Cover image for Living with the earth : concepts in environmental health s cience
Title:
Living with the earth : concepts in environmental health s cience
Author:
Moore, Gary S.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boca Raton, Fla. : Lewis Publishers, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
1 volume (various pagings) : illustrations ; 25 cm
General Note:
"A Web-enhanced book."
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781566703574
Format :
Book

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RA565 .M665 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

Living with the Earth: Concepts in Environmental Health Science -A Web-Enhanced Book incorporates traditional concepts in environmental and health science with new, emerging, and controversial issues associated with environmental threats to human health and ecology. Opposing scientific views on major issues are presented with a balanced and objective view. The more than 280 richly detailed graphs, charts, figures and photographs make difficult concepts easy to grasp. The glossary provides over 300 definitions, and a section on acronyms and abbreviations.

This web-enhanced book has a technological edge. The Web site is classroom tested, and designed to maximize the use of the Living with the Earth as a textbook. It is a dynamic site that will continue to evolve as new information becomes available and new technologies emerge.

The student website has several sections that include: (1) a Book Study Guide featuring detailed chapter notes complete with printable color graphics; (2) Sample Questions for each chapter with separate answer sheets including page numbers where the information on the answers may be found; (3) a News Flash-Hot Topics section featuring information on the latest news and hot topics; (4) Chapter Web-Links maintained by reputable government, academic, or private professional groups which will provide useful and on-going information for each chapter; and (5) Searchable Databases specifically for environment and health that allow students to do keyword searches.

The instructor will have access to all of these Web site features, plus a comprehensive Test Bank for each chapter with downloadable test files, and separate answer sheets. The instructor section also contains over 1100 downloadable Powerpoint presentation slides complete with color graphic images for each chapter. All of these electronic files may be augmented or changed by the instructor.

Because the author is keeping the text current via his Web site, this is a "living" environmental health book, reflecting the latest information. This textbook is suitable for graduate and undergraduate students in Environmental Health, Environmental Sciences, Community Health Education, Epidemiologists, Civil Engineers, and Public Health.


Features


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Environmental health, an increasingly popular and important subject for undergraduate and graduate students, is highly complex and fraught with political and policy implications; there are only a handful of usable books, none of which receive unreserved accolades from students or professors. Moore offers a detailed description of ecosystems, a very important chapter on human populations and overpopulation, and well-organized chapters on environmental degradation and disease, toxicology, pests and pesticides, food-borne illness and sanitation, air, water, and waste. There is a short introduction to the process of risk analysis, with probably too brief a section on risk communication. A chapter on environmental law closes the book. The chapter on population is more comprehensive and better focused than in any competing work. Each chapter outlines learning objectives. This reviewer was disappointed, however, in the quality of the citations (better in some chapters than others), particularly the many references to other secondary works on environmental health. Moore offers Web-based supporting information, accessed with a password. This technique opens up a state-of-the-art approach to learning with both supporting information, rich graphics, and links to many other Web sites. The premier work on environmental health. General readers; undergraduates; professionals; two-year technical program students. M. Gochfeld; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School


