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### Summary

### Summary

From the logic of design to startup, operation and maintenance, this reference covers all aspects of wiring, relay logic, programmable logic controllers and a host of electrical control applications and challenges you'll encounter on the job.

### Summary

Newly, revised, this book offers the logic of design to startup, operation and maintenance, and all aspects of wiring, relay logic, programmable logic controllers and a host of electrical control applications and challenges you'll encounter on the job.

A new chapter covers heat and enclosures and includes information on the creation of heat in electronic devices and how it can be dissipated. Beginning with the basic principles of electrical logic, the author guides you through each step of the design of a sequencing logic system, including developing the schematic diagram, making a bill of materials, and designing component wiring diagrams.

### Table of Contents

Drawing and Photo List | p. xi |

Foreword | p. xv |

Chapter 1 Introduction | p. 1 |

Logic | p. 3 |

Boolean equations | p. 3 |

Example of logic | p. 4 |

Fish-bone diagram | p. 5 |

The ladder diagram | p. 5 |

The flow-chart | p. 9 |

Chapter 2 Components | p. 13 |

Contactors | p. 13 |

Relays | p. 15 |

Timers | p. 16 |

Solenoids | p. 18 |

Limit switches | p. 19 |

Push-buttons | p. 20 |

Selector switches | p. 23 |

Non-contact limit switches | p. 23 |

Chapter 3 Ladder Diagrams | p. 25 |

Wiring diagram examples | p. 28 |

Diode logic | p. 31 |

Case history | p. 33 |

Chapter 4 Develop A Schematic Diagram | p. 37 |

Description of sequential application | p. 38 |

Power logic | p. 40 |

Safety logic | p. 42 |

Chapter 5 Logic Continued | p. 45 |

Automatic start | p. 45 |

Automatic stop | p. 49 |

Chapter 6 Logic Continued | p. 51 |

Manual controls | p. 51 |

Jog controls | p. 53 |

Putting it all together | p. 54 |

Chapter 7 Develop Bill of Materials | p. 57 |

Interconnect wiring | p. 63 |

Chapter 8 Wiring Diagrams | p. 67 |

Motor control center | p. 67 |

Relay panel | p. 70 |

Control console | p. 72 |

Summary | p. 74 |

Chapter 9 Application of Schematic and Wiring Diagrams | p. 75 |

Control testing | p. 76 |

Manual startup | p. 76 |

Problem | p. 78 |

Automatic startup | p. 79 |

Problem | p. 79 |

Power testing | p. 80 |

Chapter 10 Case History Example | p. 83 |

Motions required | p. 85 |

Position detection | p. 85 |

Power system | p. 86 |

Operator controls | p. 86 |

Schematic diagram | p. 86 |

Wiring diagrams | p. 89 |

Summary | p. 89 |

Chapter 11 Special Examples of Relay Logic | p. 93 |

Bailing circuit | p. 93 |

A sorting application | p. 95 |

Binary logic | p. 95 |

Encoding | p. 96 |

Shift-register | p. 96 |

Read code into shift-register | p. 96 |

Decoding | p. 98 |

Counting with relays | p. 101 |

Chapter 12 Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers | p. 105 |

PLC hardware | p. 106 |

Power supply | p. 107 |

CPU | p. 107 |

I/O rack | p. 108 |

Programming devices | p. 109 |

Chapter 13 Number Systems | p. 113 |

Decimal | p. 113 |

Binary | p. 114 |

Octal | p. 115 |

Binary Coded Decimal BCD | p. 116 |

Hexadecimal | p. 116 |

Chapter 14 PLC Memory Structure | p. 119 |

Bit | p. 119 |

