Cover image for International encyclopedia of human rights : freedoms, abuses, and remedies
International encyclopedia of human rights : freedoms, abuses, and remedies
Maddex, Robert L., 1942-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Washington, DC : CQ Press, [2000]

Physical Description:
xxxii, 404 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
JC571 .M3243 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize Non-Circ

On Order



The global importance of human rights issues has sparked an ongoing need to develop a universal language for human rights and the procedures for remedying violations, where remedies are, in fact, available. Giving the broadest scope to the terms human rights and freedoms, this reference encompasses constitutional rights and freedoms as well as those addressed in international and regional agreements. Through entries that define and describe concepts and terms, to text excerpts of documents, charts depicting global comparisons, essays on organizations, and biographies of activists and theorists, this reference will serve the research and information needs of students, scholars, activists, and interested citizens. As the title suggests, International Encyclopedia of Human Rights: Freedoms, Abuses, and Remedies goes beyond the abstract to include practical information on remedies for violations of a person's rights and freedoms by a national government, and on the private and government rights organizations that assist in reporting on or enforcing human rights. All around the world, there is a growing interest in developing a universal language for human rights and the procedures for remedying violations. International Encyclopedia of Human Rights: Freedoms, Abuses, and Remedies is written for both students of the subject and those who are actively working in the field. This reference work points readers in the right direction for enforcing their rights rather than merely setting them forth in the abstract.

Author Notes

Desmond Tutu was born October 7, 1931 in Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa. He attended Johannesburg Bantu High School. After leaving school he trained first as a teacher at Pretoria Bantu Normal College and graduated in 1954 from the University of South Africa.

After three years as a high school teacher he began to study theology, and was ordained as a priest in 1960. From 1962 to 1966 Tutu devoted his time to further theological study in England at King's College, eventually earning a Master's of Theology. From 1967 to 1972 he taught theology in South Africa before returning to England for three years as the assistant director of a theological institute in London. In 1975 he was appointed Dean of St. Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg, the first black to hold that position. From 1976 to 1978 he was Bishop of Lesotho, and in 1978 became the first black General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches.

Tutu won the Nobel Peace Prize on October 15, 1984 for his role in the opposition to apartheid in South Africa. He was then elected Archbishop of Cape Town in April of 1986, the highest position in the South African Anglican Church. Tutu is also an honorary doctor of various universities in the USA, Britain and Germany.

He is the author of the best seller, The Book of Joy: Lasting Happiness in a Changing World, with the Dalai Lama XIV and Douglas Carlton Abrams.

(Bowker Author Biography)

Reviews 2

Booklist Review

This latest in a variety of books on human rights issues that also includes Encyclopedia of Human Rights Issues Since 1945 (Langley, 1999) and Human Rights in the United States: A Dictionary and Documents [RBB Fe 1 01] is by far the easiest to read and the simplest to interpret. Beginning its coverage with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the volume includes definitions of more than 150 important concepts, such as Asylum, Civil rights, and Sovereignty; entries on decisions of national and international bodies; descriptions of well over 100 documents (including some significant historical statements, such as the Magna Carta); information about agencies and organizations involved in human rights; and biographies of some of key individuals, from Aristotle to Guatemalan activist Rigoberta Menchu. The introduction includes a complete alphabetical list of the topics followed by a list of entries by category, such as "Biographies" or "Documents." Also included is a key to the symbols used in the entries to identify such information as telephone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses, Web sites addresses, and citations to documents, court decisions, further readings, and related entries. The publisher has provided an extensive index and a typeface that is inviting to look at and easy to read. The volume succeeds in making human-rights issues more understandable for the average person and in maintaining an evenhanded look at the issues. This exceptional book is well organized and well written and should be useful for academic, public, and high-school libraries.

