Cover image for The cosmic perspective
Title:
The cosmic perspective
Author:
Bennett, Jeffrey O.
Edition:
Brief edition.
Publication Information:
San Francisco : Addison Wesley Longman, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xviii, 397 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 28 cm + 1 computer optical disc (4 3/4 in.).
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
Subject Term:
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780201697346
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library QB45 .C67 2000 TEXT Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Oversize
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Summary

Summary

This accessible, student-friendly text offers a fresh approach to teaching introductory astronomy, emphasizing the "big picture" of the universe emerging from the flood of discoveries during the last two decades. The authors engage students' curiosity by linking the new insights and discoveries to themes of human achievement, physics in the universe, continuity of matter, the dynamic systems that sustain life, and astronomy and physics as foundations for our world view. Throughout, the emphasis is on important ideas, with relevant details, techniques, and formulas presented after concepts.


Table of Contents

Part I Developing Perspectivep. 1
1 Our Place in the Universep. 3
1.1 A Modern View of the Universep. 6
1.2 The Scale of the Universep. 11
1.3 Spaceship Earthp. 18
The Big Picturep. 25
Review Questionsp. 25
Discussion Questionsp. 26
Problemsp. 26
Basic Astronomical Definitionsp. 6
Common Misconceptions: Light-Yearsp. 10
Common Misconceptions: Confusing Very Different Thingsp. 17
Common Misconceptions: The Cause of Seasonsp. 21
Common Misconceptions: Sun Signsp. 21
2 Discovering the Universe for Yourselfp. 27
2.1 Patterns in the Skyp. 28
2.2 The Circling Skyp. 31
2.3 The Moon, Our Constant Companionp. 38
2.4 The Ancient Mystery of the Planetsp. 44
The Big Picturep. 48
Review Questionsp. 48
Discussion Questionsp. 49
Problemsp. 49
Common Misconceptions: Stars in the Daytimep. 29
Common Misconceptions: What Makes the North Star Special?p. 34
Common Misconceptions: Moon on the Horizonp. 38
Common Misconceptions: The "Dark Side" of the Moonp. 40
Thinking About ... Aristarchusp. 47
Part II Key Concepts for Astronomyp. 51
3 The Science of Astronomyp. 53
3.1 Everyday Sciencep. 54
3.2 Ancient Observationsp. 54
3.3 The Modern Lineagep. 60
3.4 Modern Science and the Scientific Methodp. 64
3.5 Astronomy Todayp. 66
The Big Picturep. 67
Review Questionsp. 67
Discussion Questionsp. 68
Problemsp. 68
Thinking About ... Eratosthenes Measures the Earthp. 61
Thinking About ... Astrologyp. 66
4 A Universe of Matter and Energyp. 69
4.1 Matter and Energy in Everyday Lifep. 70
4.2 A Scientific View of Energyp. 71
4.3 The Material Worldp. 74
4.4 Energy in Atomsp. 77
The Big Picturep. 79
Review Questionsp. 79
Discussion Questionsp. 79
Problemsp. 80
Common Misconceptions: The Illusion of Solidityp. 74
Common Misconceptions: One Phase at a Time?p. 77
Common Misconceptions: Orbiting Electrons?p. 78
5 Universal Motion: From Copernicus to Newtonp. 81
5.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Lifep. 82
