Cover image for The encyclopedia of third parties in America
The encyclopedia of third parties in America
Ness, Immanuel.
Publication Information:
Armonk, N.Y. : Sharpe Reference, [2000]

Physical Description:
3 volumes (xxv, 816 pages) : illustrations, color maps ; 29 cm
v.1. Third parties in history -- Third-party maps -- American third parties -- v.2. American third parties -- v.3. American third parties -- Biographies.
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
JK2261 .E474 2000 V.1 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize Non-Circ
JK2261 .E474 2000 V.2 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize Non-Circ
JK2261 .E474 2000 V.3 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize Non-Circ

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This reference features a section on the history of third parties in America since the Early Republic, and bibliographies of major players and candidates. Coverage ranges from national, regional, and state parties to the major political parties that predate the Democrats and the Republicans.

Author Notes

James Ciment holds a B.A. in English literature from the University of California at Los Angeles & a Ph.D. from City University of New York, Graduate Center. He has written & edited a number of books on American & world history. He lives in New York City.

(Bowker Author Biography)

Reviews 3

Booklist Review

This reference source covers alternative American political parties throughout U.S. history--the leaders, the ideological roots, the positions on particular issues of their time, and how well they fared in the political arena. The introduction discusses some of the common characteristics third parties share with one another, how they have risen and fallen throughout American history, and their influence on our politics and history. The encyclopedia is organized into four sections: a chronological survey of historical epochs (e.g., "The Jacksonian Age, 1824^-1860"; "The Progressive Era, 1896-1932") and an essay on the relationship between American law and third parties; 40 maps providing a geographic picture of how successful some third parties were in parts of the U.S.; more than 115 extended entries on third parties; and biographical sketches of major players in third-party politics. Some of these biographies are quite detailed (the one on Ross Perot, for example, is almost five pages long), and all are cross-referenced to entries for relevant parties. Following the biographies is a 13-page glossary of terms, a 25-page bibliography that includes Web site addresses of current nonmainstream political parties in the U.S., and three very complete indexes (subject, biographical, and geographical). Overall, the party entries, which constitute the main body of the encyclopedia, are very informative and well organized, especially those related to U.S. history. However, some of the entries on contemporary third parties appear to be disproportionately long and magnify their importance or ignore less desirable aspects of the party. For example, the measured article on the Vermont Progressive Coalition, which spawned the successful congressional candidacy of Representative Bernie Sanders, is seven pages, while the entry on the older and still-existing Peace and Freedom party is only four pages. The entry on the Reform party ignores ties to the controversial and now-defunct New Alliance party, although the entry on the New Alliance party does have a see also reference to Reform party. Many standard encyclopedias on American politics and history adequately cover various aspects of third-party politics, but this set pulls the topic together, making it easy for readers and students to access information on this narrow slice of American politics. It is simply and clearly written, well organized, and generally accurate. Recommended especially for university and research libraries, large four-year colleges, and large public libraries.

Library Journal Review

In a year when the two major parties are gathering most of the media's attention, it's easy to overlook the activities of the Reform Party and other minor parties. But the editors of this excellent three-volume encyclopedia (Ness, Brooklyn Coll.; Ciment, New School) have produced a valuable reference tool for anyone interested in America's third parties, of which more than 115 are covered here. (Numerous studies cover third-party politics in America, but as a reference source this work has little company.) Entries embrace this country's entire history, with extended essays that describe various third-party movements, their political, social, and economic bases, and their activities in mobilizing the electorate. There are also biographies (varying in length) of the major figures in these parties, from the leaders of the Anti-Masonic or Know Nothing Party and the Bull Moose Party's Teddy Roosevelt to the candidacies of Strom Thurmond and George Wallace to the third-party leaders of today. The entries are rich in information and devoid of academic jargon, making this encyclopedia an appropriate addition to any library.--Thomas J. Baldino, Wilkes Univ., PA (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Choice Review

