Cover image for Digital modulation techniques
Title:
Digital modulation techniques
Author:
Xiong, Fuqin, 1946-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xv, 653 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Subject Term:
ISBN:
9780890069707
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

From traditional techniques such as FSK, BPSK, QPSK and QAM to state-of-the-art techniques such as MSK, CPM and MHPM and more, this text covers the complete range of digital modulation methods. It discusses the historical background of digital modulation, and examines operation principles, symbol and bit error performance, and spectral characteristics. It also includes block diagrams and/or circuits of modulators, demodulators, carrier recovery, clock recovery and comparison with other schemes. In its comprehensive overview of digital modulation applications, it seeks to offer a practical understanding of conventional, fixed microwave terrestrial communications, mobile wireless, and mobile satellite communications.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Chapter 1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 Digital Communication Systemsp. 1
1.2 Communication Channelsp. 4
1.2.1 Additive White Gaussian Noise Channelp. 4
1.2.2 Bandlimited Channelp. 6
1.2.3 Fading Channelp. 7
1.3 Basic Modulation Methodsp. 7
1.4 Criteria of Choosing Modulation Schemesp. 9
1.4.1 Power Efficiencyp. 10
1.4.2 Bandwidth Efficiencyp. 10
1.4.3 System Complexityp. 11
1.5 Overview of Digital Modulation Schemesp. 12
Referencesp. 15
Chapter 2 Baseband Modulation (Line Codes)p. 17
2.1 Differential Codingp. 18
2.2 Description of Line Codesp. 22
2.2.1 Nonreturn-to-Zero Codesp. 25
2.2.2 Return-to-Zero Codesp. 25
2.2.3 Pseudoternary Codes (including AMI)p. 26
2.2.4 Biphase Codes (including Manchester)p. 27
2.2.5 Delay Modulation (Miller Code)p. 27
2.3 Power Spectral Density of Line Codesp. 28
2.3.1 PSD of Nonreturn-to-Zero Codesp. 30
2.3.2 PSD of Return-to-Zero Codesp. 34
2.3.3 PSD of Pseudoternary Codesp. 35
2.3.4 PSD of Biphase Codesp. 37
2.3.5 PSD of Delay Modulationp. 40
2.4 Bit Error Rate of Line Codesp. 43
2.4.1 BER of Binary Codesp. 44
2.4.2 BER of Pseudoternary Codesp. 49
2.4.3 BER of Biphase Codesp. 54
2.4.4 BER of Delay Modulationp. 57
2.5 Substitution Line Codesp. 57
2.5.1 Binary N-Zero Substitution Codesp. 58
2.5.2 High Density Bipolar n Codesp. 60
2.6 Block Line Codesp. 62
2.6.1 Coded Mark Inversion Codesp. 63
2.6.2 Differential Mode Inversion Codesp. 69
2.6.3 mBnB Codesp. 71
2.6.4 mB1C Codesp. 74
2.6.5 DmB1M Codesp. 76
2.6.6 PFmB(m+1)B Codesp. 77
2.6.7 kBnT Codesp. 78
2.7 Summaryp. 81
Referencesp. 83
Chapter 3 Frequency Shift Keyingp. 87
3.1 Binary FSKp. 87
3.1.1 Binary FSK Signal and Modulatorp. 87
3.1.2 Power Spectral Densityp. 92
3.2 Coherent Demodulation and Error Performancep. 95
3.3 Noncoherent Demodulation and Error Performancep. 98
3.4 M-ary FSKp. 102
3.4.1 MFSK Signal and Power Spectral Densityp. 102
3.4.2 Modulator, Demodulator, and Error Performancep. 104
3.5 Demodulation Using Discriminatorp. 115
3.6 Synchronizationp. 121
