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### Summary

### Summary

From traditional techniques such as FSK, BPSK, QPSK and QAM to state-of-the-art techniques such as MSK, CPM and MHPM and more, this text covers the complete range of digital modulation methods. It discusses the historical background of digital modulation, and examines operation principles, symbol and bit error performance, and spectral characteristics. It also includes block diagrams and/or circuits of modulators, demodulators, carrier recovery, clock recovery and comparison with other schemes. In its comprehensive overview of digital modulation applications, it seeks to offer a practical understanding of conventional, fixed microwave terrestrial communications, mobile wireless, and mobile satellite communications.

### Table of Contents

Preface | p. xiii |

Chapter 1 Introduction | p. 1 |

1.1 Digital Communication Systems | p. 1 |

1.2 Communication Channels | p. 4 |

1.2.1 Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel | p. 4 |

1.2.2 Bandlimited Channel | p. 6 |

1.2.3 Fading Channel | p. 7 |

1.3 Basic Modulation Methods | p. 7 |

1.4 Criteria of Choosing Modulation Schemes | p. 9 |

1.4.1 Power Efficiency | p. 10 |

1.4.2 Bandwidth Efficiency | p. 10 |

1.4.3 System Complexity | p. 11 |

1.5 Overview of Digital Modulation Schemes | p. 12 |

References | p. 15 |

Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation (Line Codes) | p. 17 |