This encyclopedia is the most comprehensive reference source on organizations and people related to significant national, regional, and state independent and third-party movements from 1789 to the late 1990s. The editors also include background on the major parties prior to the formation of the Republican Party in 1856 and minor parties that never ran a candidate for elected office. The largest sections provide 107 articles from two to 17 pages on the party organizations and 175 biographies ranging from a single paragraph to six pages on persons who have been important in independent candidacies or third-party movements. Articles on the parties describe and assess their development, political basis, leadership, and influence. The longest articles focus on Anti-Federalists (1770s-1790s), Federalists (1790s-1810s), Black Panthers (1966-82), Reform Party (1995- ), Communist Party (1919- ), Populist Movement (1880s-90s), Progressives (1924), Progressive-Bull Moose (1912), and Socialist Party (1901). The longest biographies examine Eugene Debs, Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr., Theodore Roosevelt, H. Ross Perot, Henry Wallace, George Wallace, and Lowell Weicker. Bibliographies follow party articles, but only the long biographies. Additional sections of the encyclopedia include a brief chronological series on the evolution of political parties in the US since 1788, examinations of new and minor party access to ballots in the states and the future of third parties in US politics, and 40 color-coded maps of the US illustrating prominent third- and independent party candidate strength by county in presidential elections, 1880-1996. The editors also include illustrations, a glossary of terms, subject indexes, cross-references, an extensive, broad-ranging bibliography, and a list of 21 Web sites about third parties. Most of the contributors are either political scientists or historians. The only similar reference book is Encyclopedia of Third Parties in the United States (CH Feb'92) by Earl R. Kruschke, which has two- to four-page descriptions and bibliographies of 81 political parties. The new encyclopedia is much more comprehensive and particularly valuable for placing third-party movements in historical context and bringing together information on persons and organizations that may be difficult to compile. Recommended for all academic libraries. D. A. Lincove; Ohio State University

