Cover image for Introduction to DWDM technology : data in a rainbow
Introduction to DWDM technology : data in a rainbow
Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Bellingham, Wash. : SPIE Optical Engineering Press, [2000]

Physical Description:
xxii, 252 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm
General Note:
"IEEE Communications Society, sponsor."
Added Corporate Author:

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TK5103.59 .K36 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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"Companies and research labs worldwide are racing to develop DenseWavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, a far-reachingadvancement in the fiber optical communications field. To help youkeep pace with these latest developments, this all-in-one resourcebrings you a clear, concise overview of the technology that istransporting and processing vast amounts of information at thespeed of light. Until now, no book offered a practical introductionto DWDM advances.

INTRODUCTION TO DWDM TECHNOLOGY will help you learn all theessentials for this emerging field:
* Principles of physics underlying optical devices
* Optical components needed to design optical and DWDMsystems
* Coding and decoding techniques used in opticalcommunications
* Overview of DWDM systems
* State-of-the-art research trends

Complete with four-color illustrations to show how devices work,this comprehensive book provides an invaluable discussion of DWDMbasics necessary for practicing electrical engineers, opticalsystems designers, technical managers, and undergraduate studentsin optical communications.

Go to
htttp:// for acomplete Table of Contents and a look at the Introduction. You cancheck out Chapter 5, ""Optical Demultiplexers"" by clickingon

About the Author

Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos is currently on the staff of the OpticalNetworks Group of Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations,formerly known as AT&T. His research interests include ATM andSONET/SDH systems, ultrafast pattern recognition, IP and DWDM,access enterprise systems, local area networks, fiber networks,satellite systems, intelligent signal processing, neural networks,and fuzzy logic. He holds several patents of which six patents (andsix pending) are in communications and optical communicationssystems."