Choice Review

International lawyer Maddex's compilation of major concepts, documents, institutions, and individuals related to human rights is serviceable, but it cannot be recommended with the same enthusiasm as his previous books on constitutional law. Adopting an activist approach, he eschews the abstract and theoretical, emphasizing human rights enforcement and protection. The result, unfortunately, is an uneven and somewhat disjointed work, whose reach exceeds its grasp. The alphabetically arranged entries are brief (generally no more than a page and a half) and include references to related materials. Many cited works would not ordinarily come to mind, a reflection of the book's diffuse scope rather than scholarly rigor. Winston Langley's Encyclopedia of Human Rights Issues since 1945 (CH. Jan'00) and John S. Gibson's Dictionary of International Human Rights Law (CH, Apr'97) are more targeted alternatives, and Encyclopedia of Human Rights, comp. by Edward Lawson (CH, Dec'91), is the most authoritative and comprehensive. Public and academic libraries supporting human rights courses or research may find this a worthwhile supplementary acquisition. D. Ettinger; George Washington University

Table of Contents

Mary RobinsonDesmond Tutu
Subjects: Entries Arranged by Categoryp. xi
Forewordp. xviii
Forewordp. xx
Prefacep. xxiii
Key to the Symbolsp. xxv
Introductionp. xxvi
Abortionp. 1
Accusedp. 2
Adoptionp. 3
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (Banjul Charter)p. 4
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Childp. 5
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rightsp. 6
Agedp. 7
AIDSp. 9
Alfonsin Foulkes, Raulp. 10
Aliensp. 10
American Convention on Human Rightsp. 11
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Manp. 12
Amnestyp. 13
Amnesty Internationalp. 14
Amparop. 14
Apartheidp. 15
Appealsp. 16
Aquino, Corazonp. 17
Arab Charter on Human Rightsp. 17
Aristotlep. 18
Artistsp. 19
Assemblyp. 20
Associationp. 21
Asylump. 22
Augustine, St.p. 23
Aung San Suu Kyip. 23
Awards and Prizesp. 24
Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisonersp. 27
Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyersp. 28
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officialsp. 29
Beccaria, Cesarep. 30
Bills of Rightsp. 30
Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonmentp. 31
Bunche, Ralphp. 32
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islamp. 35
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedomsp. 36
Capital Punishmentp. 37
Carter, James Earlp. 38
Center for Human Rightsp. 38
Charter of Paris for a New Europep. 39
Charter of the United Nationsp. 40
Charter 77 (Czechoslovakia)p. 41
Childrenp. 42
Cicero, Marcus Tulliusp. 44
Civil Rightsp. 44
Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officialsp. 45
Collective Rightsp. 46
Commission on Human Rightsp. 47
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Womenp. 49
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discriminationp. 50
Communicationp. 50
Compensationp. 51
Complaintsp. 52
Consciencep. 54
Constitutional Rightsp. 54
Constitutionalismp. 56
Convention against Discrimination in Educationp. 57
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishmentp. 58
Convention Concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organizep. 59
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritagep. 59
Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Othersp. 61
Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriagesp. 62
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effectsp. 62
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Womenp. 63
Convention on the International Right of Correctionp. 65
Convention on the Political Rights of Womenp. 66
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocidep. 66
Convention on the Rights of the Childp. 67
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugeesp. 68
Counselp. 70
Crimes against Humanityp. 71
Cultural Rightsp. 72
Declaration of Alma Ata (Asian Press)p. 75
Declaration of Alma Ata (Health)p. 76
Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Powerp. 76
Declaration of Independence (United States)p. 77
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France)p. 78
Declaration of the Rights of the Childp. 79
Declaration on Fundamental Principles Concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to Warp. 80
Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nationsp. 81
