Cover image for Troubleshooting : a technician's guide.
Title:
Troubleshooting : a technician's guide.
Author:
Mostia, William L.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Research Triangle Park, NC : Instrument Society of America, 2000.
Physical Description:
xiii, 195 pages ; 26 cm.
General Note:
By William L. Mostia, Jr.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781556177057
Format :
Book

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Central Library TA169.5 .M67 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

Troubleshooting loops and systems is something all technicians must do, but that few truly master. In Troubleshooting: A Technician's Guide, William Mostia draws on long experience as a process engineer and maintenance expert to provide a detailed look at the skills and knowledge required for troubleshooting. Interspersed with a wealth of practical detail and real-world examples are Mostia's no-nonsense discussions of what a good troubleshooter needs to know: Basic principles of electricity and physics Essentials of data communications, and logic Causes of failures Techniques that engineers and technicians use to track failures down. Here too are hints and troubleshooting aids, basic maintenance concepts, and information about training. Finally, Mostia provides examples of troubleshooting problems in mechanical systems, process connections, pneumatic systems, electrical systems, electronic systems, and valves. He explores calibration, programmable electronic systems, communication circuits, transient problems and software.Contents: Safety Issues Basic Principles Applicable to Troubleshooting Tools and Test Equipment Basics of Failure Failure States Logical and Analytical Troubleshooting Frameworks Other Troubleshooting Methods Troubleshooting Examples Troubleshooting Hints Aids to Troubleshooting Training Methods.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Learning to Troubleshootp. 1
1.1 Experiencep. 1
1.1.1 Information and Skillsp. 2
1.1.2 Diversity And Complexityp. 2
1.1.3 Learning From Experiencep. 2
1.2 Apprenticeshipsp. 3
1.3 Mentoringp. 3
1.4 Classroom Instructionp. 3
1.5 Individual Studyp. 4
Summaryp. 4
Quizp. 4
Chapter 2 The Basics of Failuresp. 7
2.1 A Definition of Failurep. 7
2.2 How Hardware Failsp. 8
2.2.1 Measures of Reliabilityp. 9
2.2.2 The Wear-out Periodp. 10
2.3 How Software Failsp. 11
2.4 Environmental Effects on Failure Ratesp. 12
2.4.1 Temperaturep. 13
2.4.2 Corrosionp. 13
2.4.3 Humidityp. 13
2.4.4 Exceeding Instrument Limitsp. 14
2.5 Functional Failuresp. 14
2.6 Systematic Failuresp. 14
2.7 Common-cause Failuresp. 15
2.8 Root-cause Analysisp. 15
Summaryp. 16
Quizp. 16
For Further Readingp. 17
Chapter 3 Failure Statesp. 19
3.1 Overt and Covert Failuresp. 19
3.2 Directed Failuresp. 20
3.2.1 Failure Directionp. 20
3.3 Directed Failure Statesp. 21
3.4 What Failure States Indicatep. 22
Summaryp. 24
Quizp. 24
Referencesp. 25
Chapter 4 Logical/Analytical Troubleshooting Frameworksp. 27
4.1 Logical/Analytical Troubleshooting Frameworkp. 27
4.2 Specific Troubleshooting Frameworksp. 28
4.3 How a Specific Troubleshooting Framework Worksp. 33
4.4 Generic Logical/Analytical Frameworksp. 35
4.5 A Seven-step Procedurep. 37
