Cover image for A guide to the Library of Congress classification
A guide to the Library of Congress classification
Chan, Lois Mai.
Personal Author:
Fifth edition.
Publication Information:
Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1999.
Physical Description:
xviii, 551 pages ; 25 cm.
General Note:
"Based on the fourth edition of Imroth's Guide to the Library of Congress classification."

Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
Z696.U4 C47 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

On Order



The latest edition of this classic work [formerly Immroth's Guide to the Library of Congress Classification (Libraries Unlimited, 1990)] provides you with a basic understanding of the ever-evolving Library of Congress Classification system and its applications. After introducing the classification and giving a brief history of its development, the author presents readers with the general principles, structure, and format of the scheme. She then discusses and illustrates the use of tables. In a chapter new to this edition, Chan provides a general discourse on assigning LC call numbers.

Author Notes

LOIS MAI CHAN is professor of library and information science at the University of Kentucky. She served as Chair of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee, has received ALA's Margaret Mann Citation, and was named a Distinguished Alumna by the Library School at Florida State University, Tallahassee.

Reviews 1

Library Journal Review

Like its predecessors, this complete revision of the fourth edition, entitled Immroth's Guide to the Library of Congress Classification (1990), reflects the changes and developments to the Library of Congress (LC) Classification that have occurred since the previous edition. Starting in 1993, LC began converting its classification data to machine-readable form using the USMARC format. The printed schedules are now available in either print or electronic versions. Another example of continued development is in Class K, especially the schedules for Class K-Law. There are three changes to this edition: Appendix A: General Table has been slightly expanded; Appendix B has been incorporated into Chapter 6; and Chapter 5--Assigning Class Numbers--is new. Despite the magnitude of information covered, the chapters continue to be written both clearly and understandably. Examples used throughout the book are from LC MARC records, many of which are 1995 or later. While this guide is intended to be an introduction to the LC Classification, there is enough information here to be of interest to "seasoned" catalogers. Highly recommended.--Susan Ketcham, Long Island Univ.-Southampton Coll. Lib., NY (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
1 Introductionp. 1
Background and Early Development of the Library of Congress Classificationp. 1
Earliest Systemsp. 2
Thomas Jefferson's Systemp. 4
The New Library of Congress Classificationp. 6
The Outlines of the New Classificationp. 8
The Development of Individual Schedulesp. 12
The Focus of the Library of Congress Classificationp. 14
Literary Warrantp. 16
Increasing Use of the Classificationp. 17
Use of the Library of Congress Classification for Organizing Internet Resourcesp. 17
The New Integrated System at the Library of Congressp. 19
Notesp. 19
2 Principles, Structure, and Formatp. 23
Outline of the Classificationp. 23
Notationp. 26
Enumerative Displayp. 26
General Characteristics and Common Featuresp. 27
Physical Formatp. 27
Electronic Versionp. 27
CD-ROM Versionp. 27
Print Versionp. 28
Individual Schedulesp. 28
Format of Each Schedulep. 29
Divisionsp. 35
Preliminary Sectionp. 36
Topics and Subdivisions of Topicsp. 43
Geographic Divisionp. 44
Topical Division Under Countryp. 45
Example of Subdivisionsp. 45
Notes in Classification Schedulesp. 47
Scope Notesp. 47
Explanatory See Notesp. 48
Confer Notesp. 48
See Notesp. 49
Including Notesp. 49
Divided Like Notesp. 50
Parenthesized Numbersp. 50