Byte | p. 119 |

Word | p. 120 |

File | p. 120 |

System addressing | p. 122 |

I/O addresses | p. 122 |

Image table addresses | p. 122 |

Scanning | p. 124 |

Chapter 15 PLC Instruction Set | p. 127 |

Types of instructions | p. 127 |

Bit level | p. 127 |

Word level | p. 127 |

File level | p. 127 |

Timers/counters | p. 128 |

Program control | p. 128 |

Communications | p. 128 |

Shifting | p. 128 |

Diagnostic | p. 128 |

Miscellaneous | p. 128 |

Bit level instructions | p. 129 |

Word level instructions | p. 130 |

File level instructions | p. 134 |

Sequencers | p. 134 |

Timer/counter instructions | p. 134 |

Program control | p. 136 |

Communication instructions | p. 137 |

Shifting instructions | p. 137 |

Diagnostic instructions | p. 138 |

Miscellaneous instruction | p. 138 |

Summary | p. 138 |

Chapter 16 How Do PLC's Compare to Relay Logic? | p. 139 |

Analyze sample program | p. 140 |

Chapter 17 Convert Relay Logic to PLC | p. 145 |

Power considerations | p. 145 |

Logic considerations | p. 146 |

Indexing | p. 146 |

Programming considerations | p. 146 |

Comparisons | p. 150 |

Chapter 18 PLC Start-Up and Trouble-Shooting | p. 153 |

Histograms | p. 155 |

Chapter 19 Logic Comparisons | p. 157 |

Digital | p. 157 |

Analog | p. 157 |

Converters | p. 158 |

Signal manipulation | p. 158 |

Chapter 20 Applied Analog Logic | p. 161 |

DC Drive logic | p. 161 |

How does the DC motor work? | p. 162 |

Speed regulation | p. 164 |

Power sources | p. 164 |

DC schematic | p. 165 |

Control components | p. 167 |

Operating sequence | p. 167 |

Voltage regulation | p. 168 |

Current regulation | p. 168 |

Field crossover | p. 169 |

Regenerative braking | p. 170 |

Comments | p. 170 |

Chapter 21 Unusual Trouble-Shooting Case Histories | p. 173 |

Relay systems | p. 173 |

Lightning | p. 175 |

Harmonics | p. 177 |

Ground faults | p. 178 |

Chapter 22 Heat and Enclosures | p. 181 |

Defining Heat | p. 182 |

Temperature Calculations | p. 182 |

Heat Transfer Methods | p. 183 |

Chapter 23 Conclusion | p. 191 |

Appendices | p. 195 |

A. Glossary | p. 195 |

B. Formulas | p. 203 |

Index | p. 209 |

Drawing and Photo List | p. xi |

Foreword | p. xv |

Chapter 1 Introduction | p. 1 |

Logic | p. 3 |

Boolean equations | p. 3 |

Example of logic | p. 4 |

Fish-bone diagram | p. 5 |

The ladder diagram | p. 5 |

The flow-chart | p. 9 |

Chapter 2 Components | p. 13 |

Contactors | p. 13 |

Relays | p. 15 |

Timers | p. 16 |

Solenoids | p. 18 |

Limit switches | p. 19 |

Push-buttons | p. 20 |

Selector switches | p. 23 |

Non-contact limit switches | p. 23 |

Chapter 3 Ladder Diagrams | p. 25 |

Wiring diagram examples | p. 28 |

Diode logic | p. 31 |

Case history | p. 33 |

Chapter 4 Develop A Schematic Diagram | p. 37 |

Description of sequential application | p. 38 |

Power logic | p. 40 |

Safety logic | p. 42 |

Chapter 5 Logic Continued | p. 45 |

Automatic start | p. 45 |

Automatic stop | p. 49 |

Chapter 6 Logic Continued | p. 51 |

Manual controls | p. 51 |

Jog controls | p. 53 |

Putting it all together | p. 54 |

Chapter 7 Develop Bill of Materials | p. 57 |

Interconnect wiring | p. 63 |

Chapter 8 Wiring Diagrams | p. 67 |

Motor control center | p. 67 |

Relay panel | p. 70 |

Control console | p. 72 |