Table of Contents

1. Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Introduction
Climate
What Is It?
How Is Climate Affected?
Ecosystems and Biomes
Ecosystems
Biomes
Tundra
Taiga
Temperate Areas
The Tropical Rainforest
Deserts
Energy Flow
Energy Source
Consumption Types and Trophic Levels
Nutrients
Recycling
Nutrient Cycles
The Process of Succession and Retrogression
Succession
Retrogression
2. Human Population
Introduction
The Characteristics of Population
Population Dynamics
Population Trends in the World
Historical Trends
Growth Rate
Doubling Time
Demographic Transition
Incomplete Demographic Transition
Current Population Trends
Population Decreases in the Developed Countries
Current Populations Trends in LDCs
Predicted Future Trends in Populations
Urbanization
What Is Urbanization?
The Role of Urbanization in the Spread of Disease
Violence in Developing Urban Centers
Environmental Degradation
The Control of Population
Empowerment or Force?
Population Policies in Some Countries
India
Peru
China
Family Planning Versus Population Control
Methods of Fertility Control
Introduction
Contraceptive Methods that are Reversible
Natural Birth Control and Family Planning
Abstinence
Hormonal
Spermicides
Barrier Methods of Contraception
Intrauterine Devices
Contraceptive Methods that are Permanent
Abortion
3. Environmental Degradation and Food Security
Introduction: The Debate
Technology and Policy will Save the Day
The Green Revolution
Energy
Attitude and Behavior
What Now?
Impacts on the Environment
Deforestation
Rainforests
Forests in Developed Countries
Soil Degradation
What Is Soil?
Soil Biomes
Soil Erosion
The Process of Desertification
What Is Desertification?
The Costs of Desertification
Wetlands
What Are They?
Benefits of Wetlands
Wetland Losses
The Loss of Biodiversity and Extinction of Species
Background
Loss in Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Protecting Endangered and Threatened Species
Food Production and Security
Food Production
Reasons for Regional Food Shortages
Sources
Food Security
Worldwide
Hunger in America
4. Environmental Disease
Introduction
Defining the Term "Environment" in Relation to Disease
Defining Disease
Infectious Disease
Physical and Chemical Injury
Developmental Disease
Neoplastic Disease
Nutritional Disease
Environmental Disease
The Role of Genetics in Disease
Structure and Function
Protein Biosynthesis
Diseases of Genetics and Development
Genetic Abnormalities
Teratologic Diseases
New Approaches in Genetics
Methods of Studying Genes
The Hunt for Environmental Genes
The Promise of Gene Therapy
The Ethical Dilemma
Cancer
What Is It?
How Does Cancer Develop?
Major Cancer Risks
Trends in Cancer
5. Toxicity and Toxins
Introduction
Exposure and Entry Routes
Exposure
Routes of Entry
Respiratory System
The Skin
The Gastrointestinal Tract
Mechanisms of Action
Effects of Toxic Agents on Enzymes
The Direct Action of Pollutants on Cell Components
Pollutants that Cause Secondary Actions
Factors Governing Toxicity
Chemical Properties
Concentration
Interactions
Age
Exercise and Physical Stress
Health Status
Some Specific Examples of Toxic Agents
Endocrine Disruptors and Reproductive Health
Hormone Function
Adverse Effects of Endocrine Disruption
What Are Endocrine Disruptors and How Do They Work?
Reducing Exposure
Dioxin
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Lead
Organic Solvents
Asbestos
Mercury
6. The Trouble With Pests
Introduction
What Are Pests?
Insects and Other Arthropods
General Structure and Development
Bedbugs and Kissing Bugs
Flies
Mosquitoes
Fleas
Lice
Roaches
Ticks and Mites
Mites
Ticks
Rodents and Pests
Rodent Characteristics
Importance as Pests and Vectors of Disease
Rodent Control
Pesticides
History
Insect Resistance
The Health and Ecological Effects of Pesticides
Exposures
Children at Risk
Exposures in LDCs
The Counter Arguments
Ecological Concerns
The Proliferation of Pesticides Globally
Types of Pesticides
Insecticides
Organochlorines
Organophosphates
Carbamates
Botanical and Biological Insecticides and
Other Alternatives
Herbicides
Rodenticides
7. Emerging Diseases
Introduction
Emerging Diseases in the United States
Emerging Diseases Worldwide
What Is an Emerging Infectious Disease?
Reasons for the Emergence of Infectious Disease
Ecological Changes (Agriculture and Climate)
Agriculture
Climate
Human Demographic Changes (Urbanization) and Behavior
Travel and Commerce
Travel
Commerce
More Than Transporation Required
Technology and Industry (Globalization)
Microbial Adaptation and Change (Resistance)
Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotics in Livestock Feed
Viruses
Breakdown of Public Health Measures
Specific Emerging Diseases
Viruses
Hantavirus
Dengue Fever
Influenza
Ebola
AIDS/HIV
Bacteria
Escherichia coli
Lyme Disease
Streptococcus
Tuberculosis
Parasites
Cryptosporidium
Malaria
Practical Approaches to Limiting the Emergence of Infectious Disease
8. Foodborne Illness
Introduction
Worldwide Distribution of Foodborne Pathogens
Reasons for Food Protection Programs
Morbidity and Mortality Due to Foodborne Illness
Economic Consequences of Foodborne Illness
Causative Agents of Foodborne Illness
Radionuclides
Chemicals
Packaging Materials
Antimony
Cadmium
Lead
Industrial Processes
Mercury
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Pesticides
Food Additives
Saccharin
Monosodium Glutamate
Nitrates and Nitrites
GRAS
Color Additives
Poisonous Plants and Animals
Plant Sources
Animal Sources
Foodborne Pathogens
Parasitic Infections
The Nematodes
The Protozoans
Viruses
Fungi
Bacteria
Factors Frequently Cited in Foodborne Illness
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Assessing the Hazard
Identifying Critical Contol Points