Sponsored by:
IEEE Communications Society

Author Notes

About the Author Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos is on the staff of the Advanced Optical Networking Center of Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations. His research interests and expertise include DWDM, IP, SONET/SDH and ATM systems and networks, ultrafast pattern recognition, access and enterprise systems, local area networks, satellite systems, protocols, intelligent signal processing, neural networks and fuzzy logic, control architectures, multitasking, and VLSI design. He has led and managed teams in these areas. He holds several patents, six of which (and eight pending) are in communications and optical communications systems. Dr. Kartalopoulos is the author of Understanding SONET/SDH and ATM (IEEE Press, 1999) and Understanding Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic (IEEE Press, 1996). He has published widely on the subject of networks and optical communications systems.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introductionp. xix
Part I Fundamentals of Light
Chapter 1 The Nature of Light
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Increasing the Transportable Bandwidth of a Fiber
1.3 What Is DWDM?
1.4 What Is OFDM?
1.5 Opaque versus Transparent WDM Systems
1.6 DWDM Devices
1.7 Fundamentals of Light
1.7.1 The Wave Nature of Light
1.7.2 The Particle Nature of Light
1.8 Photometric Terms: Flux, Illuminance, and Luminance
Chapter 2 The Interaction of Light with Matter
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Transparent versus Opaque Matter
2.3 Properties of Optically Transparent Matter
2.3.1 Reflection and Refraction Index of Refraction
2.3.2 Snell's Law
2.3.3 Critical Angle
2.3.4 Optical Prisms
2.3.5 Diffraction
2.3.6 Diffraction at Infinity
2.3.7 Diffraction Gratings
2.3.8 Principle of Huygens-Fresnel
2.3.9 Interference of Light
2.3.10 Antireflection Coatings
2.3.11 Holography
2.3.12 Polarization
2.3.13 Polarization Examples
2.3.14 Polarization by Reflection and Refraction
2.3.15 Extinction Ratio
2.3.16 Polarization Mode Shift: The Faraday Effect
2.3.17 Phase Shift
2.3.18 Isotropy and Anisotropy
2.3.18 Birefringence
2.3.19 Material Dispersion
2.3.20 Nonlinear Phenomena
2.3.21 Homogeneity and Heterogeneity
2.3.22 Effects of Impurities in Matter
2.3.23 Effects of Microcracks
2.3.24 Effects of Mechanical Pressure
2.3.25 Effects of Temperature Variation
Part II Optical Components
Chapter 3 The Optical Waveguide the Fiber
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Anatomy of a Fiber Cable
3.2.1 How is Fiber Made?
3.2.2 How is the Preform Made?
3.3 Index of Refraction Profiles
3.4 Fiber Modes
3.4.1 Multimode Graded Index
3.4.2 Single Mode
3.5 Propagation of Light
3.6 Critical Cone or Acceptance Cone
3.7 Exit Cone
3.8 Phase Velocity
3.9 Group Velocity
3.10 Modal Dispersion
3.10.1 Intermodal Delay Difference
3.10.2 Maximum Bit Rate
3.10.3 Mode Mixing
3.11 Reduction of Modal Dispersion
3.12 Chromatic Dispersion
3.12.1 Material Dispersion
3.12.2 Wavelength Dispersion
3.12.3 Chromatic Dispersion: Travel Time Variation
3.14.4 Chromatic Dispersion: Pulse Spread
3.13 Dispersion-Shifted and Dispersion-Flattened Fibers
3.14 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: ITU-T
3.15 Single-Mode Chromatic Dispersion Calculations
3.16 Chromatic Dispersion-Compensation
3.17 Polarization Mode Dispersion
3.18 Fiber Attenuation or Loss
3.18.1 The Decibel
3.19 Fiber Spectrum Utilization
3.20 Fiber Birefringence and Polarization
3.21 Nonlinear Phenomena
3.21.1 Stimulated Raman Scattering
3.21.2 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
3.21.3 Four-Wave Mixing
3.21.4 Temporal FWM, Near End and Far End
3.22 Spectral Broadening
3.23 Self-Phase Modulation
3.24 Self-Modulation or Modulation Instability
3.25 Impact of FWM on DWDM Transmission Systems
3.26 Countermeasures to Reduce FWM
3.27 Solitons
3.27.1 A Qualitative Interpretation of Solitons
3.28 Fiber Connectors
3.29 Conclusion
Chapter 4 Optical Spectral Filters and Gratings
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fabry-Perot Interferometer
4.2.1 Fabry-Perot Resonator
4.2.2 Finesse
4.2.3 Spectral Width, Line Width, and Line Spacing
4.2.4 The Fabry-Perot Filter
4.3 Bragg Grating
4.3.1 Bragg Reflector
4.3.1 The Bragg Condition
4.4 Fiber Bragg Gratings
4.5 Tunable Bragg Gratings
4.6 Dielectric Thin Film
4.7 Polarizing Beam Splitters
4.8 Tunable Optical Filters
4.9 Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters
4.10 The Mach-Zehnder Filter
4.10.1 Tunability of the Mach-Zehnder Filter
4.11 Absorption Filters
4.12 Birefringence Filters
4.13 Hybrid Filters
4.14 Tunable Filters Comparison
4.15 Diffraction Gratings
Chapter 5 Optical Demultiplexers
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Prisms
