Cover image for Integration or separation? : a strategy for racial equality
Integration or separation? : a strategy for racial equality
Brooks, Roy L. (Roy Lavon), 1950-
Publication Information:
Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, [1996]

Physical Description:
xi, 348 pages ; 25 cm
Reading Level:
1500 Lexile.

Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
E185.615 .B729 1996 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

On Order



Integrated in principle, segregated in fact: is this the legacy of 50 years of progress in American racial policy? Is there hope for much better? Roy L. Brooks, a professor of law and a writer on matters of race and civil rights, says what few will admit - integration hasn't worked and possibly never will. Equally, he casts doubt on the solution that many African-Americans and mainstream whites have advocated: total separation of the races. This book presents Brooks's strategy for a middle way between the increasingly unworkable extremes of integration and separation.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

Brooks, a legal scholar who spent much of his career arguing for integration, breaks new ground with this powerful case for "limited separation"--an alternative to both integrationist and separatist solutions to American racism. After a detailed review of the history of racial integration in the US in the areas of education, housing, employment, and voting, Brooks demonstrates that despite integrationist efforts, white racism has prevailed and kept African American successes to a painful minimum. The outlook for a separatist solution is no better. According to Brooks's informative review of African American separatist movements throughout US history, such efforts are doomed to fail because of anti-individualistic philosophies and persistence of conflicts among African Americans themselves. Thus, Brooks advances his plan of "limited separation," which builds on the strengths of the African American community (i.e., black churches, schools, and investment from the few elite, successful integrationists) while advocating parallel reforms within the integrationist institutions that would combat white racism. Regardless of the ultimate feasibility of Brooks's plan, the book is valuable for its thorough review of the state of American race relations today and the inadequacy of current solutions. All levels. E. O'Brien; University of Florida

Table of Contents

Racial Integration
Elementary and Secondary Education
Higher Education
Why Integration Has Failed Total Separation
Booker T. WashingtonW. E. B. Du Bois
Marcus Garvey
The Nation of Islam
Emigration to Liberia
Black Towns in the United States
Intra-Racial Conflicts and Racial Romanticism Limited Separation
The Case for a Policy of Limited Separation
Elementary and Secondary Education
Higher Education
Cultural Integration within the Community
Economic Integration within the Community
Political Power Epilogue