Cover image for Direct broadcast satellite communications : an MPEG enabled service
Title:
Direct broadcast satellite communications : an MPEG enabled service
Author:
Mead, Donald C.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xv, 300 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780201695823
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

With its higher power and superior video and audio quality, Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) communications is proliferating worldwide. Many new DBS systems are evolving and with the introduction of HDTV, DBS technology is predicted to become even more prevalent.

Written by a leading DBS authority, this book is required reading for anyone involved in this burgeoning field. This comprehensive reference describes the history and structure of DBS systems, the regulatory environment, the subsystems that support it, and the underlying compression technology that makes it commercially feasible. Direct Broadcast Satellite Communications can be read as a broad overview of DBS systems or can serve as a detailed technical description.

In particular, the author thoroughly explains how MPEG compression standards are used to implement modern satellite broadcast systems. You will find complete information on key topics such as:

International and FCC regulations Radio frequency components of DBS systems, including the shaped reflector antenna Forward error correction, looking at block codes, interleaving, and Viterbi decoding The use of cryptography for conditional access to subscription services MPEG system and transport layer MPEG-2 video and audio compression Connecting terrestrial systems and DBS uplinks The Integrated Receiver Decoder In addition, the book explores future developments, including the Spaceway and the Global Broadcast Service, as well as the MPEG-4 compression standards. Numerous case studies involving DIRECTV(TM) and the European DVB standard appear throughout the book. For other books in this series, see http://www.awl.com/cseng/wirelessseries/


Author Notes

Dr. Donald C. Mead, MSEE-Stanford University and PhD in EE/Communication Theory-UCLA, has been an innovator in digital compression, including its application to Direct Broadcast Satellite development, since the inception of DBS systems. As head of Hughes Aircraft's MPEG delegation, Dr. Mead was the driving force supporting the concept and launch of DIRECTV. He is currently a consultant in the telecommunications field.


Excerpts

Excerpts

This book, intended for electronics and communications engineers, describes how all of the individual developments of today's Direct Broadcast Satellites (DBS) came together to provide an overall communication system capable of delivering more than 200 audio-video services. The state-of-the-art in communications technology is changing so rapidly that it is difficult for anyone associated with electronic communications to remain current. The developments in compression, in particular, are proceeding at a pace that exceeds even the staggering rate of Moore's law, which predicts the increasing capabilities of semiconductors that underlie almost all current technologies. This book starts with a specific communication system, Direct Broadcast Satellite services, and then shows how the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 standards were used to implement this system. Thus, the book provides the reader with not just an MPEG or communications satellite discussion, but a complete discussion of how the MPEG standards are used to implement a modern satellite broadcast system. Organization of the Book The book is divided into the following five parts: Part 1 provides an overview of DBS. This includes Chapter 1, History of Communication Satellites; Chapter 2, Regulatory Framework, including international and Federal Communication Commission regulations; and Chapter 3, Overview of the DBS System. Part 2 describes the key subsystems for DBS. These include Chapter 4, Key Elements of the Radio Frequency Subsystem; Chapter 5, Forward Error Correction; and Chapter 6, Conditional Access. Part 3 describes the key elements of the MPEG-2 international standards as they apply to DBS. It includes Chapter 7, Systems; Chapter 8, Video Compression; and Chapter 9, Audio Compression. Part 4 describes the terrestrial subsystems that connect the customer to the satellite: Chapter 10, DBS Uplink Facilities and Chapter 11, Integrated Receiver Decoder. Part 5 explores some future digital satellite services and technologies. These include Chapter 12, Spaceway and the Global Broadcast Service and Chapter 13, The Future of Compression: MPEG-4 Standard. Using This Book This book is intended for a diverse group of readers, ranging from those who want to obtain a general overview of Direct Broadcast Satellite to those who want to delve deeply into one or all of the technical facets of DBS systems. To accommodate this diversity, sections within the book are annotated by an icon system: No icon means the material is suitable for all readers. The triangle icon means the section contains some technically difficult material. A square icon means the section contains serious technical material and probably should only be read by those desiring to gain in-depth knowledge of the subject. Certain reference materials, which make the book more self-contained for communications engineers, are included in the appendices. Technical decisions made by DIRECTV(TM) and the international Digital Video Broadcast standard are used as case studies throughout the book. 0201695820P04062001 Excerpted from Direct Broadcast Satellite Communications: An MPEG Enabled Service by Donald C. Mead All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