Summary | p. 74 |

Chapter 9 Application of Schematic and Wiring Diagrams | p. 75 |

Control testing | p. 76 |

Manual startup | p. 76 |

Problem | p. 78 |

Automatic startup | p. 79 |

Problem | p. 79 |

Power testing | p. 80 |

Chapter 10 Case History Example | p. 83 |

Motions required | p. 85 |

Position detection | p. 85 |

Power system | p. 86 |

Operator controls | p. 86 |

Schematic diagram | p. 86 |

Wiring diagrams | p. 89 |

Summary | p. 89 |

Chapter 11 Special Examples of Relay Logic | p. 93 |

Bailing circuit | p. 93 |

A sorting application | p. 95 |

Binary logic | p. 95 |

Encoding | p. 96 |

Shift-register | p. 96 |

Read code into shift-register | p. 96 |

Decoding | p. 98 |

Counting with relays | p. 101 |

Chapter 12 Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers | p. 105 |

PLC hardware | p. 106 |

Power supply | p. 107 |

CPU | p. 107 |

I/O rack | p. 108 |

Programming devices | p. 109 |

Chapter 13 Number Systems | p. 113 |

Decimal | p. 113 |

Binary | p. 114 |

Octal | p. 115 |

Binary Coded Decimal BCD | p. 116 |

Hexadecimal | p. 116 |

Chapter 14 PLC Memory Structure | p. 119 |

Bit | p. 119 |

Byte | p. 119 |

Word | p. 120 |

File | p. 120 |

System addressing | p. 122 |

I/O addresses | p. 122 |

Image table addresses | p. 122 |

Scanning | p. 124 |

Chapter 15 PLC Instruction Set | p. 127 |

Types of instructions | p. 127 |

Bit level | p. 127 |

Word level | p. 127 |

File level | p. 127 |

Timers/counters | p. 128 |

Program control | p. 128 |

Communications | p. 128 |

Shifting | p. 128 |

Diagnostic | p. 128 |

Miscellaneous | p. 128 |

Bit level instructions | p. 129 |

Word level instructions | p. 130 |

File level instructions | p. 134 |

Sequencers | p. 134 |

Timer/counter instructions | p. 134 |

Program control | p. 136 |

Communication instructions | p. 137 |

Shifting instructions | p. 137 |

Diagnostic instructions | p. 138 |

Miscellaneous instruction | p. 138 |

Summary | p. 138 |

Chapter 16 How Do PLC's Compare to Relay Logic? | p. 139 |

Analyze sample program | p. 140 |

Chapter 17 Convert Relay Logic to PLC | p. 145 |

Power considerations | p. 145 |

Logic considerations | p. 146 |

Indexing | p. 146 |

Programming considerations | p. 146 |

Comparisons | p. 150 |

Chapter 18 PLC Start-Up and Trouble-Shooting | p. 153 |

Histograms | p. 155 |

Chapter 19 Logic Comparisons | p. 157 |

Digital | p. 157 |

Analog | p. 157 |

Converters | p. 158 |

Signal manipulation | p. 158 |

Chapter 20 Applied Analog Logic | p. 161 |

DC Drive logic | p. 161 |

How does the DC motor work? | p. 162 |

Speed regulation | p. 164 |

Power sources | p. 164 |

DC schematic | p. 165 |

Control components | p. 167 |

Operating sequence | p. 167 |

Voltage regulation | p. 168 |

Current regulation | p. 168 |

Field crossover | p. 169 |

Regenerative braking | p. 170 |

Comments | p. 170 |

Chapter 21 Unusual Trouble-Shooting Case Histories | p. 173 |

Relay systems | p. 173 |

Lightning | p. 175 |

Harmonics | p. 177 |

Ground faults | p. 178 |

Chapter 22 Heat and Enclosures | p. 181 |

Defining Heat | p. 182 |

Temperature Calculations | p. 182 |

Heat Transfer Methods | p. 183 |

Chapter 23 Conclusion | p. 191 |

Appendices | p. 195 |

A. Glossary | p. 195 |

B. Formulas | p. 203 |

Index | p. 209 |