Cover image for Solaris 2.6 administrator certification training guide. Part 1
Title:
Solaris 2.6 administrator certification training guide. Part 1
Author:
Calkins, Bill.
Personal Author:
Edition:
First edition.
Publication Information:
[Palo Alto, Calif.] : Macmillan Technical Pub., [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xviii, 285 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm + 1 computer optical disc (4 3/4 in.)
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
Title Subject:
Added Author:
ISBN:
9781578700851
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

This manual is a study guide for the Solaris System Administrator Certification Exam - Part 1. Each topic will be covered in enough detail so that the reader is equipped to complete the exam. By studying and understanding the material presented in this manual, the reader will be equipped to take Part 1 of the certification exam. Certification Process Introduction to System Administration System Concepts Startup/Shutdown The Common Desktop Environment Kernel and Autoconfiguration Administering Disks File Systems Navigating File Systems File Commands Logical Volume Manager Metacharacters and Redirection vi Editor Package Administration Software Installation ? Setting up the System Miscellaneous System Configuration Networks The Automounter NIS AdminTool Security User Security Monitoring System Activity Print Service Print Commands Adding Terminals and Modems Mail Utilities Backups Shell Features Automated System Administration On the Web Troubleshooting.


Author Notes

Bill Calkins has more than 15 years of experience as a UNIX system administrator working with Solaris, as well as other UNIX operating systems, Windows NT, and Windows 98.
Over the past five years, Bill has worked as an independent consultant helping companies implement client/server technologies and showing system administrators how to become more productive. Bill teaches UNIX and system administration courses including seminars on improving system and network performance. When he's not conducting a seminar, he's out in the real-world dealing with problems that help him illustrate the importance of the various practices he teaches.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Booting the Workstationp. 2
Boot PROM and Program Phasesp. 3
OpenBoot Interfacep. 4
How to Find the PROM Release for a Systemp. 5
OpenBoot Parametersp. 6
Version 2 OpenBoot Parametersp. 6
PROM Device Names, Addresses, and Argumentsp. 7
PROM Device Aliasesp. 8
Getting Help in OpenBootp. 9
Testing and Booting the Systemp. 10
Testing the Hardwarep. 10
Kernel Initialization Phasep. 11
The boot Commandp. 12
System Run Statesp. 13
Swapperp. 14
INIT Phasep. 15
/etc/bcheckrcp. 16
rc Scriptsp. 16
Using the Run-Control Scripts to Stop or Start Servicesp. 20
Adding Scripts to the Run-Control Directoriesp. 20
System Shutdownp. 20
Commands to Shut Down the Systemp. 21
/usr/sbin/shutdownp. 21
/sbin/initp. 22
/usr/sbin/haltp. 22
/usr/sbin/rebootp. 22
How to Stop the System for Recovery Purposesp. 22
Turning Off Powerp. 23
System Failuresp. 23
Chapter 2 Installing the Solaris 2.x Softwarep. 24
Minimum System Requirementsp. 26
System Configurationsp. 27
Serverp. 27
Standalonep. 27
Diskless Clientp. 27
Dataless Clientp. 28
Solstice AutoClientp. 28
Performance of Clients Relative to a Standalone Systemp. 29
Disk Storage Systemsp. 30
Basic Considerations for Planning Partition Sizesp. 31
Partition Arrangements on Multiple Disksp. 32
Device Driversp. 32
Physical Device Namep. 33
Instance Namep. 33
Logical Device Namep. 34
Block and Character Device Filesp. 35
Software Terminologyp. 35
Software Packagep. 35
Software Clustersp. 36
Software Configuration Clustersp. 36
