Cover image for Microchip fabrication : a practical guide to semiconductor processing
Title:
Microchip fabrication : a practical guide to semiconductor processing
Author:
Van Zant, Peter.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Fourth edition.
Publication Information:
New York : McGraw-Hill, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xvi, 632 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780071356367
Format :
Book

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TK7871.85 .V36 2000 4TH. EDITION Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Chapter 1. The Semiconductor Industryp. 1
Birth of an Industryp. 1
The Solid State Erap. 3
Integrated Circuits (I.C.'s)p. 4
Process and Product Trendsp. 5
Industry Organizationp. 11
Stages of Manufacturingp. 13
The Development Decade (1951-1960)p. 16
The Processing Decade (1961-1970)p. 18
The Production Decade (1971-1980)p. 19
The Automation Decade (1981-1990)p. 20
The Production Era (1991-2000)p. 20
The Nano Erap. 22
Key Termsp. 23
Review Questionsp. 23
Referencesp. 23
Chapter 2. Semiconductor Materials and Process Chemicalsp. 25
Atomic Structurep. 26
The Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 27
Electrical Conductionp. 29
Dielectrics and Capacitorsp. 30
Intrinsic Semiconductorsp. 31
Doped Semiconductorsp. 31
Electron and Hole Conductionp. 34
Carrier Mobilityp. 36
Semiconductor Production Materialsp. 37
Semiconducting Compoundsp. 37
Silicon Germaniump. 38
Ferroelectric Materialsp. 38
Process Chemicalsp. 39
States of Matterp. 41
Plasma Statep. 42
Properties of Matterp. 42
Pressure and Vacuump. 43
Acids, Alkalis, and Solventsp. 45
The Safety Material Data Sheetp. 47
Key Terms and Conceptsp. 47
Review Questionsp. 47
Referencesp. 48
Chapter 3. Manufacturing Wafersp. 49
Introductionp. 50
Semiconductor Silicon Preparationp. 50
Crystalline Materialsp. 51
Crystal Orientationp. 52
Crystal Growthp. 53
Crystal and Wafer Qualityp. 57
Wafer Preparationp. 59
Wafer Slicingp. 61
Wafer Markingp. 62
Rough Polishp. 62
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)p. 63
Backside Processingp. 64
Double-Sided Polishingp. 64
Edge Grinding and Polishingp. 64
Wafer Evaluationp. 65
Oxidationp. 65
Packagingp. 65
Epi on Silicon Wafersp. 66
Key Termsp. 66
Review Questionsp. 66
Referencesp. 67
Chapter 4. Overview of Wafer Fabricationp. 69
Goal of Wafer Fabricationp. 70
Wafer Terminologyp. 70
Basic Wafer-Fabrication Operationsp. 71
Manufacturing Semiconductor Devices and Circuitsp. 75
Example Fabrication Processp. 79
Chip Terminologyp. 82
Wafer Sortp. 82
Packagingp. 85
Summaryp. 85
Key Concepts and Termsp. 86
Review Questionsp. 86
Referencesp. 86
Chapter 5. Contamination Controlp. 87
Introductionp. 88
The Problemp. 88
Contamination Sourcesp. 92
Clean-Room Constructionp. 101
Clean-Room Materials and Suppliesp. 114
Clean-Room Maintenancep. 114
Wafer Surface Cleaningp. 115
Key Concepts and Termsp. 130
Review Questionsp. 130
Referencesp. 131
Chapter 6. Process Yieldsp. 133
Yield Measurement Pointsp. 133
Accumulative Wafer-Fabrication Yieldp. 134
Wafer-Fabrication Yield Limitersp. 136
Wafer-Sort Yield Factorsp. 141
Assembly and Final Test Yieldsp. 149
Overall Process Yieldsp. 149
Key Concepts and Termsp. 151
Review Questionsp. 151
Referencesp. 152
Chapter 7. Oxidationp. 153
Silicon Dioxide Layer Usesp. 154
Thermal Oxidation Mechanismsp. 157
Thermal Oxidation Methodsp. 163
Horizontal Tube Furnacesp. 164
Vertical Tube Furnacesp. 177
Fast Ramp Furnacesp. 179
Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP)p. 179
High-Pressure Oxidationp. 183
Oxidation Processesp. 185
Postoxidation Evaluationp. 186
Anodic Oxidationp. 188
Thermal Nitridationp. 188
Key Concepts and Termsp. 189
Review Questionsp. 189
Referencesp. 190
Chapter 8. Basic Patterning--Surface Preparation to Exposurep. 193
Introductionp. 194
Overview of the Photomasking Processp. 195
Ten-Step Processp. 197
Basic Photoresist Chemistryp. 198
Photoresist Performance Factorsp. 203
Comparison of Positive and Negative Resistsp. 207
Physical Properties of Photoresistsp. 209
Photomasking Processesp. 213
Surface Preparationp. 213
Photoresist Spinningp. 217
Soft Bakep. 222
Alignment and Exposurep. 227
