Cover image for Microwave radio transmission design guide
Title:
Microwave radio transmission design guide
Author:
Manning, Trevor.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xvii, 231 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781580530316
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
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Status
Central Library TK7876 .M354 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

This reference provides advice and instruction for the planning and detailed design of microwave radio transmission systems. It should be useful for readers planning SDH/SONET broadband networks, backhaul for mobile radio networks such as GSM, transmission links for TETRA networks, TV and utility networks, and Wireless Local Loop networks. The author provides practical guidelines based on hands-on experience. Complex mathematics is avoided and fundamental concepts are explained in the context of real-world applications to encourage a deeper understanding of microwave radio transmission. In addition, the volume serves as a guide to frequency planning for radio networks and provides intelligence on digital radio equipment characteristics and fading in radio systems.


Author Notes

Trevor Manning holds a B.Sc. degree in Electronics Engineering from Natal (Durban) University in South Africa.

Manning is Technical Director at Digital Microwave Corporation in Coventry, UK.

050


Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 What is Microwave Radio?p. 1
1.1.1 RF Spectrump. 1
1.1.2 The International Telecommunications Unionp. 2
1.2 Why Radio?p. 3
1.3 Microwave Applicationsp. 6
1.3.1 Fixed-Link Operatorp. 7
1.3.2 Utility Private Networkp. 7
1.3.3 TV Distribution Networkp. 9
1.3.4 Mobile Backhaul Networkp. 9
1.4 Planning Processp. 13
2 Link Planningp. 15
2.1 Establish the Planning Briefp. 15
2.2 Initial Planningp. 17
2.2.1 Site Locationp. 17
2.2.2 Network Diagramp. 18
2.2.3 Initial Mapworkp. 19
2.2.4 Existing Infrastructure and Repeater Sitesp. 20
2.2.5 Route Mapp. 21
2.3 Path Profilesp. 21
2.4 Radio Repeatersp. 25
2.4.1 Passive Repeatersp. 25
2.4.2 Active Repeatersp. 32
2.5 Radio Surveysp. 35
2.5.1 Path Surveyp. 35
2.5.2 Site Surveysp. 37
2.6 Frequency Considerationsp. 39
Referencesp. 40
3 Reliability (Quality) Standardsp. 41
3.1 Introductionp. 41
3.2 What Do I Aim For?p. 41
3.3 Hypothetical Reference Pathp. 42
3.4 Unavailability Standardsp. 43
3.4.1 Causes of Unavailabilityp. 44
3.4.2 Unavailability Objectivesp. 47
3.4.3 Apportionment of Objectivesp. 49
3.4.4 Practical Advicep. 49
3.5 Performance Standardsp. 50
3.5.1 Causes of Outagep. 50
3.5.2 Performance Objectivesp. 51
Referencesp. 58
4 Radio Equipment Characteristicsp. 59
4.1 Introductionp. 59
4.2 Configurationsp. 59
4.2.1 All Indoorp. 59
4.2.2 Split Unit (RF Outdoors)p. 60
4.2.3 All Outdoorsp. 60
4.2.4 Basic Radio System Block Diagramp. 62
4.3 Primary Multiplexp. 63
4.3.1 Samplingp. 63
4.3.2 Quantizingp. 66
4.3.3 Compandingp. 66
4.3.4 Codingp. 67
4.3.5 Time Multiplexingp. 68
4.3.6 Primary Multiplex Equipmentp. 68
4.4 Muldem (Secondary Multiplexing and Services)p. 69
4.4.1 Multiplexing and Demultiplexingp. 69
4.4.2 Overhead Channelsp. 69
4.4.3 Baseband Filteringp. 72
4.4.4 Basic Muldem Block Diagramp. 72
4.5 Modemp. 73
4.5.1 Modulatorsp. 73
4.5.2 Demodulatorsp. 75
4.5.3 Basic Modem Block Diagramp. 76
4.6 Transceiversp. 76
4.6.1 Transmittersp. 78
4.6.2 Receiversp. 78
4.6.3 Basic Transceiver Block Diagramp. 78
4.7 Branchingp. 78
4.7.1 Duplexerp. 78
4.7.2 Hotstandby Branchingp. 80
4.7.3 Frequency Diversity Branchingp. 81
4.7.4 Space Diversity Branchingp. 81
4.7.5 Hybrid Diversity Branchingp. 82
4.8 Equipment Characteristicsp. 82
4.8.1 RF Detailsp. 83
4.8.2 Transmitter Characteristicsp. 84
4.8.3 Receiver Characteristicsp. 85
4.8.4 C/I Ratiop. 85
4.8.5 Digital Interfacesp. 86
4.8.6 Management and Alarm Interfacep. 86
4.9 Power Detailsp. 86