Declaration on Social and Legal Principles Relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationallyp. 82
Declaration on Social Progress and Developmentp. 83
Declaration on Territorial Asylump. 85
Declaration on the Control of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abusep. 85
Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Beliefp. 86
Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discriminationp. 87
Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Womenp. 88
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Womenp. 89
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoplesp. 90
Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who Are Not Nationals of the Country in Which They Livep. 91
Declaration on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear and Thermo-Nuclear Weaponsp. 92
Declaration on the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoplesp. 93
Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishmentp. 93
Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearancep. 94
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflictp. 95
Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedomsp. 96
Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peacep. 97
Declaration on the Right to Developmentp. 98
Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Personsp. 99
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minoritiesp. 100
Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankindp. 101
Defenders of Human Rightsp. 102
Democracyp. 103
Deportationp. 104
Derogationp. 105
Detentionp. 106
Developmentp. 107
Die, Right top. 107
Dignityp. 108
Diplomats and Consulsp. 109
Disabled Personsp. 110
Disappearancep. 111
Discriminationp. 112
Doctors without Bordersp. 114
Domestic Violencep. 114
Drugsp. 115
Due Process of Lawp. 117
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)p. 119
Economic Rightsp. 120
Educationp. 121
Enforcementp. 123
Environmentp. 124
Equalityp. 125
Equality of Armsp. 127
Erga Omnesp. 127
European Commission of Human Rightsp. 128
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishmentp. 129
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedomsp. 130
European Court of Human Rightsp. 131
European Social Charterp. 132
Exhaustion of Remediesp. 133
Expressionp. 134
Expulsionp. 135
Extraditionp. 136
Fair Trialp. 139
Familiesp. 140
Fang Lizhip. 142
Federalismp. 142
Foodp. 143
Forced Evictionp. 144
Forced Laborp. 145
Forefrontp. 146
Freedom Housep. 147
Fundamental Rightsp. 147
Gandhi, Mohandas K.p. 151
Geneva Conventionsp. 152
Genocidep. 153
Grotius, Hugop. 154
Guidelines for Action on Human Resources Development in the Field of Disability (Tallinn Guidelines)p. 155
Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (Riyadh Guidelines)p. 156
Habeas Corpusp. 159
Havel, Vaclavp. 160
Healthp. 161
Helsinki Final Actp. 162
High Commissioner for Human Rightsp. 163
High Commissioner for Refugeesp. 164
Homosexualsp. 165
Hostagesp. 166
Housingp. 167
Human Rightsp. 168
Human Rights Committeep. 171
Human Rights Internetp. 171
Human Rights Watchp. 172
Immigrantsp. 175
Impunityp. 176
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Conventionp. 178
Indigenous Peoplesp. 179
Informationp. 180
Institute for Global Communicationsp. 181
Inter-American Charter of Social Guaranteesp. 182
Inter-American Commission of Womenp. 183
Inter-American Commission on Human Rightsp. 183
Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Civil Rights to Womenp. 185
Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Political Rights to Womenp. 185
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Womenp. 186
Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torturep. 187
Inter-American Court of Human Rightsp. 188
International Bill of Human Rightsp. 189
International Commission of Juristsp. 190
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discriminationp. 191
International Court of Justice (World Court)p. 192
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rightsp. 193
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, First Optional Protocolp. 195
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Second Optional Protocol, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penaltyp. 195
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsp. 196
International Criminal Courtp. 197
International Helsinki Federation for Human Rightsp. 199
International Human Rights Instrumentsp. 199