Table of Contents

Part I Third Parties in History
The Early Republic, 1788-1824
The Jacksonian Age, 1824-1860
The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1854-1877
The Gilded Age, 1877-1896
The Progressive Era, 1896-1932
The New Deal and World War II, 1932-1948
Liberalism and the Civil Rights Era, 1948-1979
Conservatism and the Era of Politics, 1980-
History of U.S. Ballot Access Law for New and Minor Parties
The Future of Third Parties in America
Part II Third Party Maps
Part III American Third Parties: Introduction
Afro-American Party, 1960s
Alaskan Independence Party, 1978-
America First Party, 1943-1960s
American Beat Party, 1959-1960s
American Independent Party, 1968-1990s
American Labor Party, 1936-1956
American National Party, 1874-1880
American Party, 1886-1891
American Party, 1919-1920
American Party of Texas, 1854-1857
Anarchists, 1880s
Anti-Federalism, 1770s-1790s
Anti-Masonic Party, 1826-1830s
Anti-Monopoly Party, 1884
Best Party, 1994
Black and Tan Republican Parties, 1860s-1960s
Black Panther Party, 1966-1982
Christian Nationalist Party, 1947-1956
Citizens Party, 1919-
A Connecticut Party, 1990-1994
Conservative Party (New York), 1962-
Conservative Party of Virginia, 1965-1969
Constitution Party, 1952-1960s
Constitutional Union Party, 1860-1861
Consumer Party, 1967-
Cotton Whigs, 1830s-1850s
District of Columbia Statehood Party, 1971-
End Poverty in California, 1934-1940s
Equal Rights Party, 1872-1880s
Federalist Party, 1790s-1810s
Free Soil Party, 1848-1850s
Freedom Now Party, 1963-1965
Greenback Party, 1873-1886
The Greens, 1980s-
Human Rights Party (Michigan), 1960s-1980s
Hunker Democrats, 1840s
Independent Progressive Party, 1948-1952
Independent Republican Party, 1864
Independent-Socialist Party, 1958-1960s
Jobless Party, 1932
Know-Nothing Party, 1932
Labor Party Movement, 1930s
Labor Party, 1990s
Labor Reform Party, 1872
La Raza Unida Party, 1970-1981
Law and Order Party of Rhode Island, 1841-1842
Liberal Party, 1944-
Liberal-Republican Party, 1872
Libertarian Party, 1971-
Liberty Party, 1840-1848
Liberty Union Party of Vermont, 1970-1976
Lowndes County Freedom Organization, 1966-1967
Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party, 1916-
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964-1980s
National Democratic Party of Alabama, 1967-1980s
National Republican Party, 1820s-1830s
National Silver Party, 1880s-1904
National Socialist White People's Party, 1967-
National States' Rights Party, 1958-1984
National Unity Campaign, 1980
National Woman's Party, 1916-1980s
Natural Law Party, 1992-
New Party, 1992-
New Alliance Party, 1979-1994
Nonpartisan League, 1915-1956
Peace and Freedom Party, 1067-
People's Party, 1971-1978
Poor Man's Party, 1949-1966, 1988
Populist Party Movement/People's Party, 1880s-1890s
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party, 1912-1916
Progressive Movement of 1924
Progressive Party, 1948
Progressive Party of Wisconsin, 1934-1946
Prohibition Party, 1869-
Readjuster Party of Virginia, 1877-1883
Reform Party, 1995-
Restoration Party, 1976
Revolutionary Communist Party, 1975-
Right-to-Life Party, 1970-
Share Our Wealth Movement, 1934-1935
Silver Party of Nevada, 1893-1900s
Silver Republicans, 1891-1900
Social Democratic Party, 1898-1901
Social Democrats of the United States of America, 1972-
Socialist Labor Party, 1876-
Socialist Party, 1901-
Socialist Workers Party, 1938-
South Carolina Progressive Democratic Party, 1944-1956
Southern Democratic Party, 1860
Statess' Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrats)
States' Rights Party of Kentucky, 1956
Straight-out Democratic Party, 1872
Union Party, 1936
Union Labor Party, 1887-1888
United Christian Party, 1897-1900
United Citizens Party, 1897-1900
United Citizens Party, 1969-1970s
Universal Party, 1963-1972
U.S Taxpayers Party, 1992-
Vermont Progressive Coalition, 1981-
Whig Party, 1830s-1850s
Women's Peace Party, 1914-1919
Workers World Party, 1959-
Working Families Party, 1998-
Workingmen's Parties, 1828-1830s, 1870
Part IV Biographies
Part IV Biographies: Introduction
Charles Francis Adams
John Adams
Jane Addams
Larry Agran
Salvatore Albanese
John B. Anderson
Bamaliel Bailey
Nathaniel P. Bank
John Bell
William Rudolph Benkert
Victor Luitpold Berger
James Gillespie Birney
Jonathan Blanchard
Earl Russell Browder
B. Gratz Brown
Harry Browne
William Jennings Bryan
Lucy Burns
Benjamin Franklin Butler
William Dallas Bynum
Harry Flood Byrd Sr.
William E. Cameron
Frank J. Cannon
James Cannon
Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Tours)
Salmon P. Chase
Henry Clay
Albert Cleage Jr.
Eldridge Cleaver
James Clyburn
Barry Commoner
James Renshaw Cox
John J Crittenden
Norris Wright Cuney
James Langdon Curtis
Ron Daniels
Angela Yvonne Davis
David Davis
Eugene Victor Debs
Daniel DeLeon
Andrew Jackson Donelson
Ignatius Donnelly
David Dubinsky
Fred Thomas Dubois
David Duke
Lemuel Dale Evans
Edward Everett
Frank F Fasi
James E Ferguson
Edward Fields
Millard Fillmore
William Z. Foster
Lynn Joseph Frazier
Lenora Fulani
Joshua Giddings
Allen Ginsberg
Emma Goldman
Rodolfo "Corkey" Gonzalez
Horace Greeley
Eunice S Groark
Joss Angel Gutierrez
John Hagelin
John P Hale
Fanny Lou Hamer
Alexander Hamilton
Raymond B. Harding
Michael Harrington
William Henry Harrison
Lance Haver
Max Sebastian Hayes
Kirby James Hensley
Abram S. Hewitt
Walter J ("Wally") Hickel
Morris Hillquit
Abbie Hoffman
Larry Holmes
Samuel Houston
John Jay
William Ezra Jenner
Hiram Warren Johnson
Sonia Johnson
John Percival Jones
Jack Kerouac
Angus S King Jr.
Matthias Koehl
Henry Krajewski
Philip F. La Follette
Robert M. La Follette Jr.
Robert M. La Follette Sr.
John M. Langston
Lyndon La Rouche
Mary Elizabeth Clyens Lease
Richard Henry Lee
William Frederick Lemke
Jonah Fitz Randolph Leonard
Lewis Levin
John L. Lewis
Charles Lindbergh
Huey Long
James B. Longley
Conrad Lynn
Douglas MacArthur
Eugene McCarthy
Ellen McCormack
William Mahone
Lee Mantle
Vito Marcantonio
Sam Marcy
William Marcy
Ernest L. Miller
Andrew Jackson Montague
Monica Moorehead
William Morgan
Robert Parris Moses
Abraham Johannes Muste
Ralph Nader
Fred Newman
Huey P. Newton
Eleanor Holmes Norton
Charles O'Conor
Lucy Parsons
Alice Paul
Elisha Marshall Peace
H. Ross Perot
Richard Franklin Pettigrew
Howard Phillips
John Reed
Harrison H. Riddleberger
George Lincoln Rockwell
Theodore Roosevelt
Alex Rose
Jerry Rubin
Bernard Sanders
John Schmitz
Carl Schurz
Winfield Scott
Robert George ("Bobby") Seale
Arthur Sewall
William Henry Seward
Horatio Seymour
Max Shachtman
Upton Sinclair
Thomas Skidmore
Gerald L.K. Smith
John Spargo
Benjamin Spock
Thaddeus Stevens
William Morris Stewart
Jesse (J.B) Stoner;
Charles Sumner
Zachary Taylor
Henry Moore Teller
Norman M. Thomas
Strom Thurmond
Mary Jane Tobin
Arthur Charles Townley
Francis Everett Townsend
Lyman Trumbull
John Tyler
Martin Van Buren
Jesse Ventura
Joe Vogler
James Barr Walker
George Wallace
Henry Wallace
Thomas Edward Watson
James B. Weaver
Daniel Webster
Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.
Max Weiner
Peter Dinwiddie Wigginton
David Wilmot
Henry Wilson
William Worthy
Frances Wright