Cover image for Marine mammals : evolutionary biology
Title:
Marine mammals : evolutionary biology
Author:
Berta, Annalisa.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
San Diego : Academic Press, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xiii, 494 pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780120932252
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

This book, by two leading marine mammalogists, is a succinct yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. With chapters on the evolutionary history of the principle lineages, major organ systems, diving physiology, diet, sound production and echolocation, reproductive behavior, and conservation biology, this book will be required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals.


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Berta (San Diego State Univ.) and Sumich (Grossmont College, El Cajon, California) have succeeded in creating both a reference for scientists and a resource for specialized courses. This book is clearly useful as a reference, being thoroughly documented and relatively comprehensive (given the breadth of the field and the book's modest length). Its organization should also make it an effective course resource for upper-division undergraduate students of marine mammal ecology. Divided into two parts, the first covers issues of systematics, cladistics, and testing phylogenetic hypotheses before it delves into the evolutionary history and biogeography of pinnipeds, cetaceans, sirenians, sea otters, polar bears, and extinct relatives. Cladograms derived from recent research illustrate hypothesized relationships. Part 2 covers functional evolutionary ecology and behavior and consists of nine chapters in three themes. Three chapters survey organ systems modified by a marine lifestyle, including sensory, osmoregulatory, locomotion, and respiratory systems. Four chapters treat aspects of behavior and morphology, including communication and echolocation, diet and foraging, mating and social organization, and reproductive structures and strategies. The last two chapters cover population dynamics and conservation issues, including life history traits, harvesting and political regulation, and ecotourism. Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty. J. E. Grinnell; College of Wooster