International Labor Organizationp. 201
International Lawp. 201
International League for Human Rightsp. 202
International Peace Bureaup. 203
Internet Resourcesp. 203
Inviolable Rightsp. 204
Jefferson, Thomasp. 207
Judicial Independencep. 208
Judicial Reviewp. 209
Jus Cogensp. 210
Justicep. 211
Kampala Declaration on Human Rightsp. 215
King, Martin Luther, Jr.p. 216
Languagep. 219
Las Casas, Bartolome dep. 220
Law Enforcementp. 221
Lawyers Committee for Human Rightsp. 222
Libertyp. 223
Lifep. 224
Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsp. 225
Limitationsp. 226
Locke, Johnp. 228
Magna Cartap. 231
Majority Rulep. 232
Mandela, Nelsonp. 233
Marriagep. 233
Mason, Georgep. 234
Maternityp. 235
Menchu, Rigobertap. 236
Military Personnelp. 237
Mill, John Stuartp. 238
Minoritiesp. 238
Monitoring Compliancep. 240
Movementp. 241
Namesp. 245
Nationalityp. 246
Natural Resourcesp. 247
Natural Rightsp. 248
Ngugi wa Thiong'op. 249
Nongovernmental Organizationsp. 250
Normsp. 251
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)p. 252
Ombudsmenp. 255
Opinionp. 256
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europep. 257
Oxfam Internationalp. 258
Paine, Thomasp. 261
Participatory Rightsp. 262
Pax Christi Internationalp. 263
Peacep. 263
Peace Brigades Internationalp. 264
Peoples' Rightsp. 265
Perez Esquivel, Adolfop. 266
Personalityp. 266
Petitionp. 267
Physicians for Human Rightsp. 268
Platop. 269
Pluralismp. 269
Political Rightsp. 270
The Pressp. 271
Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, Particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishmentp. 273
Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-Legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executionsp. 274
Prisonersp. 274
Privacyp. 276
Proclamation of Teheranp. 277
Project Dianap. 278
Propertyp. 278
Proportionalityp. 279
Punishmentp. 281
Race Discriminationp. 283
Ramos-Horta, Josep. 284
Ramphal, Shridathp. 285
Ratificationp. 285
Red Cross and Red Crescentp. 286
Refoulementp. 287
Refugeesp. 288
Regional Human Rights Systemsp. 289
Rehabilitationp. 291
Religionp. 291
Remediesp. 293
Reporting Violationsp. 295
Resolution 1503 Procedurep. 296
Retroactive Lawsp. 298
Rightsp. 299
Rights Internationalp. 300
Rio Declaration on Environment and Developmentp. 301
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Courtp. 302
Romero, Oscarp. 303
Roosevelt, Eleanorp. 303
Rousseau, Jean-Jacquesp. 304
Rule of Lawp. 305
Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of Their Libertyp. 306
Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penaltyp. 309
Sakharov, Andreip. 310
Securityp. 311
Self-Determinationp. 312
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutionsp. 313
Separation of Church and Statep. 314
Sex Discriminationp. 315
Shcharansky, Anatolyp. 317
Slaveryp. 317
Slavery Conventionp. 318
Social Rightsp. 319
Sovereigntyp. 320
Speechp. 321
Spinoza, Benedictp. 323
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules)p. 323
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisonersp. 325
Standard of Livingp. 326
Stanton, Elizabeth Cadyp. 327
Statelessnessp. 328
Studentsp. 329
Subcommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rightsp. 330
Summary Executionsp. 331
Suzman, Helenp. 332
Teachersp. 335
Teresa, Motherp. 336
Territorial Jurisdictionp. 337
Terrorismp. 338
Thomas Aquinas, St.p. 339
Thoughtp. 340
Timerman, Jacobop. 341
Tolerancep. 341
Torturep. 342
Treatiesp. 344
Tubman, Harrietp. 345
Tutu, Desmondp. 345
United Nationsp. 347
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)p. 349
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)p. 349
United Nations Program of Technical Cooperation in the Field of Human Rightsp. 350
Universal Copyright Conventionp. 351
Universal Declaration of Human Rightsp. 352
Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutritionp. 353
Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rightsp. 355
Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlementsp. 357
Victimsp. 358
Vienna Declaration and Program of Actionp. 359
Violationsp. 361
Votingp. 362
Walesa, Lechp. 365
Wallenberg, Raoulp. 366
Warp. 366
War Crimesp. 367
Weaponsp. 368
Wei Jingshengp. 370
Welfarep. 370
Wiesel, Eliep. 371
Wiesenthal, Simonp. 372
Wollstonecraft, Maryp. 373
Womenp. 373
Workersp. 375
Working Groupsp. 376
World Council of Churchesp. 377
World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Childrenp. 377
World Health Organizationp. 378
Youthp. 381
Indexp. 384