Alternate Class Numbersp. 51
Supplementary Aids to the Use of the Classificationp. 51
A General Index to the Schedulesp. 51
Manuals for the Classificationp. 52
Other Aids to Using the Classificationp. 52
Use of LC Cataloging Recordsp. 53
Revisions and Expansionsp. 53
Publication of Print Schedulesp. 53
SuperLCCSp. 54
Procedure for Revision and Expansionp. 55
Methods for Expansionp. 55
Notesp. 56
3 Notationp. 59
General Features of the Notationp. 59
Call Numbersp. 60
Class Numbersp. 62
Item Numbersp. 66
Constructing Call Numbersp. 67
Library of Congress Cutter Numbersp. 67
Cutter Tablep. 68
Single Cutter Numberp. 70
Double Cutter Numbersp. 71
Topical Cutter Numbersp. 74
Cutter Numbers As Geographic Subdivisionsp. 76
"A" and "Z" Cutter Numbersp. 77
Successive Cutter Numbersp. 78
Date in LC Call Numbersp. 79
Date As Part of Class Numberp. 79
Date of Imprint As Part of Class Numberp. 80
Date of Period, Policy, etc., As Part of Class Numberp. 81
Date of Publicationp. 81
Selecting the Appropriate Datep. 81
Distinguishing Works by the Same Authorp. 83
Distinguishing Editions of a Workp. 85
Translationsp. 86
Display of the Notationp. 87
MARC Codes for LC Call Numbersp. 87
Notesp. 89
4 Tablesp. 91
Introductionp. 91
Tables of General Applicationp. 92
Geographic Division in Alphabetical Arrangementp. 92
Regions and Countries Tablep. 93
Subarrangementp. 95
United Statesp. 96
Provinces in Canadap. 96
Name Changesp. 97
Biography Tablep. 98
Translation Tablep. 99
Tables of Limited Applicationp. 99
Tables Applicable to an Individual Class or Subclassp. 99
Author Tablesp. 99
Form Tablesp. 111
Geographic Tablesp. 113
Tables for Internal Subarrangementp. 116
Tables for Internal Subarrangement Appearing at the End of Schedulesp. 117
Tables for Internal Subarrangement Appearing Within Schedulesp. 121
Notesp. 126
5 Assigning Class Numbersp. 127
Introductionp. 127
General Policyp. 128
Works on a Single Topicp. 128
Works on a Single Topic with Respect to One or More Facetsp. 129
General Worksp. 130
General Specialp. 130
Formp. 132
Placep. 133
Periodp. 135
Multi-Faceted Worksp. 136
Multi-Topical Worksp. 137
Works on Two or Three Topicsp. 138
Works on Four or More Topicsp. 140
Phase Relationsp. 141
Special Considerationsp. 142
Classifying Different Editions of the Same Workp. 142
City Regions and Metropolitan Areasp. 143
Textbooksp. 143
Notesp. 145
6 Individual Classesp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Class A General Worksp. 149
Works About Museumsp. 151
Academies and Learned Societiesp. 154
Tables Used with Society Publicationsp. 155
Tables in Subclass AYp. 156
Tables in Subclass AZp. 157
Class B Philosophy. Psychology. Religionp. 159
Subclasses B-BJp. 164
Subclasses BL,BM,BP,BQp. 168
Subclasses BR-BVp. 170
Subclass BXp. 172
Class C Auxiliary Sciences of Historyp. 174
Class D History: General and Old Worldp. 182
Subclasses D-DJp. 187
Subclasses DJK-DKp. 194
Subclasses DL-DRp. 195
Subclasses DS-DXp. 197
Class E-F History: Americap. 200
Class Ep. 208
Class Fp. 210
Class G Geography. Maps. Anthropology. Recreationp. 213
Geographic Cuttersp. 216
Tables for Maps and Atlasesp. 216
Major Areasp. 217
Sub-areasp. 218
Subject Letter-Numbersp. 219
Examples of the Use of Tables III and IVp. 220
General Maps and Atlasesp. 220
Subject Maps and Atlasesp. 223
Series of Mapsp. 225
Other Auxiliary Tables in Class Gp. 226
Class H Social Sciencesp. 228
Subclassesp. 241
Internal Tablesp. 241
Auxiliary Tablesp. 242
Tables of Geographical Divisionsp. 243
Tables of Subdivisions Under Regions or Countriesp. 251
Tables of Subdivisions of Industries and Tradesp. 252
Class J Political Sciencep. 254
Subclassesp. 259
Tablesp. 260
Class K Lawp. 265
Subclass Kp. 291
Subclass KDp. 291
Subclasses KDZ, KG-KHp. 292
Subclass KEp. 293
Subclass KFp. 293
Subclasses KJ-KKZp. 296
Subclasses KJV-KJWp. 297
Subclasses KK-KKCp. 298
Subclasses KL-KWXp. 299
Subclass KZp. 300
Revised Form Division Tables in Class Kp. 300
Examples of Classification of Lawp. 301
Class L Educationp. 308
