Cover image for Handbook of mobile radio networks
Title:
Handbook of mobile radio networks
Author:
Tabbane, Sami.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xii, 619 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781580530095
Format :
Book

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TK6570.M6 T33 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

A system-level treatment of the total realm of mobile radio communications, covering both the basic concepts and the systems themselves, to help the reader improve performance, increase productivity and save time. Part One, Basic Concepts, provides a concise introduction to the main topics and techniques involved in mobile radio systems. It covers classic areas such as propagation and signal processing, as well as more recent techniques and concepts such as security, planning, and mobility management. In Part Two, The Systems, there is an inside look at all categories of terrestrial mobile radio systems. Again it covers both traditional topics such as cellular and cordless systems, and more recent, such as mobile radio communications systems, paging, or radio data network systems. In fact all relevant standards are dealt with: TETRA, DECT, PHS, GSM, IS-95, PDC, CDPD, IEEE 802.11, and HYPERLAN. It demonstrates how to link budget calculations, determine the impact of mobility signalling on the network signalling load, design handover procedures and plan for cellular and capacity increases.


Table of Contents

1 General Introductionp. 1
1.1 History and Developmentp. 2
1.1.1 Phase One: Theoretical Foundationsp. 2
1.1.2 Second Phase: Development and Applicationsp. 2
1.1.3 Third Phase: Mobile Services for the General Publicp. 4
1.1.4 Evolution of Mobile Systemsp. 5
1.1.5 Equipment Developmentp. 6
1.2 Differences Between Fixed Networks and Mobile Networksp. 8
1.2.1 Limited Spectrump. 8
1.2.2 Fluctuating Quality of Radio Linksp. 8
1.2.3 Unknown and Variable Access Pointsp. 8
1.3 Management of the Spectrum and Standardizationp. 9
1.3.1 International Organizationsp. 9
1.3.2 European Organizationsp. 10
1.3.3 Some U.S. Organizationsp. 11
1.4 Contents of the Bookp. 11
1.4.1 First Part (Chapters 2-8)p. 11
1.4.2 Second Part (Chapters 9-14)p. 12
Appendix 1A Frequency Bands and Some Services and Applicationsp. 14
Referencesp. 15
Selected Bibliographyp. 15
2 Propagation in a Mobile Radio Environmentp. 17
2.1 Antenna Basic Elementsp. 18
2.1.1 Principal Antenna Characteristicsp. 19
2.1.2 Common Antennasp. 23
2.1.3 Coupling Loss Between Antennasp. 25
2.1.4 Parameters to Be Specified When Designing or Selecting Antennasp. 26
2.1.5 Power (Link) Budgetp. 27
2.2 Mobile Radio Propagationp. 27
2.2.1 Pathlossp. 29
2.2.2 Attenuation Caused by Vegetationp. 32
2.2.3 Attenuation Due to Atmospherep. 32
2.2.4 Diffraction and Fresnel Regionp. 33
2.2.5 Multipathp. 33
2.2.6 Delay-spreadp. 34
2.2.7 Rayleigh Fadingp. 39
2.2.8 Doppler Shiftp. 45
2.2.9 Indoor Environment Propagation Characteristicsp. 46
2.2.10 Propagation in Dense Urban Environmentsp. 47
2.2.11 Conclusionsp. 48
2.3 Interference and Noisep. 48
2.3.1 Noisep. 48
2.3.2 Interferencep. 49
2.4 Propagation Prediction Modelsp. 53
2.4.1 Statistical Methodsp. 54
2.4.2 Exact Methods and Ray Tracing/Launchingp. 62
2.5 Conclusionsp. 69
Appendix 2A Noise That Can Affect Radio Receptionp. 70
2A.1 Internal Noise Sourcesp. 70
2A.2 External Noise Sourcesp. 71
Appendix 2B Decibelsp. 72
Appendix 2C Determination of the Plane Earth Propagation Formulap. 73
Referencesp. 74
Selected Bibliographyp. 76
3 Access--Radio Channel Definitions and Resource Accessp. 77
3.1 Multiple-Access Methodsp. 78
3.1.1 Definitions--Narrowband and Wideband Systemsp. 78
3.1.2 Frequency-Division Multiple Accessp. 82
3.1.3 Time-Division Multiple Accessp. 83
3.1.4 Code-Division Multiple Accessp. 88
3.1.5 Conclusionsp. 100
3.2 Random Access Protocolsp. 100
3.2.1 Protocols Nonslotted and Without Carrier Sensingp. 103
3.2.2 Carrier Sensing Protocolsp. 104