Aligner System Comparisonp. 239
Key Concepts and Termsp. 240
Review Questionsp. 240
Referencesp. 240
Chapter 9. Basic Patterning--Developing to Final Inspectionp. 243
Developmentp. 243
Hard Bakep. 250
Develop Inspectp. 252
Etchp. 256
Wet Etchingp. 256
Dry Etchp. 263
Resist Strippingp. 270
Final Inspectionp. 274
Mask Makingp. 274
Summaryp. 277
Key Concepts and Termsp. 278
Review Questionsp. 278
Referencesp. 279
Chapter 10. Advanced Photolithography Processesp. 281
Optical Resolution Controlp. 283
Other Exposure Issuesp. 288
Pelliclesp. 292
Surface Problemsp. 294
Antireflective Coatingsp. 295
Planarizationp. 297
Photoresist Process Advancesp. 298
CMP Summaryp. 308
Improving Etch Definitionp. 313
Self-Aligned Structuresp. 314
Etch Profile Controlp. 314
The End of Optical Lithography?p. 315
Key Concepts and Termsp. 316
Review Questionsp. 316
Referencesp. 316
Chapter 11. Dopingp. 319
Definition of a Junctionp. 319
Formation of a Doped Regionp. 320
Formation of a Doped Region and Junction by Diffusionp. 321
Diffusion Process Stepsp. 326
Depositionp. 326
Drive-in-Oxidationp. 335
Introduction to Ion Implantationp. 337
Concept of Ion Implantationp. 340
Ion Implantation Systemp. 340
Dopant Concentration in Implanted Regionsp. 348
Evaluation of Implanted Layersp. 352
Uses of Ion Implantationp. 354
The Future of Dopingp. 355
Key Concepts and Termsp. 356
Review Questionsp. 356
Referencesp. 356
Chapter 12. Depositionp. 359
Introductionp. 359
Chemical Vapor Deposition Basicsp. 363
CVD Process Stepsp. 366
CVD System Typesp. 366
Atmospheric Pressure CVD Systemsp. 367
Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD)p. 371
Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD)p. 373
Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE)p. 376
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)p. 377
Metalorganic CVD (MOCVD)p. 378
Deposited Filmsp. 379
Deposited Semiconductorsp. 380
Epitaxial Siliconp. 380
Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Depositionp. 386
SOS and SOIp. 388
Insulators and Dielectricsp. 389
Conductorsp. 392
Key Concepts and Termsp. 393
Review Questionsp. 393
Referencesp. 393
Chapter 13. Metallizationp. 395
Introductionp. 396
Conductors-Single Level Metalp. 396
Conductors-Multilevel Metal Schemesp. 397
Conductorsp. 398
Metal Film Usesp. 405
Deposition Methodsp. 407
Vacuum Pumpsp. 416
Key Concepts and Termsp. 422
Review Questionsp. 422
Referencesp. 424
Chapter 14. Process and Device Evaluationp. 427
Introductionp. 428
Wafer Electrical Measurementsp. 429
Physical Measurement Methodsp. 434
Layer Thickness Measurementsp. 435
Junction Depthp. 440
Critical Dimensions (CD) and Line Width Measurementsp. 443
Contamination and Defect Detectionp. 446
General Surface Characterizationp. 453
Contamination Identificationp. 454
Device Electrical Measurementsp. 457
Key Concepts and Termsp. 466
Review Questionsp. 467
Referencesp. 467
Chapter 15. The Business of Wafer Fabricationp. 469
Fabrication and Factory Economics Overviewp. 470
Wafer-Fabrication Costsp. 471
Equipmentp. 477
Cost of Ownershipp. 479
Automationp. 480
Factory-Level Automationp. 483
Equipment Standardsp. 485
Statistical Process Control (SPC)p. 487
Inventory Controlp. 492
Line Organizationp. 494
Key Concepts and Termsp. 496
Review Questionsp. 496
Referencesp. 496
Chapter 16. Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Formationp. 499
Semiconductor-Device Formationp. 499
Integrated-Circuit Formationp. 518
Superconductorsp. 529
Microelectromechanical systems (MENS)p. 530
Key Concepts and Termsp. 536
Review Questionsp. 537
Referencesp. 537
Chapter 17. Integrated Circuit Typesp. 539
Introductionp. 539
Circuit Basicsp. 540
Integrated-Circuit Typesp. 542
Wafer Scale Integrationp. 552
The Next Generationp. 553
Key Concepts and Termsp. 554
Review Questionsp. 554
Referencesp. 555
Chapter 18. Packagingp. 557
Introductionp. 557
Chip Characteristicsp. 558
Package Functions and Designp. 560
Overview of Packaging Operationsp. 561
Packaging Processesp. 567
Package Process Flowsp. 584
Package/Bare Die Strategiesp. 585
Package Designp. 586
Package Type/technology Summaryp. 591
Key Concepts and Termsp. 592
Review Questionsp. 592
Referencesp. 592
Glossaryp. 595
Indexp. 615