Dr. Leonardo Chiariglione
Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Part 1 Overviewp. 1
1 History of Communication Satellitesp. 3
1.1 Backgroundp. 3
1.2 Arthur C. Clarke's Visionp. 6
1.3 The Early Days of Satellite Communicationsp. 8
1.4 SYNCOMp. 10
1.4.1 Stabilizationp. 10
1.4.2 Attitude Control and Orbital Positioningp. 10
1.4.3 Powerp. 11
1.4.4 Orbital Injectionp. 11
1.4.5 Communication Antennap. 11
1.5 The Early Commercial Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellites: INTELSAT I and IIp. 14
1.6 The Evolution of Communication Satellitesp. 15
1.7 The Hughes Direct Broadcast Satellitesp. 17
1.8 Frequency Bandsp. 18
1.9 Summaryp. 19
2 Regulatory Frameworkp. 21
2.1 The 1977 World Administrative Radio Council and 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Councilp. 21
2.2 Federal Communications Commission Licensingp. 22
2.3 Recovery and Reallocation of Spectrump. 23
3 An Overview of the DBS Communication Systemp. 27
3.1 Overviewp. 27
3.2 Multiple Access and Multiplexingp. 29
3.3 Transponder Power and Configurationp. 31
3.4 The Throughputp. 31
3.5 Overall Throughputp. 32
3.6 More Services per Orbital Slotp. 33
3.7 Link Analysisp. 34
3.8 Degradation Because of Rainp. 38
3.9 Energy Dispersalp. 39
Part 2 The Key Subsystems and Design Decisionsp. 41
4 Key Elements of the Radio Frequency Subsystemp. 43
4.1 Introductionp. 43
4.2 The Shaped Reflector Antennap. 43
4.3 Modulation and Demodulationp. 46
4.4 The Low-Noise Blockp. 48
4.5 Traveling Wave Tube Amplifierp. 50
5 Forward Error Correctionp. 53
5.1 What Is Error Correction?p. 53
5.1.1 Code Ratep. 55
5.2 Types of Codesp. 55
5.2.1 Block Codesp. 55
5.2.2 Convolutional Codesp. 59
5.2.3 Code Interleavingp. 62
5.2.4 Concatenated Codesp. 63
5.2.5 Code Performancep. 64
5.3 Block Codes: Cyclic Codesp. 66
5.3.1 Binary Cyclic Codesp. 66
5.3.2 BCH Codesp. 69
5.4 Reed-Solomon Codesp. 69
5.5 Interleaverp. 71
5.6 Convolutional Codes/Viterbi Decodingp. 75
5.6.1 Viterbi Decodingp. 79
5.6.2 Viterbi Algorithmp. 80
5.7 Performancep. 84
5.7.1 Inner (Convolutional) Codep. 84
5.7.2 Rate 1/2 Codesp. 87
5.7.3 Punctured Codesp. 89
5.7.4 Performance of (3, 2, 7) Punctured Code and Concatenated Codep. 91
6 Conditional Accessp. 95
6.1 Objectives of a CA System for DBSp. 95
6.2 Types of Attackersp. 96
6.3 Some Encryption Preliminariesp. 96
6.4 Mathematical Preliminariesp. 97
6.4.1 The Euclidean Algorithmp. 98
6.4.2 Extended Euclid's Algorithmp. 98
6.5 Cryptographic Algorithmsp. 101
6.5.1 The Data Encryption Standardp. 101
6.5.2 Public Key Cryptographyp. 106
6.5.3 One-Way Hash Functionsp. 108
6.5.4 Digital Signaturesp. 108
6.6 Generic CA Systemp. 109
Part 3 MPEG International Standardsp. 113
Forewordp. 114
Introductionp. 115
7 MPEG 2 Systemsp. 119
7.1 The Role of MPEG Systemsp. 119
7.2 Transport Streamp. 120
7.2.1 Packet Lengthp. 122
7.2.2 Transport Stream Ratep. 123
7.2.3 Transport Stream Packet Headerp. 123
7.2.4 Timing Modelp. 125
7.2.5 Conditional Accessp. 125
7.2.6 Multiplex-wide Operationsp. 125
7.2.7 Transport Stream System Target Decoderp. 126
7.3 Individual Stream Operations (PES Packet Layer)p. 126
7.3.1 Demultiplexingp. 126
7.3.2 Synchronizationp. 126
7.3.3 Relation to Compression Layerp. 127
7.3.4 PES Packetsp. 127