3.7 Summaryp. 121
Referencesp. 122
Chapter 4 Phase Shift Keyingp. 123
4.1 Binary PSKp. 123
4.2 Differential BPSKp. 129
4.3 M-ary PSKp. 136
4.4 PSD of MPSKp. 146
4.5 Differential MPSKp. 148
4.6 Quadrature PSKp. 154
4.7 Differential QPSKp. 160
4.8 Offset QPSKp. 167
4.9 [pi]/4-QPSKp. 170
4.10 Synchronizationp. 179
4.10.1 Carrier Recoveryp. 179
4.10.2 Clock Recoveryp. 183
4.10.3 Effects of Phase and Timing Errorp. 186
4.11 Summaryp. 187
4.12 Appendix 4Ap. 190
Referencesp. 192
Chapter 5 Minimum Shift Keying and MSK-Type Modulationsp. 195
5.1 Description of MSKp. 196
5.1.1 MSK Viewed as a Sinusoidal Weighted OQPSKp. 196
5.1.2 MSK Viewed as a Special Case of CPFSKp. 201
5.2 Power Spectrum and Bandwidthp. 203
5.2.1 Power Spectral Density of MSKp. 203
5.2.2 Bandwidth of MSK and Comparison with PSKp. 204
5.3 Modulatorp. 207
5.4 Demodulatorp. 210
5.5 Synchronizationp. 214
5.6 Error Probabilityp. 216
5.7 Serial MSKp. 219
5.7.1 SMSK Descriptionp. 219
5.7.2 SMSK Modulatorp. 221
5.7.3 SMSK Demodulatorp. 223
5.7.4 Conversion and Matched Filter Implementationp. 227
5.7.5 Synchronization of SMSKp. 231
5.8 MSK-Type Modulation Schemesp. 231
5.9 Sinusoidal Frequency Shift Keyingp. 236
5.10 Simon's Class of Symbol-Shaping Pulsesp. 240
5.11 Rabzel and Pathupathy's Symbol-Shaping Pulsesp. 247
5.12 Bazin's Class of Symbol-Shaping Pulsesp. 250
5.13 MSK-Type Signal's Spectral Main Lobep. 254
5.14 Summaryp. 256
Referencesp. 257
Chapter 6 Continuous Phase Modulationp. 259
6.1 Description of CPMp. 260
6.1.1 Various Modulating Pulse Shapesp. 261
6.1.2 Phase and State of the CPM Signalp. 265
6.1.3 Phase Tree and Trellis, State Trellisp. 269
6.2 Power Spectral Densityp. 272
6.2.1 Steps for Calculating PSDs for General CPM Signalsp. 274
6.2.2 Effects of Pulse Shape, Modulation Index, and A Priori Distributionp. 276
6.2.3 PSD of CPFSKp. 277
6.3 MLSD for CPM and Error Probabilityp. 279
6.3.1 Error Probability and Euclidean Distancep. 281
6.3.2 Comparison of Minimum Distancesp. 285
6.4 Modulatorp. 286
6.4.1 Quadrature Modulatorp. 286
6.4.2 Serial Modulatorp. 292
6.4.3 All-Digital Modulatorp. 295
6.5 Demodulatorp. 297
6.5.1 Optimum ML Coherent Demodulatorp. 297
6.5.2 Optimum ML Noncoherent Demodulatorp. 301
6.5.3 Viterbi Demodulatorp. 311
6.5.4 Reduced-Complexity Viterbi Demodulatorp. 317
6.5.5 Reduction of the Number of Filters for LREC CPMp. 320
6.5.6 ML Block Detection of Noncoherent CPMp. 325
6.5.7 MSK-Type Demodulatorp. 326
6.5.8 Differential and Discriminator Demodulatorp. 330
6.5.9 Other Types of Demodulatorsp. 333
6.6 Synchronizationp. 337
6.6.1 MSK-Type Synchronizerp. 337
6.6.2 Squaring Loop and Fourth-Power Loop Synchronizersp. 340
6.6.3 Other Types of Synchronizerp. 341
6.7 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keyingp. 342
6.8 Summaryp. 346
Referencesp. 347
Chapter 7 Multi-h Continuous Phase Modulationp. 351
7.1 MHPM Signal, Phase Tree, and Trellisp. 351
7.2 Power Spectral Densityp. 361
7.3 Distance Properties and Error Probabilityp. 366
7.4 Modulatorp. 382
7.5 Demodulator and Synchronizationp. 382
7.5.1 A Simple ML Demodulator for Multi-h Binary CPFSKp. 382