Methods for Installing Solaris Softwarep. 38
Interactivep. 38
Custom JumpStartp. 38
Web Startp. 39
Installing Over the Networkp. 39
The Solaris Installation Processp. 39
Chapter 3 Introduction to File Systemsp. 42
A File System Definedp. 43
Defining a Disk's Geometryp. 44
Disk Controllerp. 44
Defect Listp. 44
Disk Labelsp. 44
Partition Tablep. 44
Solaris File System Typesp. 45
Disk-Based File Systemsp. 45
Network-Based File Systemsp. 45
Pseudo File Systemsp. 45
Disk Slicesp. 46
Displaying Disk Configuration Informationp. 47
Using the format Utility to Create Slicesp. 48
Logical Volumesp. 51
Parts of a UFS File Systemp. 53
The Boot Blockp. 54
The Superblockp. 55
Inodesp. 55
Storage Blocksp. 56
Free Blocksp. 56
How to Create a UFS File Systemp. 56
Understanding Custom File System Parametersp. 58
Logical Block Sizep. 58
Fragment Sizep. 58
Minimum Free Spacep. 59
Rotational Delay (Gap)p. 59
Optimization Typep. 60
Number of Bytes per Inodep. 60
File System Operationsp. 61
Synchronizing a File Systemp. 61
Repairing File Systemsp. 61
How to Determine If a File System Needs Checkingp. 63
To Run fsck Manuallyp. 63
Mounting File Systemsp. 64
Creating an Entry in the /etc/vfstab File to Mount File Systemsp. 64
Using the Command Line to Mount File Systemsp. 66
Displaying Mounted File Systemsp. 66
How to Mount a File System with Large Filesp. 67
Displaying a File System's Disk Space Usep. 67
Displaying Directory Size Informationp. 68
Controlling User Disk Space Usep. 68
Chapter 4 System Securityp. 70
Physical Securityp. 71
Controlling System Accessp. 72
Where User Account Information is Storedp. 73
Controlling File Accessp. 76
Default umaskp. 77
Sticky Bitp. 78
Access Control Lists (ACLs)p. 78
Setting the Correct Pathp. 80
setuid and setgid Programsp. 80
Restricted Shellsp. 81
Monitoring Users and System Usagep. 81
Checking Who's Logged Inp. 83
Network Securityp. 83
Modemsp. 84
The Trusted Hostp. 84
The /etc/hosts.equiv Filep. 84
The .rhosts Filep. 85
Securing Superuser Accessp. 85
Restricting Root Accessp. 86
Monitoring Superuser Accessp. 86
Automated Security Enhancement Tool (ASET)p. 87
Common Sense Security Techniquesp. 88
Chapter 5 Setting Up User Accountsp. 90
Adding User Accounts with Admintoolp. 92
Deleting a User Account with Admintoolp. 95
Modifying a User Account with Admintoolp. 96
Adding a Group with Admintoolp. 97
Setting Up User Initialization Filesp. 98
Customizing User Initialization Filesp. 98
Directoriesp. 101
Chapter 6 Software Package Administrationp. 104
Tools for Managing Softwarep. 105
Adding and Removing Software Packagesp. 106
Adding Software Packagesp. 107
Removing Software Packagesp. 108
Listing and Verifying Installed Packagesp. 110
Software Patchesp. 111
Installing a Patchp. 112
Removing a Patchp. 113
General Guidelinesp. 114
Chapter 7 Administration and Configuration of the CDEp. 116
The Login Managerp. 117
Starting the Login Serverp. 118
Stopping the Login Serverp. 118
Displaying a Login Screen on a Local Displayp. 119
The Session Managerp. 120
Sourcing the .dtprofile Scriptp. 121
Sourcing the Xsession.d Scriptsp. 121
The Welcome Messagep. 122
Setting Desktop Search Pathsp. 122
Making Modifications to a Search Pathp. 123
Gathering Available Applicationsp. 123
Sourcing a User .profile or .login Filep. 123
Starting the ToolTalk Messaging Daemonp. 123
Loading Session Resourcesp. 124
Starting the Color Serverp. 124
Starting the Workspace Managerp. 124
Changing the Number of Workspaces on a System-Wide Basisp. 125
Providing System-Wide Workspace Namesp. 126
Starting the Session Applicationsp. 126
Customizing the Front Panelp. 126
Customizing Workspacesp. 127
Customizing Workspace Controlsp. 129
The Front Panel Switch Areap. 129
Adding an Application or Other Icon to a Subpanelp. 129
Removing All User Customizationsp. 130
