsp. 231
Acetic Acidp. 232
Other Organic Acidsp. 234
Corrosion by Alkalisp. 234
Materials Selection Guidelines for Alkalisp. 234
Chapter 6 Corrosion Characteristics of Structural Materialsp. 237
Carbon Steelsp. 238
Corrosive Servicep. 238
Protection of Steel from Corrosionp. 239
Weathering Steelsp. 242
Alloy Steelsp. 244
Cast Ironsp. 244
Commercially Available Cast Ironsp. 245
Graphitic Corrosionp. 246
Stainless Steelsp. 247
Stainless Steel Familiesp. 247
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistancep. 252
Forms of Corrosion of Stainless Steelsp. 253
Corrosion in Various Applicationsp. 256
Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloysp. 259
Effects of Major Alloying Elementsp. 260
Chemical-Processing Applicationsp. 262
Seawater Applicationsp. 263
Applications in Pulp and Paper Millsp. 264
Flue Gas Desulfurization Applicationsp. 265
Sour Gas Applicationsp. 265
High-Temperature Applicationsp. 265
Copper and Copper-Base Alloysp. 266
Effects of Alloy Compositionp. 267
Types of Attackp. 269
Applications of Copper-Base Alloysp. 269
Aluminum and Aluminum-Base Alloysp. 270
Effects of Alloy Compositionp. 271
Modes of Corrosion That Attack Aluminump. 272
Corrosion Protection of Aluminump. 275
Applications of Aluminum-Base Alloysp. 277
Titanium and Titanium-Base Alloysp. 278
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistancep. 279
Modes of Corrosion That Attack Titaniump. 280
Corrosion Protection of Titaniump. 281
Applications of Titanium-Base Alloysp. 281
Zinc and Zinc-Base Alloysp. 282
Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloysp. 282
Lead and Lead Alloysp. 284
Tin and Tin-Base Alloysp. 286
Zirconium and Zirconium-Base Alloysp. 287
Tantalump. 287
Niobium and Niobium-Base Alloysp. 288
Cobalt-Base Alloysp. 289
Polymersp. 289
Types of Polymersp. 290
Properties of Polymersp. 290
Environmental Degradation of Polymersp. 291
Ceramicsp. 295
Other Nonmetallic Materialsp. 297
Rubberp. 297
Carbon and Graphitep. 299
Woodsp. 299
Chapter 7 Corrosion Control by Proper Designp. 301
Design as a Processp. 302
The Design Teamp. 302
Steps in the Design Processp. 303
General Considerations in Corrosion-Control Designp. 303
Design Details that Accelerate Corrosionp. 308
Design Solutions for Specific Forms of Corrosionp. 320
Corrosion Allowancep. 324
Design Considerations for Using Weathering Steelsp. 325
Failures Involving Corrosion of Structural Steelp. 326
Chapter 8 Corrosion Control by Materials Selectionp. 331
Elements of the Materials Selection Processp. 333
Materials Considerationsp. 341
Selecting Materials to Avoid or Minimize Corrosionp. 349
General Corrosionp. 353
Localized Corrosionp. 358
Chapter 9 Corrosion Control by Protective Coatings and Inhibitorsp. 363
Organic Coatings and Liningsp. 364
Design and Selection of a Coating Systemp. 365
Surface Preparationp. 367
Inspection and Quality Assurancep. 369
Coating and Lining Materialsp. 371
Environmental, Health, and Safety Considerationsp. 379
Metallic Coatingsp. 382
Electroplated Coatingsp. 382
Electroless Nickel Platingp. 386
Hot-Dip Coatingsp. 387
Thermal Spray Coatingsp. 391
Clad Metalsp. 392
Pack Cementationp. 394
Vapor-Deposited Coatingsp. 395
Surface Modificationp. 395
Nonmetallic Inorganic Coatingsp. 396
Concrete and Cementatious Coatings and Liningsp. 397
Porcelain Enamelsp. 398
Conversion Coatingsp. 399
Aluminum Anodizingp. 401
Inhibitorsp. 401
Types of Inhibitorsp. 402
Biocidesp. 404
Application of Inhibitorsp. 405
Chapter 10 Corrosion Control by Cathodic and Anodic Protectionp. 407
Cathodic Protectionp. 407
How Cathodic Protection Worksp. 408
Types of Cathodic Protectionp. 410
Anode Materialsp. 411
Criteria for Cathodic Protectionp. 414
Problems with Cathodic Protectionp. 415
Applications of Cathodic Protectionp. 417
Anodic Protectionp. 422
The Concept of Anodic Protectionp. 422
Equipment Required for Anodic Protectionp. 423
Applications of Anodic Protectionp. 425
Chapter 11 Corrosion Testing and Monitoringp. 427
Classification of Corrosion Testingp. 427
Purposes of Corrosion Testsp. 429
Steps in a Corrosion Test Programp. 430
Preparation and Cleaning of Test Specimensp. 432
Specific Types of Laboratory Testsp. 433
Simulated Atmosphere Testsp. 434
Salt-Spray Testingp. 435
Immersion Testsp. 438
Field Testsp. 441
Atmospheric Testsp. 442
Electrochemical Testsp. 448
Electrochemical Test Classificationp. 448
Reference Electrodep. 449
Types of Electrochemical Measurementsp. 451
Applications of Electrochemical Testsp. 456
Corrosion Monitoringp. 467
Selecting a Corrosion-Monitoring Methodp. 470
Strategies in Corrosion Monitoringp. 472
Chapter 12 Techniques for Diagnosis of Corrosion Failuresp. 475
Factors That Influence Corrosion Failuresp. 475
Analysis of Corrosion Failuresp. 481
Collection of Background Datap. 482
On-Site Examinationp. 483
On-Site Samplingp. 483
Preliminary Laboratory Examinationp. 484
Microscopic Examinationp. 485
Chemical Analysisp. 486
Bulk Material Analysisp. 488
Nondestructive Evaluationp. 489
Corrosion Testingp. 490
Mechanical Testingp. 491
Analyzing the Evidence, Formulating Conclusions, and Writing the Reportp. 492
Appendix 1 Glossary of Corrosion-Related Termsp. 497
Indexp. 517