Textbooksp. 317
Works on Teaching Methods in Special Subjectsp. 317
Class M Musicp. 320
Cutter Numbersp. 323
Instrumental Musicp. 324
Collectionsp. 327
Selectionsp. 327
Arrangementsp. 328
Vocal Musicp. 328
Works About Musicp. 330
Discographyp. 332
Class N Fine Artsp. 334
Order of Precedencep. 336
Tablesp. 337
Internal Tablesp. 340
Artistsp. 342
Class P Language and Literaturep. 345
Classification of Literaturep. 353
Pattern of Subarrangementp. 353
Literary Collectionsp. 353
Individual Authorsp. 354
Language and Literature Tablesp. 357
Subclasses P-PAp. 357
Topical Greek and Roman Classicsp. 358
Subclasses PB-PHp. 359
Subclass PGp. 359
Subclasses PJ-PK, PL-PMp. 360
Subclass PNp. 360
Subclasses PR, PS, PZp. 361
Subclass PZp. 361
Auxiliary Tables in PR, PS, PZp. 362
Subclass PQp. 362
Subclass PTp. 363
Examples of Call Numbers in Languages and Literaturep. 363
Class Q Sciencep. 372
Tablesp. 377
Book Numbersp. 378
Class R Medicinep. 380
National Library of Medicine Classificationp. 389
Class S Agriculturep. 393
Hunting and Fishingp. 400
Class T Technologyp. 402
Auxiliary Tablesp. 408
Class U-V Military Science. Naval Sciencep. 415
Class Z Bibliography. Library Sciencep. 426
Tablesp. 429
Book Industries and Trade and Libraries and Library Sciencep. 430
National Bibliographyp. 431
Alternate Class Numbersp. 435
Subclass ZAp. 438
Library of Congress Publicationsp. 439
Notesp. 440
7 Classification of Special Types of Library Materialsp. 443
Biographyp. 444
Collective Biographyp. 445
Individual Biographyp. 447
Biography Classed in Biography Numbersp. 449
Biography Classed in "General" Numbersp. 453
Special Casesp. 454
Works About Rulers and Chiefs of Statep. 454
Works About Statesmen, Public Figures, Etc.p. 456
Serial Publicationsp. 457
Special Form Numbers for Serialsp. 457
"A" Cutter Numbers for Periodicals or Serial Publicationsp. 459
"General Works" Numbers Used for Periodicalsp. 460
Yearbooksp. 461
Monographic Seriesp. 461
Subseriesp. 462
Serial Continuationsp. 463
Nonserial Collections, Collected Sets, and Collected Worksp. 464
Nonserial Collections or Collected Worksp. 464
Selected Worksp. 465
Analysis of Monographic Series and Setsp. 466
Materials Cataloged Under Corporate Headingsp. 468
Classificationp. 468
Shelflisting Proceduresp. 469
Monographsp. 469
Works About Corporate Bodiesp. 473
Commentaries and Supplementsp. 474
Indexesp. 474
Serialsp. 474
Changes of Namep. 475
Materials from Special Sourcesp. 476
Society Publicationsp. 476
Government Publications Classed in Documents Numbersp. 477
Congressional and State Legislative Hearings and Reportsp. 479
Conferences, Congresses, Etc.p. 481
Classifying Conferences, Congresses, Etc.p. 481
Shelflisting Conferences, Congresses, Etc.p. 482
Works Related to Other Worksp. 487
Editionsp. 487
Translationsp. 487
Parallel Textsp. 488
Abridgmentsp. 488
Adaptationsp. 490
Commentaries on Individual Worksp. 490
Supplementary Worksp. 491
Supplements Cataloged Separatelyp. 492
Supplements Covered by a Statement in the Physical Description Area or a Notep. 493
Indexesp. 493
Works Requiring Special Treatmentp. 496
Abstracts and Annotated Bibliographiesp. 496
Incunabulap. 498
"Bound-With" Booksp. 498
Comic Booksp. 499
Audiovisual Media and Their Catalogsp. 502
Discographiesp. 502
Catalogs of Filmsp. 503
Microformsp. 504
Computer Files and Softwarep. 506
Juvenile Materialsp. 506
Juvenile Belles Lettresp. 507
Picture Books for Childrenp. 509
Topical Juvenile Materialsp. 510
School Textbooksp. 511
Notesp. 512
Appendix A General Tablesp. 515
Cutter Tablep. 515
Regions and Countries Tablep. 516
United Statesp. 521
Canadian Provincesp. 521
Biography Tablep. 522
Preferred Shelflist Order - Individual Authorsp. 523
Translation Tablep. 524
Music Translation Tablep. 524
Appendix B Models for Subarrangement within Disciplinesp. 525
Model for the D Schedulep. 525
Model for the H Schedulep. 528
Model for the Q Schedulep. 529
Model for the R Schedulep. 530
Bibliographyp. 531
Indexp. 539