4.9.1 Input Voltage Rangep. 86
4.9.2 Power Consumptionp. 87
4.10 Environmental Considerationsp. 87
4.11 Equipment Type Approvalsp. 87
Referencesp. 87
5 Microwave Propagationp. 89
5.1 Atmospheric Effects on Propagationp. 89
5.1.1 Refractive Indexp. 89
5.1.2 Radio Refractivityp. 90
5.1.3 Refractivity Gradientp. 90
5.1.4 Effective Earth Radiusp. 91
5.1.5 Anomolous Propagationp. 92
5.1.6 Physical Atmospheric Conditionsp. 94
5.1.7 Modified Refractivityp. 98
5.2 Free-Space Propagationp. 101
5.3 Power Budgetp. 103
5.3.1 Receiver Thresholdp. 103
5.3.2 Nominal Receive Levelp. 104
5.3.3 Fade Marginp. 104
5.4 Fading on Microwave Linksp. 104
5.4.1 Atmospheric Absorption Including Rainp. 105
5.4.2 Diffraction Fadingp. 106
5.4.3 Refractive Fadingp. 114
Referencesp. 117
6 Antenna Considerationsp. 119
6.1 Electromagnetic Theory Fundamentalsp. 119
6.1.1 Periodp. 120
6.1.2 Wavelengthp. 120
6.1.3 Velocity of Propagationp. 120
6.1.4 Polarizationp. 121
6.1.5 Power Densityp. 121
6.2 Antenna Characteristicsp. 121
6.2.1 Gainp. 122
6.2.2 Sidelobesp. 123
6.2.3 Front-to-Back Ratiop. 123
6.2.4 Beamwidthp. 124
6.2.5 Polarizationp. 124
6.2.6 Radiation Patternp. 124
6.2.7 VSWRp. 125
6.2.8 Near-Field, Far-Fieldp. 127
6.3 Types of Microwave Antennasp. 127
6.3.1 Grid Antennap. 128
6.3.2 Solid Parabolicp. 129
6.3.3 Radomesp. 131
6.4 Feeder Characteristicsp. 131
6.4.1 Coaxial Cablep. 132
6.4.2 Waveguidep. 134
6.5 Antenna System Accessoriesp. 136
6.5.1 Pressurizersp. 136
6.5.2 Plumbingp. 137
6.5.3 Earth Kitsp. 137
6.5.4 Cable Clampsp. 137
6.6 Installation Practicesp. 138
Referencesp. 139
7 Frequency Planningp. 141
7.1 What Is Interference?p. 141
7.2 Causes of Interferencep. 141
7.2.1 Internal Causesp. 141
7.2.2 External Causesp. 142
7.3 Types of Interferencep. 142
7.3.1 Variable C/Ip. 142
7.3.2 Constant C/Ip. 142
7.4 Effects of Interferencep. 143
7.4.1 Effect on Analog Receiversp. 143
7.4.2 Effect on Digital Receiversp. 143
7.5 Interference Conditionsp. 149
7.5.1 Digital to Digitalp. 149
7.5.2 Analog to Digitalp. 149
7.5.3 Digital to Analogp. 150
7.6 Frequency Channel Planningp. 150
7.6.1 Basic ITU Arrangementsp. 150
7.6.2 A and B Sites (High/Low Arrangements)p. 151
7.6.3 Alternate Polarizationp. 153
7.6.4 Frequency Diversity Allocationsp. 153
7.6.5 Interleaving of Channelsp. 155
7.6.6 Spectral Efficiencyp. 155
7.7 Frequency Re-Usep. 157
7.7.1 Two-Frequency (One-Pair) Planp. 157
7.7.2 Four-Frequency (Two-Frequency Pair) Planp. 159
7.7.3 Six-Frequency (Three-Pair) Planp. 160
7.7.4 Practical Interference Examplep. 160
7.7.5 Overshoot from Back-to-Back Antenna Systemsp. 170
7.8 Antenna Considerationsp. 175
7.9 Intermodulation Productsp. 175
Referencesp. 176
8 Link Designp. 177
8.1 Introductionp. 177
8.2 Multipath Fading Mechanismp. 177
8.2.1 Multipath Channel Transfer Functionp. 177
8.2.2 Frequency Responsep. 179
8.2.3 Minimum and Nonminimum Phase Conditionsp. 181
8.2.4 Group Delayp. 183
8.2.5 Mathematical Modelsp. 183
8.3 Multipath Fading Outagesp. 184
8.3.1 Flat Fading Outagep. 185
8.3.2 Outage Predictions: Barnett-Vigants Modelp. 186
8.3.3 Outage Predictions: ITU 530-7 Methodp. 188
8.3.4 Selective Fading Outagep. 189
8.4 Rain Fading Outagep. 192
8.5 Total Outagep. 194
8.6 Countermeasuresp. 194
8.6.1 System Techniquesp. 194
8.6.2 Nondiversity Techniquesp. 195
8.6.3 Diversity Techniquesp. 197
8.7 Reflection Analysisp. 199
Referencesp. 201
9 Synchronous Digital Hierarchyp. 203
9.1 What Is Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy?p. 203
9.2 Synchronous Networks (SDH/SONET)p. 205
9.2.1 What Is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy?p. 205
9.2.2 SDH Structures (Multiplexing)p. 205
9.2.3 SDH Equipmentp. 209
9.2.4 SDH Networksp. 210
9.2.5 Synchronizationp. 212
9.2.6 Benefits of SDHp. 214
Referencesp. 215
List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 217
About the Authorp. 221
Indexp. 223

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