2.1 Differential Coding | p. 18 |

2.2 Description of Line Codes | p. 22 |

2.2.1 Nonreturn-to-Zero Codes | p. 25 |

2.2.2 Return-to-Zero Codes | p. 25 |

2.2.3 Pseudoternary Codes (including AMI) | p. 26 |

2.2.4 Biphase Codes (including Manchester) | p. 27 |

2.2.5 Delay Modulation (Miller Code) | p. 27 |

2.3 Power Spectral Density of Line Codes | p. 28 |

2.3.1 PSD of Nonreturn-to-Zero Codes | p. 30 |

2.3.2 PSD of Return-to-Zero Codes | p. 34 |

2.3.3 PSD of Pseudoternary Codes | p. 35 |

2.3.4 PSD of Biphase Codes | p. 37 |

2.3.5 PSD of Delay Modulation | p. 40 |

2.4 Bit Error Rate of Line Codes | p. 43 |

2.4.1 BER of Binary Codes | p. 44 |

2.4.2 BER of Pseudoternary Codes | p. 49 |

2.4.3 BER of Biphase Codes | p. 54 |

2.4.4 BER of Delay Modulation | p. 57 |

2.5 Substitution Line Codes | p. 57 |

2.5.1 Binary N-Zero Substitution Codes | p. 58 |

2.5.2 High Density Bipolar n Codes | p. 60 |

2.6 Block Line Codes | p. 62 |

2.6.1 Coded Mark Inversion Codes | p. 63 |

2.6.2 Differential Mode Inversion Codes | p. 69 |

2.6.3 mBnB Codes | p. 71 |

2.6.4 mB1C Codes | p. 74 |

2.6.5 DmB1M Codes | p. 76 |

2.6.6 PFmB(m+1)B Codes | p. 77 |

2.6.7 kBnT Codes | p. 78 |

2.7 Summary | p. 81 |

References | p. 83 |

Chapter 3 Frequency Shift Keying | p. 87 |

3.1 Binary FSK | p. 87 |

3.1.1 Binary FSK Signal and Modulator | p. 87 |

3.1.2 Power Spectral Density | p. 92 |

3.2 Coherent Demodulation and Error Performance | p. 95 |

3.3 Noncoherent Demodulation and Error Performance | p. 98 |

3.4 M-ary FSK | p. 102 |

3.4.1 MFSK Signal and Power Spectral Density | p. 102 |

3.4.2 Modulator, Demodulator, and Error Performance | p. 104 |

3.5 Demodulation Using Discriminator | p. 115 |

3.6 Synchronization | p. 121 |

3.7 Summary | p. 121 |

References | p. 122 |

Chapter 4 Phase Shift Keying | p. 123 |

4.1 Binary PSK | p. 123 |

4.2 Differential BPSK | p. 129 |

4.3 M-ary PSK | p. 136 |

4.4 PSD of MPSK | p. 146 |

4.5 Differential MPSK | p. 148 |

4.6 Quadrature PSK | p. 154 |

4.7 Differential QPSK | p. 160 |

4.8 Offset QPSK | p. 167 |

4.9 [pi]/4-QPSK | p. 170 |

4.10 Synchronization | p. 179 |

4.10.1 Carrier Recovery | p. 179 |

4.10.2 Clock Recovery | p. 183 |

4.10.3 Effects of Phase and Timing Error | p. 186 |

4.11 Summary | p. 187 |

4.12 Appendix 4A | p. 190 |

References | p. 192 |

Chapter 5 Minimum Shift Keying and MSK-Type Modulations | p. 195 |

5.1 Description of MSK | p. 196 |

5.1.1 MSK Viewed as a Sinusoidal Weighted OQPSK | p. 196 |

5.1.2 MSK Viewed as a Special Case of CPFSK | p. 201 |

5.2 Power Spectrum and Bandwidth | p. 203 |

5.2.1 Power Spectral Density of MSK | p. 203 |

5.2.2 Bandwidth of MSK and Comparison with PSK | p. 204 |

5.3 Modulator | p. 207 |

5.4 Demodulator | p. 210 |

5.5 Synchronization | p. 214 |

5.6 Error Probability | p. 216 |

5.7 Serial MSK | p. 219 |

5.7.1 SMSK Description | p. 219 |

5.7.2 SMSK Modulator | p. 221 |

5.7.3 SMSK Demodulator | p. 223 |

5.7.4 Conversion and Matched Filter Implementation | p. 227 |

5.7.5 Synchronization of SMSK | p. 231 |

5.8 MSK-Type Modulation Schemes | p. 231 |

5.9 Sinusoidal Frequency Shift Keying | p. 236 |

5.10 Simon's Class of Symbol-Shaping Pulses | p. 240 |

5.11 Rabzel and Pathupathy's Symbol-Shaping Pulses | p. 247 |

5.12 Bazin's Class of Symbol-Shaping Pulses | p. 250 |

5.13 MSK-Type Signal's Spectral Main Lobe | p. 254 |

5.14 Summary | p. 256 |

References | p. 257 |

Chapter 6 Continuous Phase Modulation | p. 259 |

6.1 Description of CPM | p. 260 |

6.1.1 Various Modulating Pulse Shapes | p. 261 |

6.1.2 Phase and State of the CPM Signal | p. 265 |

6.1.3 Phase Tree and Trellis, State Trellis | p. 269 |

6.2 Power Spectral Density | p. 272 |

6.2.1 Steps for Calculating PSDs for General CPM Signals | p. 274 |

6.2.2 Effects of Pulse Shape, Modulation Index, and A Priori Distribution | p. 276 |

6.2.3 PSD of CPFSK | p. 277 |

6.3 MLSD for CPM and Error Probability | p. 279 |

6.3.1 Error Probability and Euclidean Distance | p. 281 |

6.3.2 Comparison of Minimum Distances | p. 285 |

6.4 Modulator | p. 286 |

6.4.1 Quadrature Modulator | p. 286 |

6.4.2 Serial Modulator | p. 292 |

6.4.3 All-Digital Modulator | p. 295 |

6.5 Demodulator | p. 297 |

6.5.1 Optimum ML Coherent Demodulator | p. 297 |

6.5.2 Optimum ML Noncoherent Demodulator | p. 301 |

6.5.3 Viterbi Demodulator | p. 311 |

6.5.4 Reduced-Complexity Viterbi Demodulator | p. 317 |

6.5.5 Reduction of the Number of Filters for LREC CPM | p. 320 |

6.5.6 ML Block Detection of Noncoherent CPM | p. 325 |

6.5.7 MSK-Type Demodulator | p. 326 |

6.5.8 Differential and Discriminator Demodulator | p. 330 |

6.5.9 Other Types of Demodulators | p. 333 |

6.6 Synchronization | p. 337 |

6.6.1 MSK-Type Synchronizer | p. 337 |

6.6.2 Squaring Loop and Fourth-Power Loop Synchronizers | p. 340 |

6.6.3 Other Types of Synchronizer | p. 341 |

6.7 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying | p. 342 |

6.8 Summary | p. 346 |

References | p. 347 |

Chapter 7 Multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation | p. 351 |