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
1. Introduction
1.1. Marine Mammals--"What Are They?"p. 1
1.2. Adaptations for Aquatic Lifep. 1
1.3. Scope and Use of This Bookp. 2
1.4. Time Scalep. 2
1.5. Early Observations of Marine Mammalsp. 3
1.6. Emergence of Marine Mammal Sciencep. 7
1.7. Further Reading and Resourcesp. 9
Referencesp. 9
Part I Evolutionary History
2. Systematics and Classification
2.1. Introduction: Systematics--What Is It and Why Do It?p. 11
2.2. Some Basic Terminology and Conceptsp. 12
2.3. How Do You Do Cladistics?p. 16
2.4. Testing Phylogenetic Hypothesesp. 17
2.5. Going Beyond the Phylogenetic Frameworkp. 19
2.6. Taxonomy and Classificationp. 20
2.7. Summary and Conclusionsp. 21
2.8. Further Readingp. 21
Referencesp. 21
3. Pinniped Evolution and Systematics
3.1. Introductionp. 24
3.2. Origin and Evolutionp. 24
3.3. Summary and Conclusionsp. 45
3.4. Further Readingp. 46
Referencesp. 46
4. Cetacean Evolution and Systematics
4.1. Introductionp. 49
4.2. Origin and Evolutionp. 49
4.3. Summary and Conclusionsp. 79
4.4. Further Readingp. 80
Referencesp. 80
5. Sirenians and Other Marine Mammals: Evolution and Systematics
5.1. Introductionp. 86
5.2. Origin and Evolution of Sireniansp. 87
5.3. The Extinct Sirenian Relatives--Desmostyliap. 95
5.4. The Extinct Marine Bear-Like Carnivoran, Kolponomosp. 98
5.5. The Extinct Aquatic Sloth, Thalassocnus natansp. 99
5.6. The Sea Otter, Enhydra lutrisp. 99
5.7. The Polar Bear, Ursus maritimusp. 103
5.8. Summary and Conclusionsp. 105
5.9. Further Readingp. 105
Referencesp. 105
6. Evolutionary Biogeography
6.1. Introduction--What Is Biogeography and Why Is It Important?p. 108
6.2. Ecological Factors Affecting Distributions of Marine Mammalsp. 108
6.3. Present Patterns of Distributionp. 116
6.4. Reconstructing Biogeographic Patternsp. 117
6.5. Past Patterns of Distributionp. 119
6.6. Summary and Conclusionsp. 126
6.7. Further Readingp. 127
Referencesp. 127
Part II Evolutionary Biology, Ecology, and Behavior
7. Integumentary, Sensory, and Urinary Systems
7.1. Introductionp. 130
7.2. Integumentary Systemp. 130
7.3. Nerves and Sense Organsp. 152
7.4. Urinary Systemp. 161
7.5. Summary and Conclusionsp. 164
7.6. Further Readingp. 165
Referencesp. 165
8. Musculoskeletal System and Locomotion
8.1. Introductionp. 173
8.2. Pinnipedsp. 173
8.3. Cetaceansp. 184
8.4. Sireniansp. 206
8.5. Sea Otterp. 211
8.6. Polar Bearp. 213
8.7. Summary and Conclusionsp. 215
8.8. Further Readingp. 215
Referencesp. 216
9. Respiration, Diving, and Breath-Hold Physiology
9.1. Introductionp. 223
9.2. Problems of Deep and Prolonged Dives for Breath-Holdersp. 223
9.3. Pulmonary and Circulatory Adaptations to Divingp. 225
9.4. Diving Biochemistry and Metabolismp. 237
9.5. Do Marine Mammals Have High Metabolic Rates?p. 238
9.6. Metabolism and Physiological Responses to Breath Holding in Sealsp. 238
9.7. Functions of Diving Behaviorp. 245
9.8. Phylogenetic Implications of Diving Patterns in Pinnipedsp. 245
9.9. Diving and Breath-Holding Patterns in Whalesp. 246
9.10. Summary and Conclusionsp. 248
9.11. Further Readingp. 249
Referencesp. 250
10. Sound Production for Communication, Echolocation, and Prey Capture
10.1. Introductionp. 255
10.2. Anatomy and Physiology of Sound Receptionp. 259
10.3. Functions of Sound for Marine Mammalsp. 261
10.4. ATOC and Related Programsp. 283
10.5. Summary and Conclusionsp. 284
10.6. Further Readingp. 285
Referencesp. 285
11. Diet, Foraging Structures, and Strategies
11.1. Introductionp. 290
11.2. Seasonal and Geographical Patterns of Prey Abundancep. 291
11.3. General Diet, Mechanisms, and Strategies for Prey Capturep. 291
11.4. Feeding Specializations of Pinnipedsp. 292
11.5. Diet, Mechanisms, and Strategies for Prey Capture in Whalesp. 301
11.6. Feeding Specializations of Sireniansp. 319
11.7. Feeding Specializations of Other Marine Mammalsp. 325
11.8. Summary and Conclusionsp. 328
11.9. Further Readingp. 329
Referencesp. 329
12. Mating, Breeding, and Social Organization
12.1. Introductionp. 335
12.2. Pinniped Mating Systemsp. 336
12.3. Cetacean Mating Systemsp. 346
12.4. Sirenian Mating Systemsp. 352
12.5. Other Marine Mammalsp. 352
12.6. Summary and Conclusionsp. 355
12.7. Further Readingp. 355
Referencesp. 356
13. Reproductive Structures, Patterns, and Strategies
13.1. Introductionp. 360
13.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive Systemp. 361
13.3. Reproductive Patternsp. 374
13.4. Summary and Conclusionsp. 385
13.5. Further Readingp. 385
Referencesp. 386
14. Population Structure and Population Dynamics
14.1. Introduction: Some Population Parameters and Life History Characteristicsp. 391
14.2. Techniques for Monitoring Populationsp. 403
14.3. Summary and Conclusionsp. 414
14.4. Further Readingp. 414
Referencesp. 414
15. Exploitation and Conservation
15.1. Introductionp. 420
15.2. Commercial Exploitation of Marine Mammalsp. 420
15.3. Legal Framework for Marine Mammal Conservation and Protectionp. 424
15.4. Incidental Taking of Marine Mammalsp. 430
15.5. Environmental Contaminantsp. 435
15.6. Strandingsp. 438
15.7. Ecotourismp. 443
15.8. Progress and the Futurep. 445
15.9. Summary and Conclusionsp. 447
15.10. Further Readingp. 447
Referencesp. 448
Appendix Classification of Marine Mammalsp. 453
Glossaryp. 473
Indexp. 481