7.4 Program Specific Informationp. 130
7.4.1 Common Field Typesp. 130
7.4.2 Program Association Tablep. 131
7.4.3 Program Map Tablep. 132
7.4.4 Conditional Access Tablep. 135
7.4.5 Network Information Tablep. 135
7.4.6 Syntax of the Private Sectionp. 136
7.5 Adaptation Fieldp. 136
8 MPEG 2 Video Compressionp. 139
8.1 The Need for Video Compressionp. 139
8.2 Profiles and Levelsp. 140
8.3 Digital Video Primerp. 140
8.3.1 Colorp. 141
8.3.2 Interlacep. 141
8.3.3 Chroma Subsamplingp. 142
8.4 Structure of MPEG 2 Coded Videop. 144
8.4.1 Video Sequencep. 144
8.4.2 Group of Picturesp. 146
8.4.3 Picture (Frame)p. 148
8.5 Detailed MPEG 2 Coding of Picturesp. 151
8.5.1 I Picturesp. 151
8.5.2 P Picturesp. 155
8.5.3 B Picturesp. 158
8.5.4 Coded Block Patternp. 159
8.6 The Video Decoding Processp. 159
8.6.1 Recovering the 8-by-8 Pixel Blocksp. 159
8.6.2 Variable Length Decodingp. 160
8.6.3 Inverse Scanp. 160
8.6.4 Inverse Quantizationp. 161
8.6.5 Inverse DCTp. 163
8.6.6 Motion Compensationp. 163
8.6.7 Skipped Macroblocksp. 164
8.7 Prediction Modesp. 165
8.7.1 Special Prediction Modesp. 166
8.7.2 Field and Frame Predictionp. 166
8.7.3 Motion Vectorsp. 167
9 MPEG 1 Audio Compressionp. 171
9.1 MPEG Audio Compression Overviewp. 172
9.1.1 Encodingp. 172
9.1.2 Decodingp. 173
9.2 Description of the Coded Audio Bitstreamp. 173
9.2.1 Headerp. 174
9.2.2 error_checkp. 175
9.2.3 audio_data, Layer IIp. 176
9.2.4 ancillary_datap. 176
9.3 Detailed Encoderp. 177
9.3.1 The Filterbanksp. 177
9.3.2 Psychoacoustic Modelp. 179
9.3.3 Bit Allocationp. 184
9.3.4 Formattingp. 190
9.4 The Audio Decoding Processp. 190
9.4.1 Generalp. 191
9.4.2 Layer II Decodingp. 191
Part 4 Ground Subsystemsp. 197
10 DBS Uplink Facilitiesp. 199
10.1 Existing Uplink Facilitiesp. 199
10.2 Constituents of an Uplink Facilityp. 201
10.3 Key Uplink Subsystemsp. 201
10.3.1 Compressor/Multiplexerp. 201
10.3.2 The Modulatorp. 203
10.4 Statistical Multiplexingp. 205
11 Integrated Receiver Decoderp. 207
11.1 IRD Componentsp. 207
11.2 The IRD Architecturep. 209
11.3 Electronic Program Guidep. 211
11.4 Menu Selectionsp. 211
11.5 Multiple TV Setsp. 215
Part 5 The Futurep. 219
12 Spaceway and the Global Broadcast Servicep. 221
12.1 Spaceway Overviewp. 222
12.2 Global Spacewayp. 224
12.3 The Global Broadcast Servicep. 228
13 Intelligent Compression: MPEG 4p. 229
13.1 Raster and Waveform Emulation versus Symbolic Compressionp. 229
13.1.1 Example--Videop. 230
13.1.2 Example--Speechp. 230
13.2 MPEG 4: The First Steps Toward Symbolic Compressionp. 232
13.2.1 Backgroundp. 232
13.2.2 The Enabling Technology for Multimediap. 232
13.3 MPEG 4 Overviewp. 233
13.3.1 Representation of Primitive AVOsp. 233
13.3.2 Composition of AVOsp. 234
13.3.3 Multiplex and Synchronization of AVOsp. 235
13.3.4 Interaction with AVOsp. 235
13.4 Technical Description of the MPEG 4 Standardp. 235
13.4.1 Coding of Audio Objectsp. 237
13.4.2 Coding of Visual Objectsp. 238
13.5 Conclusionp. 240
Appendicesp. 241
A Performance Degradation Because of Rainp. 243
B QPSK Modulation and Demodulationp. 255
C Algebraic Preliminariesp. 261
D BCH Code Detailsp. 265
E Cyclical Redundancy Codep. 273
F A5 Matrixp. 279
G Operators, Mnemonics, Abbreviationsp. 281
Glossaryp. 287
Indexp. 293