7.5.2 Joint Demodulation and Carrier Synchronization of Multi-h CPFSKp. 388
7.5.3 Joint Carrier Phase Tracking and Data Detection of Multi-h CPFSKp. 392
7.5.4 Joint Demodulation, Carrier Synchronization, and Symbol Synchronization of M-ary Multi-h CPFSKp. 393
7.5.5 Synchronization of MHPMp. 398
7.6 Improved MHPM Schemesp. 399
7.6.1 MHPM with Asymmetrical Modulation Indexesp. 400
7.6.2 Multi-T Realization of Multi-h Phase Codesp. 401
7.6.3 Correlatively Encoded Multi-h Signaling Techniquep. 401
7.6.4 Nonlinear Multi-h CPFSKp. 403
7.7 Summaryp. 403
7.8 Appendix 7Ap. 404
Referencesp. 408
Chapter 8 Quadrature Amplitude Modulationp. 411
8.1 M-ary Amplitude Modulationp. 411
8.1.1 Power Spectral Densityp. 412
8.1.2 Optimum Detection and Error Probabilityp. 414
8.1.3 Modulator and Demodulator for Bandpass MAMp. 418
8.1.4 On-Off Keyingp. 421
8.2 QAM Signal Descriptionp. 422
8.3 QAM Constellationsp. 426
8.3.1 Square QAMp. 429
8.4 Power Spectral Densityp. 432
8.5 Modulatorp. 434
8.6 Demodulatorp. 436
8.7 Error Probabilityp. 438
8.8 Synchronizationp. 441
8.9 Differential Coding in QAMp. 448
8.10 Summaryp. 454
8.11 Appendix 8Ap. 455
Referencesp. 457
Chapter 9 Nonconstant-Envelope Bandwidth-Efficient Modulationsp. 459
9.1 Two-Symbol-Period Schemes and Optimum Demodulatorp. 460
9.2 Quasi-Bandlimited Modulationp. 465
9.3 QORC, SQORC, and QOSRCp. 471
9.4 IJF-OQPSK and TSI-OQPSKp. 478
9.5 Superposed-QAMp. 490
9.6 Quadrature Quadrature PSKp. 498
9.7 Summaryp. 515
Referencesp. 515
Chapter 10 Performance of Modulations in Fading Channelsp. 517
10.1 Fading Channel Characteristicsp. 518
10.1.1 Channel Characteristicsp. 518
10.1.2 Channel Classificationp. 521
10.1.3 Fading Envelope Distributionsp. 524
10.2 Digital Modulation in Slow, Flat Fading Channelsp. 527
10.2.1 Rayleigh Fading Channelp. 527
10.2.2 Rician Fading Channelp. 531
10.3 Digital Modulation in Frequency Selective Channelsp. 533
10.4 [pi]/4-DQPSK in Fading Channelsp. 544
10.5 MHPM in Fading Channelsp. 548
10.6 QAM in Fading Channelsp. 554
10.6.1 Square QAMp. 555
10.6.2 Star QAMp. 558
10.7 Remedial Measures Against Fadingp. 560
10.8 Summaryp. 563
Referencesp. 564
Appendix A Power Spectral Densities of Signalsp. 567
A.1 Bandpass Signals and Spectrap. 567
A.2 Bandpass Stationary Random Process and PSDp. 569
A.3 Power Spectral Densities of Digital Signalsp. 572
A.3.1 Case 1: Data Symbols Are Uncorrelatedp. 574
A.3.2 Case 2: Data Symbols Are Correlatedp. 576
A.4 Power Spectral Densities of Digital Bandpass Signalsp. 577
A.5 Power Spectral Densities of CPM Signalsp. 580
Referencesp. 586
Appendix B Detection of Signalsp. 589
B.1 Detection of Discrete Signalsp. 589
B.1.1 Binary Hypothesis Testp. 589
B.1.2 Decision Criteriap. 590
B.1.3 M Hypothesesp. 594
B.2 Detection of Continuous Signals With Known Phasesp. 596
B.2.1 Detection of Binary Signalsp. 596
B.2.2 Decision of M-ary Signalsp. 608
B.3 Detection of Continuous Signals With Unknown Phasesp. 615
B.3.1 Receiver Structurep. 615
B.3.2 Receiver Error Performancep. 621
Referencesp. 625
Glossaryp. 627
About the authorp. 631
Indexp. 633