Actions and Data Typesp. 130
The Application Managerp. 133
The dtksh Shellp. 135
To Customize or Not to Customizep. 135
Chapter 8 Writing Shell Scripts and Programsp. 136
What Shell to Use?p. 137
Bourne Shell Variablesp. 138
Built-Insp. 141
Shell Conditionalsp. 142
andand and ||p. 142
ifp. 143
Casep. 145
Repeated Action Commandsp. 146
For Loopp. 146
While Loopp. 147
Until Loopp. 147
Shell Functionsp. 148
Chapter 9 The LP Print Servicep. 150
The UNIX Print Servicep. 151
The Print Spoolerp. 151
The Print Daemonp. 152
Setting Up the Hardwarep. 152
Ethernet Connectionp. 153
Parallel Connectionp. 153
Serial Connectionp. 153
Setting Up the Softwarep. 153
BSD Versus SVR4 Printing Softwarep. 154
BSD Print Servicep. 154
SystemV Print Servicep. 155
Print Server Versus Print Clientp. 155
Configuring Software for a Solaris Printerp. 157
Using a Printer Not Listed in the Printer Types Menup. 161
Administering Printersp. 162
Deleting Printers and Printer Accessp. 162
Checking Printer Statusp. 163
Restarting the Print Schedulerp. 164
Setting a User's Default Printerp. 165
Modifying the Printer with Admintoolp. 165
Chapter 10 Process Controlp. 168
Viewing a Processp. 169
Signalsp. 172
Scheduling Processesp. 175
Scheduling Prioritiesp. 175
Changing the Priority of a Time-Sharing Process with nicep. 176
Changing the Scheduling Priority of Processes with priocntlp. 177
Solaris Batch-Processing Facilityp. 178
crontabp. 178
How to Create or Edit a crontab Filep. 179
Controlling Access to crontabp. 180
Scheduling a Single System Event (at)p. 180
Chapter 11 Backup and Recoveryp. 184
Solaris Backup and Restore Utilitiesp. 185
tarp. 185
ddp. 187
cpiop. 188
Backing Up Files with Copy-Out Modep. 189
Restoring Files with Copy-In Modep. 190
Pass-Modep. 190
paxp. 191
ufsdumpp. 193
Restoring a File System with ufsrestorep. 198
Additional Notes About Restoring Filesp. 201
Chapter 12 Device Administrationp. 204
Hardware Terminologyp. 205
Portsp. 205
Terminalsp. 205
Modemsp. 206
Cablingp. 206
Software Terminologyp. 206
Service Access Controller (SAC)p. 207
Port Monitorsp. 207
ttymonp. 208
listenp. 208
Port Monitor Tag (pmtag)p. 208
Service Tag (svctag)p. 209
Administering Terminals, Modems, and Portsp. 209
Adding a Modem Through the Admintoolp. 209
Service Access Facility (SAF)p. 213
sacadmp. 214
pmadmp. 215
ttyadmp. 217
nlsadminp. 219
Setting Up Modems and Terminals by Using SAFp. 219
Using the Modemp. 220
Adding a Terminal Through the Admintoolp. 222
Chapter 13 Networkingp. 224
Network Fundamentalsp. 225
Network Topologiesp. 225
LANp. 225
WANp. 225
Network Protocolsp. 226
Packetp. 226
TCP/IPp. 226
Ethernetp. 226
FDDIp. 227
ISDNp. 227
Network Hardwarep. 228
NICp. 228
Hostp. 228
Hubp. 229
Routerp. 229
Planning the Networkp. 229
Setting Up the Networkp. 229
/etc/hostname.interfacep. 230
/etc/nodenamep. 230
/etc/defaultdomainp. 230
/etc/inet/hostsp. 230
Network Security Filesp. 232
IP Addressingp. 232
Name Servicep. 233
TCP/IP Commandsp. 234
telnetp. 234
rloginp. 234
ftpp. 234
rcpp. 235
rshp. 235
rexecp. 235
rwhop. 235
fingerp. 236
Network Maintenancep. 236
Appendix A The History of UNIXp. 238
How It All Beganp. 239
1965-1969p. 239
1970p. 240
1970-1972p. 240
1973-1979p. 240
1982-1983p. 241
1984-1987p. 242
1988-1992p. 242
1993p. 243
Late 1990sp. 244
Solarisp. 244
Milestones in the Development of UNIXp. 244
Appendix B The Fundamentals of Client-Server Computingp. 246
The First UNIX Serverp. 247
An OS Designed for Speedp. 247
The Birth of the Workstationp. 247
Distributed Computingp. 248
UNIX Administration in a Mainframe Environmentp. 249
Appendix C Overview of SCSI Devicesp. 250
Appendix D On the Webp. 254
Mailing Listsp. 255
Newsgroupsp. 255
Web Sitesp. 256
UNIX-Related Publications Available on the Webp. 257
Indexp. 258