4.5.1 Step 1: Define the Problemp. 37
4.5.2 Step 2: Collect Information Regarding the Problemp. 38
4.5.3 Step 3: Analyze the Informationp. 40
4.5.4 Step 4: Determine Sufficiency of Informationp. 43
4.5.5 Step 5: Propose a Solutionp. 46
4.5.6 Step 6: Test The Proposed Solutionp. 47
4.5.7 Step 7: The Repairp. 47
4.6 An Example of How to Use the Seven-step Procedurep. 48
4.6.1 Step 1: Define The Problemp. 48
4.6.2 Step 2: Collect Information Regarding the Problemp. 48
4.6.3 Step 3: Analyze The Informationp. 49
4.6.4 Step 4: Determine Sufficiency of Informationp. 49
4.6.5 Step 5: Propose A Solutionp. 49
4.6.6 Step 6: Test The Proposed Solutionp. 49
4.6.7 Step 7: Repairp. 49
4.7 Vendor Assistance Advantages and Pitfallsp. 49
4.8 Why Troubleshooting Failsp. 50
4.8.1 Lack of Knowledgep. 50
4.8.2 Failure to Gather Data Properlyp. 51
4.8.3 Failure to Look in the Right Placesp. 51
4.8.4 Dimensional Thinkingp. 55
Summaryp. 56
Quizp. 56
Referencesp. 58
Chapter 5 Other Troubleshooting Methodsp. 59
5.1 Why Use Other Troubleshooting Methods?p. 59
5.2 Substitution Methodp. 60
5.3 Fault Insertion Methodp. 60
5.4 "Remove and Conquer" Methodp. 61
5.5 "Circle the Wagons" Methodp. 61
5.6 Trappingp. 63
5.7 Consultationp. 64
5.8 Intuitionp. 64
5.9 Out-of-the-Box Thinkingp. 65
Summaryp. 66
Quizp. 66
Chapter 6 Safetyp. 67
6.1 General Troubleshooting Safety Practicesp. 67
6.2 Human Error in Industrial Settingsp. 69
6.2.1 Slips or Aberrationsp. 69
6.2.2 Lack of Knowledgep. 69
6.2.3 Overmotivation and Undermotivationp. 70
6.2.4 Impossible Tasksp. 70
6.2.5 Mindsetp. 70
6.2.6 Errors By Othersp. 70
6.3 Plant Hazards Faced During Troubleshootingp. 70
6.3.1 Personnel Hazards (Electrical)p. 71
6.3.2 General Practices When Working With or Near Energized Circuitsp. 73
6.3.3 Static Electricity Hazardsp. 74
6.3.4 Mechanical Hazardsp. 75
6.3.5 Stored Energy Hazardsp. 76
6.3.6 Thermal Hazardsp. 77
6.3.7 Chemical Hazardsp. 77
6.4 Troubleshooting in Electrically Hazardous (Classified) Areasp. 78
6.4.1 Classification Systemsp. 79
6.4.2 Area Classification Standardsp. 83
6.4.3 Troubleshooting in Electrically Hazardous Areasp. 91
6.5 Protection, Procedures, and Permit Systemsp. 93
6.5.1 Operations Notificationp. 93
6.5.2 Maintenance Proceduresp. 94
6.5.3 Work Permitsp. 95
6.5.4 Loop Identification and System Interactionp. 96
6.5.5 Safety Instrumented Systemsp. 97
Summaryp. 98
Quizp. 98
Referencesp. 102
Chapter 7 Tools and Test Equipmentp. 105
7.1 Hand Toolsp. 105
7.2 Contact-type Test Equipmentp. 106
7.2.1 Volt-Ohm Meters (VOM)p. 106
7.2.2 Digital Multimetersp. 107
7.2.3 Oscilloscopesp. 108
7.2.4 Voltage Probesp. 110
7.2.5 Thermometersp. 110
7.2.6 Insulation Testersp. 111
7.2.7 Ground Testersp. 112
7.2.8 Contact Tachometersp. 113
7.2.9 Motor/Phase Rotation Metersp. 113
7.2.10 Circuit Tracersp. 113
7.2.11 Vibration Monitorsp. 114
7.2.12 Protocol Analyzersp. 114
7.2.13 Test Pressure Gaugesp. 114
7.2.14 Portable Recordersp. 114
7.3 Noncontact Test Equipmentp. 116
7.3.1 Clamp-on Amp Metersp. 116
7.3.2 Static Charge Metersp. 117
7.3.3 Gauss Metersp. 117
7.3.4 Noncontact Proximity Voltage Detectorsp. 117
7.3.5 Magnetic Field/Current Detectorsp. 117
7.3.6 Circuit And Underground Cable Detectorsp. 117
7.3.7 Photo Tachometers and Stroboscopesp. 117