7.1 MHPM Signal, Phase Tree, and Trellis | p. 351 |

7.2 Power Spectral Density | p. 361 |

7.3 Distance Properties and Error Probability | p. 366 |

7.4 Modulator | p. 382 |

7.5 Demodulator and Synchronization | p. 382 |

7.5.1 A Simple ML Demodulator for Multi-h Binary CPFSK | p. 382 |

7.5.2 Joint Demodulation and Carrier Synchronization of Multi-h CPFSK | p. 388 |

7.5.3 Joint Carrier Phase Tracking and Data Detection of Multi-h CPFSK | p. 392 |

7.5.4 Joint Demodulation, Carrier Synchronization, and Symbol Synchronization of M-ary Multi-h CPFSK | p. 393 |

7.5.5 Synchronization of MHPM | p. 398 |

7.6 Improved MHPM Schemes | p. 399 |

7.6.1 MHPM with Asymmetrical Modulation Indexes | p. 400 |

7.6.2 Multi-T Realization of Multi-h Phase Codes | p. 401 |

7.6.3 Correlatively Encoded Multi-h Signaling Technique | p. 401 |

7.6.4 Nonlinear Multi-h CPFSK | p. 403 |

7.7 Summary | p. 403 |

7.8 Appendix 7A | p. 404 |

References | p. 408 |

Chapter 8 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation | p. 411 |

8.1 M-ary Amplitude Modulation | p. 411 |

8.1.1 Power Spectral Density | p. 412 |

8.1.2 Optimum Detection and Error Probability | p. 414 |

8.1.3 Modulator and Demodulator for Bandpass MAM | p. 418 |

8.1.4 On-Off Keying | p. 421 |

8.2 QAM Signal Description | p. 422 |

8.3 QAM Constellations | p. 426 |

8.3.1 Square QAM | p. 429 |

8.4 Power Spectral Density | p. 432 |

8.5 Modulator | p. 434 |

8.6 Demodulator | p. 436 |

8.7 Error Probability | p. 438 |

8.8 Synchronization | p. 441 |

8.9 Differential Coding in QAM | p. 448 |

8.10 Summary | p. 454 |

8.11 Appendix 8A | p. 455 |

References | p. 457 |

Chapter 9 Nonconstant-Envelope Bandwidth-Efficient Modulations | p. 459 |

9.1 Two-Symbol-Period Schemes and Optimum Demodulator | p. 460 |

9.2 Quasi-Bandlimited Modulation | p. 465 |

9.3 QORC, SQORC, and QOSRC | p. 471 |

9.4 IJF-OQPSK and TSI-OQPSK | p. 478 |

9.5 Superposed-QAM | p. 490 |

9.6 Quadrature Quadrature PSK | p. 498 |

9.7 Summary | p. 515 |

References | p. 515 |

Chapter 10 Performance of Modulations in Fading Channels | p. 517 |

10.1 Fading Channel Characteristics | p. 518 |

10.1.1 Channel Characteristics | p. 518 |

10.1.2 Channel Classification | p. 521 |

10.1.3 Fading Envelope Distributions | p. 524 |

10.2 Digital Modulation in Slow, Flat Fading Channels | p. 527 |

10.2.1 Rayleigh Fading Channel | p. 527 |

10.2.2 Rician Fading Channel | p. 531 |

10.3 Digital Modulation in Frequency Selective Channels | p. 533 |

10.4 [pi]/4-DQPSK in Fading Channels | p. 544 |

10.5 MHPM in Fading Channels | p. 548 |

10.6 QAM in Fading Channels | p. 554 |

10.6.1 Square QAM | p. 555 |

10.6.2 Star QAM | p. 558 |

10.7 Remedial Measures Against Fading | p. 560 |

10.8 Summary | p. 563 |

References | p. 564 |

Appendix A Power Spectral Densities of Signals | p. 567 |

A.1 Bandpass Signals and Spectra | p. 567 |

A.2 Bandpass Stationary Random Process and PSD | p. 569 |

A.3 Power Spectral Densities of Digital Signals | p. 572 |

A.3.1 Case 1: Data Symbols Are Uncorrelated | p. 574 |

A.3.2 Case 2: Data Symbols Are Correlated | p. 576 |

A.4 Power Spectral Densities of Digital Bandpass Signals | p. 577 |

A.5 Power Spectral Densities of CPM Signals | p. 580 |

References | p. 586 |

Appendix B Detection of Signals | p. 589 |

B.1 Detection of Discrete Signals | p. 589 |

B.1.1 Binary Hypothesis Test | p. 589 |

B.1.2 Decision Criteria | p. 590 |

B.1.3 M Hypotheses | p. 594 |

B.2 Detection of Continuous Signals With Known Phases | p. 596 |

B.2.1 Detection of Binary Signals | p. 596 |

B.2.2 Decision of M-ary Signals | p. 608 |

B.3 Detection of Continuous Signals With Unknown Phases | p. 615 |

B.3.1 Receiver Structure | p. 615 |

B.3.2 Receiver Error Performance | p. 621 |

References | p. 625 |

Glossary | p. 627 |

About the author | p. 631 |

Index | p. 633 |