Cover image for Nuclear energy : an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes
Title:
Nuclear energy : an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes
Author:
Murray, Raymond L., 1920-2011.
Edition:
Fifth edition.
Publication Information:
Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, [2001]

©2001
Physical Description:
xxv, 490 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780750671361
Format :
Book

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Central Library TK9145 .M87 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating
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Summary

Summary

Nuclear Energy, Fifth Edition provides nuclear engineers, plant designers and radiation physicists with a comprehensive overview of nuclear energy and its uses, discusses potential problems and provides an outlook for the future new and important trends are discussed including probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), deregulation of the electric power industry to permit competition in the supply of electricity; improvements in performance characteristics of nuclear power plants, such as capacity factor, production costs, and safety factors; storage and disposal of all types of radioactive wastes; advances in decontamination, decommissioning and reutilization; continued progress in evolutionary reactors; increased interest in the role of nuclear power in reducing pollution and global warming. Attention will also be given to the developments in such countries as Russia, Ukraine, France, Sweden, South Korea, China and Third World Countries. The author also looks at the problems of nuclear weapons proliferation and the potential threat from terrorist organizations or reckless countries. In addition, the author has identified Web sites and other electronic information sources to supplement all of the topics covered in this book.


Table of Contents

Preface to the Fifth Editionp. vii
The Authorp. xvii
Part I Basic Concepts
1 Energy
1.1 Forces and Energyp. 3
1.2 Thermal Energyp. 5
1.3 Radiant Energyp. 7
1.4 The Equivalence of Matter and Energyp. 8
1.5 Energy and the Worldp. 9
1.6 Summaryp. 10
1.7 Exercisesp. 10
1.8 General Referencesp. 11
1.9 References for Chapter 1p. 13
2 Atoms and Nuclei
2.1 Atomic Theoryp. 14
2.2 Gasesp. 15
2.3 The Atom and Lightp. 15
2.4 Laser Beamsp. 18
2.5 Nuclear Structurep. 19
2.6 Sizes and Masses of Nucleip. 20
2.7 Binding Energyp. 21
2.8 Summaryp. 23
2.9 Exercisesp. 23
2.10 References for Chapter 2p. 25
3 Radioactivity
3.1 Radioactive Decayp. 27
3.2 The Decay Lawp. 27
3.3 Radioactive Chainsp. 31
3.4 Measurement of Half-Lifep. 32
3.5 Summaryp. 34
3.6 Exercisesp. 34
3.7 References for Chapter 3p. 35
4 Nuclear Processes
4.1 Transmutation of Elementsp. 37
4.2 Energy and Momentum Conservationp. 39
4.3 Reaction Ratesp. 40
4.4 Particle Attenuationp. 44
4.5 Neutron Cross Sectionsp. 45
4.6 Neutron Migrationp. 47
4.7 Summaryp. 52
4.8 Exercisep. 52
4.9 References for Chapter 4p. 55
5 Radiation and Materials
5.1 Excitation and Ionization by Electronsp. 57
5.2 Heavy Charged Particle Stopping by Matterp. 58
5.3 Gamma Ray Interactions with Matterp. 60
5.4 Neutron Reactionsp. 63
5.5 Summaryp. 64
5.6 Exercisep. 64
5.7 References for Chapter 5p. 65
6 Fission
6.1 The Fission Processp. 67
6.2 Energy Considerationsp. 67
6.3 Byproducts of Fissionp. 69
6.4 Energy from Nuclear Fuelsp. 73
6.5 Summaryp. 73
6.6 Exercisesp. 74
6.7 References for Chapter 6p. 74
7 Fusion
7.1 Fusion Reactionsp. 76
7.2 Electrostatic and Nuclear Forcesp. 77