Establishing Standard Procedures and Setting the Critical Limits
Monitoring Procedures
Corrective Actions
Record Keeping
Verification the HACCP System Is Working Correctly
United States Regulatory Efforts with Regard to Food Protection
Surveillance Efforts
9. Water and Wastewater
Introduction
The Properties of Water
Hydrological Cycle
Water Resources
Water and Health
Water Shortage and Scarcity
Water Rights and Conflict
Water Consumption and Management
Water Use
Overview
Agriculture
Industry
Domestic
Sources of Drinking Water
Surface Water
Groundwater
Wells
Groundwater Contamination
Recharge and Water Mining
Subsidence and Salinization
Groundwater Protection
Other Sources
Desalinization
Bottled water
Dams
Water Re-use
Water Pollution
Overview
Water Quality
Right to Know
Types of Pollution
Inorganic Compounds
Synthetic Organic Compounds
Radioactive Material
Sources of Pollution
Overview
Underground Injection Wells
Industrial Discharges
Agriculture
Pesticides
Fertilizer
Stormwater
Acid Mine Drainage
Waterborne Disease
Water Treatment
Municipal Water Treatment
Disinfection
Home Water Treatment
Regulations
Safe Drinking Water Act
Wastewater Disposal and Treatment
Sewage
Biological Oxygen Demand
Types of Disposal
Pit Privies
Septic Systems
Municipal Sewage Treatment
Water Pollution and Health
Future Outlook
10. Air, Noise, and Radiation
Introduction
The Atmosphere and Methods of Dispersion
Chemical Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Solar Radiation
Vertical Temperature Differences and Atmospheric Regions
Atmospheric Pressure and Density
Atmospheric Inversions
The History of Air Pollution Control in The United States
Titles of the Clean Air Act
Title I Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of the NAAQS
Title II Provisions Relating to Mobile Sources
Title III Air Toxics
Title IV Acid Deposition Control
Title V Permits
Title VI Stratospheric Ozone and Global Climate Protection
Other Titles of the 1990 CAAA
Revised Ozone and Particulate Standards
The Issue of Global Warming
The Hot Air Treaty, Kyoto, Japan
Global Warming: The Controversy
Factors Effecting Global Climate Change
Orbital Geometry as a Factor Effecting Climate
Changes in Ocean Temperature
Volcanic Activity
Solar Radiation
The Criteria Pollutants
Introduction
Particulate Matter (PM)
Ozone and the Photochemical Oxidants
Carbon Monoxide
Lead
Sulfur Oxides
Health and Welfare Effects
Acid Deposition
Effect of Acid Deposition on Ecology
Nitrogen Oxides
Health Implications of Air Pollutants
How Air Pollution Effects the Respiratory System
Indoor Air Pollution
Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
Signs of Indoor Air Pollution
Common Indoor Air Pollutants
Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Other
Combusted Materials
Radon
Biological Contaminants
Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Respirable Particles
Organic Gases, Pesticides
Formaldehyde
Noise
Introduction
The Physics of Sound
Physiology of Sound and Health Effects
Regulation of Noise
Radiation
Introduction
Ionizing Radiation
Radioisotopes
Radiation Exposure
Natural Sources
Enhanced Natural Sources
Human-Generated Sources
Health Impacts of Ionizing Radiation
Dosage
Dose Rate
Radiation-Induced Mutations
Radiation and Birth Defects
Radiation-Induced Cancer
Radiation and Nuclear Power Generation
Ultraviolet Radiation
Microwave Radiation
11. Solid and Hazardous Waste
Introduction
Definition and Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste
Definition of MSW
Characterization of MSW
Collection and Disposal of Solid Waste
Collection of MSW
Management of MSW
Landfills
Source Reduction
Recovery for Recycling (Including Composting)
Composting
Combustion
Hazardous Wastes
Background
What Is a Hazardous Waste?
Hazardous Waste Regulations
The Management of Hazardous Wastes
Reduction of Generation of Hazardous Waste
Technologies for Hazardous Waste Treatment
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Cleaning Up
12. Assessing Human Risk
Introduction
Environmental Risk
Risk Characteristics
Development of Risk Analysis
Tools of Risk Analysis
Toxicology
Dose
Extrapolation
Acceptable Daily Intakes
Epidemiology
What Is It?
Study Types
Bias
Clinical Trials
Cellular Testing
The Process of Risk Analysis
Hazard Identification
Dose-Response Assessment
Exposure Assessment
Risk Characterization
Limitations of Risk Analysis
Risk Management and Communication
Management
Risk Communication
13. Environmental Laws and Compliance
Introduction
Environmental Laws-Some Fundamentals
The Making of a Law
Environmental Laws Are Part of a System
Federal Environmental Laws
Managing Hazardous Waste
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Identifying a Hazardous Waste
Tracking a Hazardous Waste
Other Requirements Under RCRA
Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
Steps in Superfund: Find, Prioritize, and Clean
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know (SARA Title III)
Transportation of Hazardous Materials
Pollution Prevention and Improved Waste Management Programs
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
Regulation of Underground Storage Tanks
Pesticide Regulation
Air Quality Control
Title I Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of the NAAQS
Title II Provisions Relating to Mobile Sources
Title III Hazardous Air Pollutants
Title IV Acid Deposition Control
Title V Permits
Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection
Title VII Provisions Relating to Enforcement
Water Quality Control
Stormwater
Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill and Reporting Requirements
Compliance Strategies
Trends in Regulatory Compliance
Appendices
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Glossary
Index