5.2 Understanding Motion: Newton's Lawsp. 84
5.3 Planetary Motion: The Copernican Revolutionp. 87
5.4 The Force of Gravityp. 91
5.5 Tides and Tidal Forcesp. 93
5.6 Orbital Energy and Escape Velocityp. 94
The Big Picturep. 95
Review Questionsp. 95
Discussion Questionp. 95
Problemsp. 95
Common Misconceptions: No Gravity in Space?p. 84
Common Misconceptions: What Makes a Rocket Launch?p. 85
Thinking About ... Aristotlep. 90
6 Light, Telescopes, and Spacecraftp. 97
6.1 Light in Everyday Lifep. 98
6.2 Properties of Lightp. 99
6.3 Light and Matterp. 101
6.4 The Doppler Shiftp. 106
6.5 Collecting Light with Telescopesp. 108
6.6 Spacecraftp. 114
The Big Picturep. 117
Review Questionsp. 117
Discussion Questionsp. 117
Problemsp. 118
Common Misconceptions: You Can't Hear Radio Waves and You Can't See X Raysp. 100
Common Misconceptions: Magnification and Telescopesp. 108
Common Misconceptions: Twinkle, Twinkle Little Starp. 111
Common Misconceptions: Closer to the Stars?p. 114
Part III Learning From Other Worldsp. 119
7 Formation of the Solar Systemp. 121
7.1 Comparative Planetologyp. 122
7.2 The Origin of the Solar System: Four Challengesp. 122
7.3 The Nebular Theory of Solar System Formationp. 125
7.4 Building the Planetsp. 128
7.5 Leftover Planetesimalsp. 131
7.6 Planetary Systems Beyond Our Solar Systemp. 134
The Big Picturep. 137
Review Questionsp. 137
Discussion Questionp. 137
Problemsp. 138
Common Misconceptions: Solar Gravity and the Density of Planetsp. 129
8 The Terrestrial Worldsp. 139
8.1 Principles of Comparative Planetologyp. 140
8.2 Planetary Geologyp. 140
8.3 Shaping Planetary Surfacesp. 145
8.4 Planetary Atmospheresp. 150
8.5 Atmospheric Origins and Evolutionp. 156
8.6 A Tour of the Terrestrial Worldsp. 157
The Big Picturep. 167
Review Questionsp. 167
Discussion Questionsp. 168
Problemsp. 168
Common Misconceptions: Pressure and Temperaturep. 145
Common Misconceptions: Higher Altitudes Are Always Colderp. 154
Common Misconceptions: The Greenhouse Effect Is Badp. 154
9 Jovian Planet Systemsp. 170
9.1 The Jovian Worlds: A Different Kind of Planetp. 171
9.2 Jovian Planet Interiorsp. 173
9.3 Jovian Planet Atmospheresp. 175
9.4 Jovian Planet Magnetospheresp. 178
9.5 A Wealth of Worlds: Satellites of Ice and Rockp. 179
9.6 Jovian Planet Ringsp. 189
The Big Picturep. 193
Review Questionsp. 193
Discussion Questionsp. 194
Problemsp. 194
10 Remnants of Rock and Ice: Asteroids, Comets, and Plutop. 195
10.1 Remnants from Birthp. 196
10.2 Asteroidsp. 196
10.3 Meteoritesp. 199
10.4 Cometsp. 200
10.5 Pluto: Lone Dog or Part of a Pack?p. 204
10.6 Cosmic Collisions: Small Bodies Versus the Planetsp. 206
The Big Picturep. 212
Review Questionsp. 213
Discussion Questionsp. 213
Problemsp. 213
11 Earth and Lessons on Life in the Universep. 215
11.1 How Is Earth Different?p. 216
11.2 Our Unique Geologyp. 217
11.3 Our Unique Atmospherep. 222
11.4 Lifep. 224
11.5 Lessons from the Solar Systemp. 228
11.6 Lessons from Earth: Life in the Solar System and Beyondp. 230
The Big Picturep. 234
Review Questionsp. 234
Discussion Questionsp. 235
Problemsp. 235
Part IV Stellar Alchemyp. 237
12 Our Starp. 239
12.1 Why Does the Sun Shine?p. 240
12.2 Solar Properties: A Brief Overviewp. 241
12.3 The Solar Corep. 242
12.4 From Core to Coronap. 245