3.2.3 Non-Sensing Slotted Protocolsp. 110
3.2.4 Reservation-Based Framed Protocolsp. 113
3.3 Conclusionsp. 116
Appendix 3A TDMA System Measures of Efficiencyp. 117
Appendix 3B Throughputs of Some Random Access Protocolsp. 119
Referencesp. 120
Selected Bibliographyp. 120
4 Protecting Against Channel Imperfectionsp. 123
4.1 Mechanisms Implemented in the Transmission Systemp. 124
4.1.1 Review of the Transmission Systemp. 124
4.1.2 Modulationp. 125
4.1.3 Error Control: ARQ and FECp. 131
4.1.4 Equalizationp. 143
4.1.5 Interleavingp. 146
4.2 Diversity Techniquesp. 147
4.2.1 Microdiversity Techniquesp. 148
4.2.2 Macrodiversity Techniquesp. 151
4.3 Adaptive Antennasp. 152
4.3.1 Array Antennasp. 152
4.3.2 Smart Antennasp. 153
4.3.3 Space-Division Multiple Access Technique (SDMA)p. 155
4.3.4 Advantages and Drawbacks of Array Antennasp. 158
4.4 Conclusionsp. 159
Referencesp. 159
Selected Bibliographyp. 160
5 Securityp. 163
5.1 Definitions and General Problemsp. 163
5.1.1 Complexity of the Problemp. 164
5.1.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Protectionp. 165
5.1.3 Attacks and Origin of Security Problemsp. 165
5.1.4 Security Services and Mechanisms as Defined in the OSI Modelp. 168
5.2 Confidentiality Problemsp. 168
5.2.1 Confidentiality Levelsp. 168
5.2.2 Data to Be Protectedp. 169
5.3 Protection Methodsp. 169
5.3.1 Communications Confidentiality: Ciphering or Encryptionp. 171
5.3.2 Location Confidentiality by Use of Implicit Addressesp. 180
5.3.3 Access Security: Integrity and Authenticationp. 180
5.3.4 Personalization and Telepersonalizationp. 185
5.3.5 Some Methods in the Struggle Against Fraudp. 187
5.3.6 Conclusionsp. 189
5.4 Examples of Security Feature Implementationp. 190
5.4.1 Authentication in the CT2 and DECT Systemsp. 190
5.4.2 Authentication in Cellular Systemsp. 192
5.5 Conclusions--Future Systems Security Featuresp. 198
Appendix 5A Cryptographic Key Distribution Methodsp. 199
Referencesp. 201
Selected Bibliographyp. 202
Selected Bibliography on Cryptographyp. 203
6 Resource Management in Cellular Systemsp. 205
6.1 Historyp. 206
6.2 The Cellular Conceptp. 207
6.2.1 Frequency Reusep. 207
6.2.2 Reuse Distance and Number of Cells per Clusterp. 209
6.2.3 Capacitiesp. 222
6.2.4 Link Budgetp. 223
6.2.5 Conclusionsp. 229
6.3 System Capacity Expansion Techniques and Network Quality Improvementp. 229
6.3.1 Frequency Hoppingp. 230
6.3.2 Discontinuous Transmission and Packet Transmission Modep. 231
6.3.3 Power Controlp. 233
6.3.4 Dynamic Channel Allocationp. 235
6.4 Basic Cellular System Architecturep. 237
6.4.1 The Network Subsystemp. 238
6.4.2 The BSSp. 239
Referencesp. 243
Selected Bibliographyp. 244
7 Cellular Planning and Engineeringp. 247
7.1 Cellular Planning Elementsp. 248
7.1.1 Importance of the Cellular Planning Processp. 248
7.1.2 Objectives and Problems in Cellular Planningp. 248
7.1.3 Coverage Objectivesp. 250
7.1.4 Main Stepsp. 250
7.2 Traffic Dimensioning Basicsp. 251
7.2.1 Traffic Load Predictionp. 252
7.2.2 Quality of Service Parametersp. 260
7.2.3 Cell Dimensioningp. 263
7.2.4 Dimensioning Process for a GSM Networkp. 265
7.2.5 Conclusionp. 266
7.3 Planning Stages of a Cellular Networkp. 267
7.3.1 Radio Planningp. 267
7.3.2 Fixed Network Planningp. 278
7.3.3 Conclusionp. 283
7.4 System Tuning: Example of the GSM BSSp. 284
7.5 Increasing the Capacity of a Cellular Networkp. 288
7.5.1 Adding New Channelsp. 289
7.5.2 Channel Borrowingp. 291
7.5.3 Modification of the Cell Reuse Patternp. 292
7.5.4 Cell Splittingp. 293
7.5.5 Sectorizationp. 295
7.5.6 Down-Tiltingp. 295
7.5.7 Cell Layeringp. 297
7.5.8 Trends Toward the Microcellular Techniquesp. 299
7.5.9 Capacity Solutions Comparisonp. 299
7.6 Conclusionsp. 300
Appendix 7A Quality of Servicep. 301
Appendix 7B Erlang Formulasp. 303
Appendix 7C Erlang Table Examplep. 306
Referencesp. 308
Selected Bibliographyp. 309
8 Mobility Managementp. 311
8.1 Management of Radio Mobility: The Handover Procedurep. 312
8.1.1 Basic Handover Principlep. 314