7.3 Thermonuclear Reactions in a Plasmap. 78
7.4 Summaryp. 80
7.5 Exercisesp. 81
7.6 References for Chapter 7p. 81
Part II Nuclear Systems
8 Particle Accelerators
8.1 Electric and Magnetic Forcesp. 85
8.2 High-Voltage Machinesp. 86
8.3 Linear Acceleratorp. 87
8.4 Cyclotron and Betatronp. 88
8.5 Synchrotron and Colliderp. 90
8.6 Spallationp. 94
8.7 Summaryp. 95
8.8 Exercisesp. 95
8.9 References for Chapter 8p. 96
9 Isotope Separators
9.1 Mass Spectrographp. 99
9.2 Gaseous Diffusion Separatorp. 100
9.3 Gas Centrifugep. 105
9.4 Laser Isotope Separationp. 107
9.5 Separation of Deuteriump. 109
9.6 Summaryp. 110
9.7 Exercisesp. 110
9.8 References for Chapter 9p. 112
10 Radiation Detectors
10.1 Gas Countersp. 115
10.2 Neutron Detectorsp. 116
10.3 Scintillation Countersp. 118
10.4 Solid State Detectorsp. 119
10.5 Statistics of Countingp. 120
10.6 Pulse Height Analysisp. 122
10.7 Advanced Detectorsp. 123
10.8 Summaryp. 124
10.9 Exercisesp. 124
10.10 References for Chapter 10p. 126
11 Neutron Chain Reactions
11.1 Criticality and Multiplicationp. 128
11.2 Multiplication Factorsp. 128
11.3 Neutron Flux and Reactor Powerp. 134
11.4 Reactor Typesp. 135
11.5 Reactor Operationp. 139
11.6 The Natural Reactorp. 142
11.7 Summaryp. 142
11.8 Exercisesp. 143
11.9 References for Chapter 11p. 145
12 Nuclear Heat Energy
12.1 Methods of Heat Transmissionp. 147
12.2 Heat Generation and Removalp. 147
12.3 Steam Generation and Electrical Power Productionp. 152
12.4 Waste Heat Rejectionp. 153
12.5 Summaryp. 158
12.6 Exercisesp. 159
12.7 References for Chapter 12p. 160
13 Breeder Reactors
13.1 The Concept of Breedingp. 162
13.2 Isotope Production and Consumptionp. 164
13.3 The Fast Breeder Reactorp. 165
13.4 Breeding and Uranium Resourcesp. 169
13.5 Summaryp. 171
13.6 Exercisesp. 172
13.7 References for Chapter 13p. 172
14 Fusion Reactors
14.1 Comparison of Fusion Reactionsp. 174
14.2 Requirements for Practical Fusion Reactorsp. 175
14.3 Magnetic Confinement Machinesp. 177
14.4 Inertial Confinement Machinesp. 181
14.5 Other Fusion Conceptsp. 185
14.6 Prospects for Fusionp. 187
14.7 Summaryp. 190
14.8 Exercisesp. 190
14.9 References for Chapter 14p. 191
Part III Nuclear Energy and Man
15 The History of Nuclear Energy
15.1 The Rise of Nuclear Physicsp. 197
15.2 The Discovery of Fissionp. 198
15.3 The Development of Nuclear Weaponsp. 199
15.4 Reactor Research and Developmentp. 202
15.5 The Nuclear Controversyp. 204
15.6 Summaryp. 206
15.7 References for Chapter 15p. 206
16 Biological Effects of Radiation
16.1 Physiological Effectsp. 211
16.2 Radiation Dose Unitsp. 212
16.3 Basis for Limits of Exposurep. 215
16.4 Sources of Radiation Dosagep. 219
16.5 Summaryp. 220
16.6 Exercisesp. 220
16.7 References for Chapter 16p. 221
17 Information from Isotopes
17.1 Stable and Radioactive Isotopesp. 225
17.2 Tracer Techniquesp. 225
17.3 Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 227
17.4 Medical Imagingp. 228
17.5 Radioimmunoassayp. 229
17.6 Datingp. 230
17.7 Neutron Activation Analysisp. 231
17.8 Radiographyp. 236
17.9 Radiation Gaugesp. 238
17.10 Summaryp. 240
17.11 Exercisesp. 241
17.12 References for Chapter 17p. 242
18 Useful Radiation Effects
18.1 Medical Treatmentp. 246
18.2 Radiation Preservation of Foodp. 248
18.3 Sterilization of Medical Suppliesp. 252
18.4 Pathogen Reductionp. 253
18.5 Crop Mutationsp. 253
18.6 Insect Controlp. 254
18.7 Applications in Chemistryp. 255
18.8 Transmutation Doping of Semiconductorsp. 256
18.9 Neutrons in Fundamental Physicsp. 256