7.3.8 Clamp-On Ground Testersp. 118
7.3.9 Infrared Thermometer Guns and Imaging Systemsp. 118
7.3.10 Leak Detectorsp. 119
7.4 Simulators/Process Calibratorsp. 119
7.5 Jumpers, Switch Boxes, and Trapsp. 120
7.6 Documenting Test Equipment and Testsp. 122
7.7 Accuracy of Test Equipmentp. 123
Summaryp. 123
Quizp. 124
Referencesp. 125
Chapter 8 Troubleshooting Scenariosp. 127
8.1 Mechanical Instrumentationp. 127
8.1.1 Mechanical Field Recorder, Examplep. 127
8.1.2 Mechanical Field Recorder, Example 2p. 128
8.1.3 Mechanical Field Recorder, Example 3p. 128
8.2 Process Connectionsp. 128
8.2.1 Pressure Transmitter, Examplep. 128
8.2.2 Pressure Transmitter, Example 2p. 129
8.2.3 Temperature Transmitterp. 129
8.2.4 Flow Meter (Orifice Type)p. 129
8.3 Pneumatic Instrumentationp. 130
8.3.1 Pneumatic Transmitter, Examplep. 130
8.3.2 Pneumatic Transmitter, Example 2p. 130
8.3.3 Pneumatic Transmitter, Example 3p. 131
8.3.4 Pneumatic Transmitter, Example 4p. 131
8.3.5 Pneumatic Transmitter, Example 5p. 132
8.3.6 I/P (Current/Pneumatic) Transducerp. 132
8.4 Electrical Systemsp. 132
8.4.1 Electronic 4-20Ma Transmitterp. 132
8.4.2 Computer Based Analyzerp. 133
8.4.3 Plant Section Instrument Power Lostp. 134
8.4.4 Relay Systemp. 134
8.5 Electronic Systemsp. 136
8.5.1 Current Loopsp. 136
8.5.2 Voltage Loopsp. 138
8.5.3 Control Loopsp. 139
8.5.4 Ground Loopsp. 140
8.6 Valvesp. 142
8.6.1 Valve Leak-By, Examplep. 142
8.6.2 Valve Leak-By, Example 2p. 143
8.6.3 Valve Oscillationp. 143
8.7 Calibrationp. 143
8.7.1 Low Reading on Flow Transmitterp. 143
8.7.2 Inaccurate Pay Metersp. 144
8.7.3 Plant Material Balance Offp. 144
8.8 Programmable Electronic Systemsp. 145
8.8.1 PLCp. 145
8.8.2 PLC Cardp. 145
8.9 Communication Loopsp. 146
8.9.1 RS-232, Examplep. 146
8.9.2 RS-232, Example 2p. 146
8.9.3 RS-485, Example 1p. 147
8.9.4 RS-485, Example 2p. 147
8.9.5 Fieldbusp. 148
8.9.6 Programmable Logic Controller, Remote Input-Output (PLC RIO)p. 148
8.10 Transient Problemsp. 149
8.10.1 DCS with PC Displayp. 149
8.10.2 PC Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT)p. 149
8.11 Softwarep. 150
8.11.1 PLC-Controlled Machine Tripsp. 150
8.11.2 PLC Relay "Race" Problemp. 150
8.11.3 Fortran Interface Programp. 151
8.12 Flow Metersp. 151
8.12.1 Flow Meter, Examplep. 151
8.12.2 Flow Meter, Example 2p. 152
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting Hintsp. 153
9.1 Mechanical Systemsp. 153
9.2 Process Connectionsp. 153
9.3 Pneumatic Systemsp. 154
9.4 Electronic Systemsp. 155
9.5 Groundingp. 155
9.6 Calibration Systemsp. 156
9.7 Programmable Electronic Systemsp. 156
9.8 Valvesp. 157
9.9 Miscellaneousp. 158
Chapter 10 Aids to Troubleshootingp. 159
10.1 Introductionp. 159
10.2 Maintainabilityp. 159
10.2.1 Safetyp. 160
10.2.2 Accessibilityp. 160
10.2.3 Testabilityp. 160
10.2.4 Reparabilityp. 161
10.2.5 Economyp. 161
10.2.6 Accuracyp. 161
10.3 Drawingsp. 161
10.4 Tagging and Identificationp. 165
10.5 Equipment Filesp. 166
10.6 Manualsp. 166
10.7 Maintenance Management Systemsp. 166
10.8 Vendor Technical Assistancep. 167
10.9 Direct Vendor Accessp. 167
Summaryp. 168
Quizp. 168
Appendix A Answers to Quizzesp. 171
Appendix B Relevant Standardsp. 173
Appendix C Glossaryp. 175
Indexp. 191

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