8.1.2 Growing Importance of the Handover Procedurep. 314
8.1.3 The Various Handover Phasesp. 316
8.1.4 Various Kinds of Handover Seen by the Networkp. 324
8.1.5 Evaluation of the Handover Procedurep. 327
8.1.6 Handover Trafficp. 331
8.1.7 Handover Procedures in Analog Systemsp. 331
8.1.8 Handover in Second-Generation Systemsp. 332
8.1.9 Handover in Third-Generation Systemsp. 333
8.1.10 Conclusionp. 333
8.2 Network Mobility: Cell Selection and Roamingp. 334
8.2.1 Cell Selection/Reselection Processp. 334
8.2.2 Location Managementp. 336
8.2.3 Mobility Management in the Fixed and Mobile Networks: The UPT Conceptp. 352
8.3 Conclusionsp. 354
Appendix 8A Location Management Methods for Third-Generation Systemsp. 355
8A.1 Memoryless Methodsp. 356
8A.1.1 Database Architecturep. 356
8A.1.2 Optimizing Fixed Network Architecturep. 356
8A.1.3 Combining Location Areas and Paging Areasp. 357
8A.1.4 Multi-layer LAsp. 357
8A.1.5 A Procedure for Reducing Signaling Message Exchangesp. 359
8A.2 Memory-Based Methodsp. 359
8A.2.1 Short-Term Observation for Dynamic LA and PA Sizes Assigning/Adjustingp. 359
8A.2.2 Individual User Patternsp. 360
8A.2.3 Predicting Short-Term Movements of the Subscriberp. 361
8A.2.4 Mobility Statisticsp. 361
Appendix 8B Main UPT Featuresp. 362
Referencesp. 364
Selected Bibliographyp. 367
9 Professional Mobile Radiop. 369
9.1 Historic and General Backgroundp. 370
9.1.1 Definition and General Backgroundp. 371
9.1.2 PMR Categories According to User Needsp. 371
9.1.3 Categorization of Users and Organizationsp. 375
9.1.4 PMR General Categorizationp. 375
9.1.5 PMR Categorization According to Their Operationp. 376
9.2 PMR Servicesp. 377
9.2.1 PMR Characteristicsp. 377
9.2.2 Services Offeredp. 379
9.2.3 Conclusionp. 382
9.3 Conventional PMR Systemsp. 382
9.3.1 Architecture of Conventional Radio Networksp. 382
9.3.2 Weaknesses of Conventional Radio Systemsp. 389
9.4 Trunk Radio Networksp. 390
9.4.1 History of Trunked Systemsp. 390
9.4.2 Efficiency of the Trunking Methodp. 390
9.4.3 Trunking Architecturep. 391
9.4.4 Engineeringp. 398
9.4.5 TETRAp. 399
9.4.6 TETRAPOLp. 413
9.4.7 Conventional PMRs Comparison/Analog Trunk/Digital Trunkp. 418
9.4.8 Short-Range Business Radiop. 418
9.5 PMR Evolutionp. 419
Referencesp. 420
Selected Bibliographyp. 420
10 Cordless Systems and Applicationsp. 421
10.1 Basic Principles and Applicationsp. 422
10.1.1 Characteristicsp. 423
10.1.2 Applicationsp. 425
10.2 Examples of Cordless Systemsp. 433
10.2.1 CT2p. 433
10.2.2 DECTp. 441
10.2.3 PHSp. 450
10.2.4 PACS Systemp. 454
10.3 Conclusionsp. 459
Referencesp. 461
Selected Bibliographyp. 461
11 Paging Systemsp. 463
11.1 Concepts and Basic Principlesp. 464
11.1.1 Architecturep. 465
11.1.2 Signaling Methodsp. 467
11.1.3 Transmission Channelsp. 468
11.1.4 Servicesp. 469
11.1.5 Engineeringp. 470
11.2 Examples of One-Way Paging Systemsp. 476
11.2.1 Eurosignalp. 476
11.2.2 POCSAGp. 478
11.2.3 Ermesp. 482
11.3 Conclusionsp. 494
Referencesp. 495
12 Cellular Networksp. 497
12.1 First-Generation Systemsp. 499
12.1.1 Radiocom 2000 Systemp. 500
12.1.2 AMPSp. 505
12.1.3 NMT Systemp. 509
12.2 Second-Generation Systemsp. 513
12.2.1 The GSM Systemp. 513
12.2.2 The D-AMPS Systemp. 522
12.2.3 The IS-95 Systemp. 524
12.2.4 Personal Digital Cellular Systemp. 532
12.3 Conclusionsp. 539
Appendix 12A GSM Functionality in Its Different Phasesp. 540
Referencesp. 542
13 Wireless Data Networksp. 543
13.1 Wireless Local Area Networksp. 544
13.1.1 Types of Wireless LAN Systemsp. 545
13.1.2 Classification According to the Technique Usedp. 545
13.1.3 Wireless LANs Applicationsp. 548
13.1.4 The HIPERLAN Standardp. 549
13.1.5 The 802.11 Standardp. 557
13.1.6 Conclusionp. 562
13.2 Wide Area Wireless Data Networksp. 563
13.2.1 Types of Systems and Evolutionp. 563
13.2.2 ARDISp. 564
13.2.3 The Mobitex Systemp. 565
13.2.4 Cellular Digital Packet Datap. 571
13.2.5 General Packet Radio Servicep. 576
13.3 Conclusionsp. 583
Referencesp. 584
Selected Bibliographyp. 585
About The Authorp. 587
Indexp. 589