18.10 Neutrons in Biological Studiesp. 258
18.11 Research with Synchrotron X-raysp. 259
18.12 Summaryp. 260
18.13 Exercisesp. 260
18.14 References for Chapter 18p. 261
19 Reactor Safety
19.1 Neutron Population Growthp. 264
19.2 Assurance of Safetyp. 268
19.3 Emergency Core Cooling and Containmentp. 274
19.4 Probabilistic Risk Assessmentp. 277
19.5 The Three Mile Island Accident and Lessons Learnedp. 281
19.6 The Chernobyl Accidentp. 285
19.7 Philosophy of Safetyp. 289
19.8 Summaryp. 291
19.9 Exercisesp. 291
19.10 References for Chapter 19p. 294
20 Nuclear Propulsion
20.1 Reactors for Naval Propulsionp. 298
20.2 Space Reactorsp. 300
20.3 Space Isotopic Powerp. 302
20.4 Future Nuclear Space Applicationsp. 305
20.5 Summaryp. 308
20.6 Exercisesp. 309
20.7 References for Chapter 20p. 309
21 Radiation Protection
21.1 Protective Measuresp. 312
21.2 Calculation of Dosep. 314
21.3 Effects of Distance and Shieldingp. 315
21.4 Internal Exposurep. 321
21.5 The Radon Problemp. 322
21.6 Environmental Radiological Assessmentp. 323
21.7 Newer Radiation Standardsp. 325
21.8 Summaryp. 328
21.9 Exercisesp. 328
21.10 References for Chapter 21p. 330
22 Radioactive Waste Disposal
22.1 The Nuclear Fuel Cyclep. 333
22.2 Waste Classificationp. 335
22.3 Spent Fuel Storagep. 336
22.4 Transportationp. 339
22.5 Reprocessingp. 340
22.6 High-Level Waste Disposalp. 343
22.7 Low-Level Waste Generation, Treatment, and Disposalp. 348
22.8 Environmental Restoration of Defense Sitesp. 355
22.9 Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioningp. 356
22.10 Summaryp. 357
22.11 Exercisesp. 358
22.12 References for Chapter 22p. 360
23 Laws, Regulations, and Organizations
23.1 The Atomic Energy Actsp. 364
23.2 The Environmental Protection Agencyp. 365
23.3 The Nuclear Regulatory Commissionp. 366
23.4 The Department of Energyp. 368
23.5 International Atomic Energy Agencyp. 369
23.6 Institute of Nuclear Power Operationsp. 370
23.7 Other Organizationsp. 373
23.8 Energy Policy Actp. 376
23.9 Summaryp. 378
23.10 References for Chapter 23p. 379
24 Energy Economics
24.1 Components of Electrical Power Costp. 383
24.2 Forecasts and Realityp. 386
24.3 Challenges and Opportunitiesp. 389
24.4 Technical and Institutional Improvementsp. 392
24.5 Effect of Deregulation and Restructuringp. 396
24.6 Advanced Reactorsp. 398
24.7 Summaryp. 401
24.8 Exercisesp. 401
24.9 References for Chapter 24p. 402
25 International Nuclear Power
25.1 Reactor Distributionp. 406
25.2 Western Europep. 406
25.3 Eastern Europe and the CISp. 410
25.4 The Far Eastp. 412
25.5 Other Countriesp. 414
25.6 Summaryp. 416
25.7 References for Chapter 25p. 416
26 Nuclear Explosions
26.1 Nuclear Power vs. Nuclear Weaponsp. 419
26.2 Nuclear Explosivesp. 420
26.3 The Prevention of Nuclear Warp. 426
26.4 Nonproliferation and Safeguardsp. 429
26.5 IAEA Inspectionsp. 431
26.6 Production of Tritiump. 432
26.7 Management of Weapons Uranium and Plutoniump. 433
26.8 Summaryp. 435
26.9 Exercisesp. 435
26.10 References for Chapter 26p. 436
27 The Future
27.1 Dimensionsp. 440
27.2 World Energy Usep. 441
27.3 Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Developmentp. 443
27.4 Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Changep. 446
27.5 Perspectivesp. 448
27.6 Research and Developmentp. 452
27.7 Summaryp. 454
27.8 Exercisesp. 455
27.9 References for Chapter 27p. 455
Appendix
Conversion Factorsp. 461
Atomic and Nuclear Datap. 462
Answers to Exercisesp. 464
The Internetp. 467
Computer Programsp. 467
Indexp. 471

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