12.5 Solar Weather and Climatep. 250
The Big Picturep. 252
Review Questionsp. 252
Discussion Questionp. 253
Problemsp. 253
13 Starsp. 254
13.1 Snapshot of the Heavensp. 255
13.2 Stellar Luminosityp. 255
13.3 Stellar Surface Temperaturep. 257
13.4 Stellar Massesp. 258
13.5 The Hertzsprung--Russell Diagramp. 260
13.6 Star Clustersp. 265
The Big Picturep. 267
Review Questionsp. 268
Discussion Questionp. 268
Problemsp. 268
14 Star Stuffp. 270
14.1 Lives in the Balancep. 271
14.2 Star Birthp. 271
14.3 Life as a Low-Mass Starp. 276
14.4 Life as a High-Mass Starp. 282
14.5 The Lives of Close Binary Starsp. 289
The Big Picturep. 290
Review Questionsp. 290
Discussion Questionp. 291
Problemsp. 291
15 The Bizarre Stellar Graveyardp. 292
15.1 A Star's Final Battlep. 293
15.2 White Dwarfsp. 293
15.3 Neutron Starsp. 297
15.4 Black Holes: Gravity's Ultimate Victoryp. 300
15.5 The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Burstsp. 304
The Big Picturep. 305
Review Questionsp. 305
Discussion Questionp. 306
Problemsp. 306
Common Misconceptions: Black Holes Don't Suckp. 302
Part V Galaxies And Beyondp. 307
16 Our Galaxyp. 309
16.1 The Milky Way Revealedp. 310
16.2 The Star-Gas-Star Cyclep. 310
16.3 Galactic Environmentsp. 317
16.4 The Milky Way in Motionp. 320
16.5 The Mysterious Galactic Centerp. 324
The Big Picturep. 325
Review Questionsp. 325
Discussion Questionp. 326
Problemsp. 326
Common Misconceptions: What Is a Nebula?p. 320
17 A Universe of Galaxiesp. 327
17.1 Islands of Starsp. 328
17.2 Galaxy Typesp. 329
17.3 Measuring Cosmic Distancesp. 332
17.4 Measuring Cosmic Agesp. 338
17.5 Galaxy Evolutionp. 341
17.6 Quasars and Other Active Galactic Nucleip. 348
The Big Picturep. 354
Review Questionsp. 354
Discussion Questionsp. 355
Problemsp. 355
Thinking About ... Hubble's Galaxy Classesp. 332
18 Dark Matterp. 357
18.1 The Mystery of Dark Matterp. 358
18.2 Dark Matter in Galaxiesp. 358
18.3 Dark Matter in Clustersp. 360
18.4 Dark Matter: Ordinary or Extraordinary?p. 363
18.5 Structure Formationp. 365
18.6 Fire or Ice?p. 367
The Big Picturep. 369
Review Questionsp. 369
Discussion Questionsp. 369
Problemsp. 370
19 The Beginning of Timep. 371
19.1 Running the Expansion Backwardp. 372
19.2 A Scientific History of the Universep. 372
19.3 Evidence for the Big Bangp. 377
19.4 Inflationp. 381
19.5 Did the Big Bang Really Happen?p. 383
The Big Picturep. 386
Review Questionsp. 386
Discussion Questionsp. 387
Problemsp. 387
Thinking About ... Einstein's Greatest Blunderp. 376
Thinking About ... The End of Timep. 384
20 Interstellar Travelp. 388
20.1 Starships: Distant Dream or Near-Reality?p. 389
20.2 Starship Designp. 389
20.3 Radio Communication: Virtual Interstellar Travelp. 393
20.4 Civilizationsp. 394
The Big Picturep. 396
Review Questionsp. 396
Discussion Questionsp. 396
Problemsp. 397
Appendices
Appendix A A Few Mathematical Skillsp. 1
A.1 Powers of 10p. 1
A.2 Scientific Notationp. 3
A.3 Working with Unitsp. 4
A.4 The Metric Systemp. 7
A.5 Finding a Ratiop. 8
Appendix B The Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 8
Appendix C Planetary Datap. 9
Appendix D Stellar Datap. 12
Star Chartsp. 1
Glossaryp. 1
Acknowledgmentsp. 1
Indexp. 1

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