Cover image for Fundamentals of soil ecology
Fundamentals of soil ecology
Coleman, David C., 1938-
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San Diego : Academic Press, [1996]

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xv, 205 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
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QH541.5.S6 C65 1996 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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This graduate level text reference is designed to be a bridge between ecologists and soil scientists of all sorts. There is increasing awareness that soil is the organizing centre for all terrestrial ecosystems. This supplemental text examines why this is so, in terms of physics, chemistry, and biology of the soil ecosystem. Aspects of biodiversity and global change, and the important role soils play in global carbon balance, are also discussed. Fundamentals of Soil Ecology is a holistic approach to soil biology and ecosystem function and treats soils as: Living entities, not black boxes Organizing centers for how ecosystems function over time Filled with diverse biota, fauna, microbes, and roots Features: * Living entities, not black boxes * Organizing centers for how ecosystems function over time * Filled with diverses biota, fauna, microbes, and roots

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionp. xi
Preface to the First Editionp. xiii
1 Historical Overview of Soils and the Fitness of the Soil Environmentp. 1
The Historical Background of Soil Ecologyp. 1
Water as a Constituent of Soilp. 4
Elemental Constitution of Soilp. 9
How Soils Are Formedp. 9
Profile Developmentp. 11
Soil Texturep. 13
Clay Mineral Structurep. 15
Soil Structurep. 16
Soils as Suppliers of Ecosystem Servicesp. 20
Summaryp. 20
2 Primary Production Processes in Soils: Roots and Rhizosphere Associatesp. 23
Introductionp. 23
The Primary Production Processp. 23
Methods of Samplingp. 25
Destructive Techniquesp. 25
The Harvest Methodp. 25
Isotope-Dilution Methodp. 28
Root-Ingrowth Techniquep. 28
Nondestructive Techniquesp. 30
Additional Sources of Primary Productionp. 34
Symbiotic Associates of Rootsp. 34
Mycorrhizal Structure and Functionp. 36
Ecosystem-Level Consequences of ECM Functionp. 37
Actinorhizap. 38
Carbon Allocation in the Root/Rhizospherep. 38
Carbon Allocation Costs of Development and Maintenance of Symbiotic Associations with Rootsp. 42
Future Directions for Research on Roots and Mycorrhizal Function and Biodiversityp. 44
Summaryp. 46
3 Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--Microbesp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Compounds Being Decomposedp. 48
Microbial Activities in Relation to Catabolism in Soil Systemsp. 48
Microbial Abundance and Distribution in Soilp. 53
Techniques for Measuring Microbial Communitiesp. 57
Direct Measures of Numbers and Biomassp. 57
Indirect Measures of Biomassp. 59
Chemical Methodsp. 59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Incubation (CFI) Techniquep. 59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Extraction (CFE) Techniquep. 60
Physiological Methods: SIR Techniquep. 61
Additional Physiological Methods of Measuring Microbial Activityp. 61
Enzyme Assays and Measures of Biological Activities in Soilsp. 63
Direct Methods of Determining Soil Microbial Activityp. 66
Soil Sterilization and Partial Sterilization Techniquesp. 67
Conceptual Models of Microbes in Soil Systemsp. 67
Root-Rhizosphere Microbe Models and Experimentsp. 67
Soil Aggregation Modelsp. 69
Models: Organism and Process-Orientedp. 74
Summaryp. 77
4 Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--The Soil Faunap. 79
Introductionp. 79
The Microfaunap. 83
Methods for Extracting and Counting Protozoap. 86
Distribution of Protozoa in Soil Profilesp. 87
Impacts of Protozoa on Ecosystem Functionp. 87
The Mesofaunap. 89
Rotiferap. 89
Features of Body Plan and General Ecologyp. 89
Nematodap. 90
Nematode Feeding Habitsp. 90
Nematode Zones of Activity in Soilp. 93
Nematode Extraction Techniquesp. 94
Tardigradap. 95
Microarthropodsp. 98
Collembolap. 101
Families of Collembolap. 103
Population Growth and Reproductionp. 107
Collembolan Feeding Habitsp. 107
Collembolan Impacts on Soil Ecosystemsp. 108
Acari (Mites)p. 109
Oribatid Mitesp. 111
Abundance and Diversity of Oribatid Mitesp. 114
Population Growthp. 116
Oribatid Feeding Habitsp. 116
Oribatid Impacts on Soil Ecosystemsp. 119
Prostigmatic Mitesp. 119
Mesostigmatic Mitesp. 122
Astigmatic Mitesp. 124
Other Microarthropodsp. 128
Proturap. 128
Diplurap. 129
Microcoryphiap. 130
Pseudoscorpionidap. 130
Symphylap. 131
Pauropodap. 133
Enchytraeidaep. 133
The Macrofaunap. 141
Macroarthropodsp. 141
Importance of the Macroarthropodsp. 141
Isopodap. 143