5.3 Diffraction Gratings
5.4 Arrayed Waveguide Grating
5.5 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
5.6 Spectral Filters
5.7 Acousto-Optic Filter Plus Polarizing Beam Splitter
5.8 Optical Multiplexers
Chapter 6 Light Sources
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Light-Emitting Diodes
6.2.1 Switching Speed and Output Power
6.2.2 Output Optical Spectrum
6.2.3 Input-Output Response
6.2.4 Modulation Response
6.2.5 Conclusions
6.3 Lasers
6.3.1 The Ruby Laser
6.3.2 Semiconductor Lasers
6.4 Monolithic Fabry-Perot Lasers
6.5 Monolithic Bragg Lasers
6.6 Distributed Feedback Lasers
6.7 Semiconductor Quantum Well Lasers
6.8 VCSEL Lasers
6.9 Monolithic Tunable Lasers
6.9.1 Single-Frequency Lasers
6.9.2 Multifrequency Lasers
6.10 Optical Comb Generators
6.11 Chirped-Pulse Laser Sources
6.12 Multifrequency Cavity Lasers
6.13 Monolithic DFB Arrays
6.14 Modulators
6.15 Laser Modules
Chapter 7 Photodetectors
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Photodetector Characteristics
7.3 The PIN Photodiode
7.4 The APD Photodiode
Chapter 8 Light Amplifiers
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Regenerators
8.3 Optical Amplifiers
8.4 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
8.5 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
8.6 Praseodymium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
8.7 Stimulated Raman and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Amplifiers
8.8 Classification of Optical Fiber Amplifiers
8.8.1 Power Amplifiers
8.8.2 Pre-Amplifiers
8.8.3 Line Amplifiers
8.8.4 Amplifier Standards
8.9 Wavelength Converters
8.9.1 Cross-Gain Modulation
8.9.2 Four-Wave Mixing
8.9.3 Optical Frequency Shifter
Chapter 9 Other Optical Components
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Optical Phase-Locked Loops
9.3 Optical Directional Couplers
9.4 Ring Resonators
9.5 Optical Equalizers
9.6 Optical Isolators
9.7 Polarizers, Rotators, and Circulators
Chapter 10 Optical Cross-Connects
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Optical Cross-Connect Model
10.3 Free-Space Optical Switching
10.4 Solid-State Cross-Connects
10.5 Micro-Electro-Mechanical Switches: Reflector Type
10.6 Electro-Mechanical Switches: Mirror Array
10.7 Switching Speeds
Chapter 11 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers
11.1 Introduction
11.2 The OADM Function
11.3 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers
Part III Coding Optical Information
Chapter 12 Digital Transmission and Coding Techniques
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Return to Zero and Non-Return to Zero
12.3 Unipolar and Bipolar Signals
12.4 4B/5B, 8B/10B Coding
12.5 ASK Format
12.6 PSK Format
12.7 FSK Format
Chapter 13 Decoding Optical Information
13.1 Introduction
13.2 ASK Demodulators
13.3 PSK and FSK Demodulators
Part IV Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Chapter 14 DWDM Systems
14.1 Introduction
14.2 DWDM Network Topologies
14.3 DWDM Applicability
Chapter 15 Engineering DWDM Systems
15.1 Introduction
15.2 ITU-T Nominal Center Frequencies
15.3 Channel Capacity, Width, and Spacing
15.4 Channel Bit Rate and Modulation
15.5 Wavelength Management
15.6 Multichannel Frequency Stabilization
15.7 Channel Performance
15.8 Channel Dispersion
15.9 Power Launched
15.10 Optical Amplification
15.11 Fiber Type as the Transmission Medium
15.12 Optical Power Budget
15.13 Type of Services Supported
15.14 Aggregate Bandwidth Management
15.15 Protocol Used to Transport Supported Services
15.16 Protocol for Network Management
15.17 Network Reliability
15.18 Network Protection and Survivability Strategies
15.19 Network Scalability and Flexibility
15.20 Wavelength Management
15.21 Interoperability
15.22 Single-Mode Power Loss Calculations: An Example
15.23 Channel Calculations in a Network: Three Examples
Chapter 16 DWDM Topologies
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Point-to-Point Topology
16.3 Ring-Configured Mesh and Star Networks
16.4 A DWDM Hub
16.4.1 Transmit Direction
16.4.2 Receive Direction
16.5 Faults
Part V DWDM Current Issues and Research
Chapter 17 State of the Art
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Current Issues
17.2.1 Lasers and Receivers
17.2.2 Optical Cross-Connect
17.2.3 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers
17.2.4 Optical Memories and Variable Delay Lines
17.2.5 Non-Intrusive Optical Monitoring
17.2.6 DWDM System Dynamic Reconfigurability
17.2.7 Optical Backplanes
17.2.8 Standards
17.2.9 Network Issues
17.2.10 Ultra-High-Speeds at Longer Spans
17.2.11 Opaque Systems
17.3 Ultrafast Pattern Recognition
17.3.1 Example: SONET/SDH
17.3.2 Example: ATM
17.3.3 Example: Internet Protocol
17.4 Current Research: Wavelength Bus
About the Author