Diplopodap. 145
Chilopodap. 146
Scorpionidap. 147
Araneaep. 149
Opilionesp. 151
Solifugaep. 152
Uropygip. 152
The Pterygote Insectsp. 153
Coleopterap. 154
Hymenopterap. 159
Dipterap. 161
Isopterap. 162
Other Pterygotap. 166
Gastropodap. 167
Sampling Techniques for Gastropodsp. 168
Oligochaeta--Earthwormsp. 169
Earthworm Distribution and Abundancep. 170
Biology and Ecologyp. 171
Influence on Soil Processesp. 176
Earthworm Managementp. 178
Earthworm Sampling and Identificationp. 179
General Attributes of Fauna in Soil Systemsp. 181
Faunal Feedbacks on Microbial Community Composition and Diversityp. 182
Summaryp. 184
5 Decomposition and Nutrient Cyclingp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Integrating Variablesp. 188
Resource Quality, Climate, and Litter Breakdownp. 190
Dynamics of Litter Breakdownp. 192
Direct Measurement of Litter Breakdownp. 194
Patterns of Mass Loss During Decompositionp. 201
Effects of Fauna on Litter Breakdown Ratesp. 204
Nutrient Movement During Decompositionp. 206
Nutrient Cycling Links in Soil Systemsp. 215
Role of Soil Fauna in Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Turnoverp. 216
Faunal Impacts in Applied Ecology--Agroecosystemsp. 220
Applied Ecology in Forested Ecosystemsp. 222
Summaryp. 225
6 Soil Food Webs: Detritivory and Microbivory in Soilsp. 227
Introductionp. 227
Physiological Ecology of Soil Organismsp. 229
Energy Available for Detrital Food Chains and Websp. 231
Arenas of Interestp. 236
A Hierarchical Approach to Organisms in Soilsp. 237
Future Research Prospectsp. 241
Summaryp. 246
7 Soil Biodiversity and Linkages to Soil Processesp. 247
Introductionp. 247
Biodiversity in Soils and Its Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Functionp. 247
Heterogeneity of Carbon Substrates and Effects on Soil Biodiversityp. 259
Impacts of Species Richness on Ecosystem Functionp. 259
Models, Microcosms, and Soil Biodiversityp. 263
Experimental Additions and Deletions in Soil Biodiversity Studiesp. 265
Problems of Concern in Soil Biodiversity Studiesp. 266
Why Is Soil Diversity So High?p. 269
Biogeographical Trends in Diversity of Soil Organismsp. 269
8 Future Developments in Soil Ecologyp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Roles of Soils in Carbon Sequestrationp. 271
Roles of Soils in the Global Carbon Cyclep. 275
Problems in Modeling Soil Carbon Dynamicsp. 279
Biological Interactions in Soils and Global Changep. 281
Ecology of Invasive Species in Soil Systems: An Increasing Problem in Soil Ecologyp. 285
Soils and "Gaia": Possible Mechanisms for Evolution of "the Fitness of the Soil Environment?"p. 289
Soil Ecology in the Third Millenniump. 293
9 Laboratory and Field Exercises in Soil Ecologyp. 299
Introductionp. 299
Minirhizotron Studiesp. 299
Principlep. 299
Description of a Minirhizotronp. 299
Installation of the Minirhizotronsp. 300
Observation and Recordingp. 300
Getting Data from the Videotapep. 300
Tracing Techniquep. 300
Automated Root Length Measuresp. 301
Soil Respiration Studiesp. 301
Principlep. 301
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 301
Procedurep. 302
Calculationsp. 302
Litter Decomposition Studiesp. 303
Principlep. 303
Litterbag Constructionp. 304
Calculationsp. 305
Analyses for Soil Microbial Biomassp. 305
The Chloroform-Fumigation K[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]-Extraction Methodp. 305
Principlep. 305
Preparation and Handling of Potassium Sulfatep. 306
Sample Preparationp. 306
Potassium Sulfate Extractionsp. 306
Chloroform Fumigationp. 306
Chloroform Removalp. 307
Calculationsp. 307
Sampling and Enumeration of Nematodesp. 308
Principlep. 308
Sampling Considerationsp. 308
Sampling Tool and Precautionsp. 309
Nematode Extraction: Baermann Funnel Methodp. 309
Principlep. 309
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 310
Procedurep. 310
Killing and Fixing Nematodes with Hot and Cold Formalin (5%)p. 311
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 311
Procedurep. 311
Sampling and Enumeration of Microarthropodsp. 311
Principlep. 311
Methods for the Study of Microarthropodsp. 312
Samplingp. 312
Extraction of Microarthropods from Samplesp. 313
Sample Sorting and Identificationp. 315
Sampling and Enumeration of Macroarthropodsp. 317
Principlep. 317
Methods for Sampling Macroarthropodsp. 317
Samplingp. 317
Berlese or Tullgren Extractionp. 318
Flotationp. 318
Emergence Trapsp. 318
Pitfall Trappingp. 318
Sampling and Enumeration of Earthwormsp. 320
Principlep. 320
Collection of Earthwormsp. 320
Passive Techniquesp. 320
Behavioral Techniquesp. 320
Indirect Techniquesp. 323
Identification of Earthwormsp. 323
Sampling and Enumeration of Enchytraeidsp. 323
Principlep. 323
Collection of Enchytraeidsp. 324
Identification of Enchytraeidsp. 325
Referencesp. 327
Indexp. 375