Cover image for UNIX unbounded : a beginning approach
Title:
UNIX unbounded : a beginning approach
Author:
Afzal, Amir.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Third edition.
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xviii, 429 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Language:
English
Title Subject:
ISBN:
9780130200303
Format :
Book

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QA76.76.O63 A366 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Oversize
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Summary

Summary

A true text/tutorial-rather than an operating system manual or UNIX reference-this volume covers the necessary topics for the UNIX user to function independently and perform most of the everyday, routine tasks, and develops a firm foundation for exploring more advanced topics. To ensure that students develop a solid understanding-and appreciation-of where UNIX fits into to the operating system mix, it covers operating system concepts in general before focusing on UNIX and the UNIX environment. *NEW - Coverage of several new commands - e.g., tar and FTP commands. *Textbook format, rather than a technical/reference or a self-learning manual, guides students step-by-step through the material, assuming no previous knowledge of the subject. *Coverage presented in clear, concise, visually-supported segments, enhances readability and comprehension and offers a ready reference at the computer. *UNIX screen simulations, offers visual representations of topics under discussion. *Step-by-step practice examples - Throughout each chapter, helps students practice commands with confidence and better understand the complexities of the system. *In-chapter pedagogy - Opens chapters with fundamental


Table of Contents

1 First Things Firstp. 1
1.1 Introductionp. 3
1.2 Computers: An Overviewp. 3
1.3 Computer Hardwarep. 4
1.3.1 Input Devicesp. 5
1.3.2 Processor Unitp. 5
1.3.3 Internal Memoryp. 6
1.3.4 External Storagep. 9
1.3.5 Output Devicesp. 9
1.4 Process Operationp. 9
1.4.1 Performance Measurementp. 11
1.5 What is Software?p. 11
1.5.1 System Softwarep. 12
1.5.2 Application Softwarep. 17
2 The UNIX Operating Systemp. 19
2.1 The UNIX Operating System: A Brief Historyp. 21
2.1.1 UNIX System Vp. 22
2.1.2 Berkeley UNIXp. 22
2.1.3 UNIX Standardsp. 22
2.2 Other UNIX Systemsp. 22
2.2.1 AIXp. 23
2.2.2 HP-UXp. 23
2.2.3 LINUXp. 23
2.2.4 Solarisp. 23
2.2.5 UNIXWAREp. 23
2.3 Overview of the UNIX Operating Systemp. 23
2.4 UNIX Featuresp. 25
2.4.1 Portabilityp. 25
2.4.2 Multiuser Capabilityp. 25
2.4.3 Multitasking Capabilityp. 25
2.4.4 Hierarchical File Systemp. 25
2.4.5 Device-Independent Input and Output Operationsp. 25
2.4.6 User Interface: shellp. 25
2.4.7 Utilitiesp. 26
2.4.8 System Servicesp. 26
3 Getting Startedp. 29
3.1 Establishing Contact with UNIXp. 31
3.1.1 Logging Inp. 31
3.1.2 Changing Your Password: The passwd Commandp. 32
3.1.3 Logging Offp. 34
3.2 Using Some Simple Commandsp. 34
3.2.1 The Command Linep. 34
3.2.2 Basic Command Line Structurep. 35
3.2.3 Date and Time Display: The date Commandp. 36
3.2.4 Information on Users: The who Commandp. 36
3.2.5 Display a Calendar: The cal Commandp. 38
3.3 Getting Helpp. 39
3.3.1 Using the learn Commandp. 39
3.3.2 Using the help Commandp. 39
3.3.3 Getting More Information: The UNIX Manualp. 39
3.3.4 Using the Electronic Manual: The man Commandp. 40
3.4 Correcting Typing Mistakesp. 40
3.5 Using shells and Utilitiesp. 42
3.5.1 Kinds of shellsp. 42
3.6 More About the Logging in Processp. 43
4 The vi Editor: First Lookp. 49
4.1 What is an Editor?p. 51
4.1.1 UNIX-Supported Editorsp. 51
4.2 The vi Editorp. 52
4.2.1 The vi Modes of Operationp. 52
4.3 Basic vi Editor Commandsp. 53
4.3.1 Access to the vi Editorp. 54
4.3.2 Text Input Modep. 55
4.3.3 Command Modep. 60
4.4 The Memory Bufferp. 67
5 Introduction to the UNIX File Systemp. 73
5.1 Disk Organizationp. 75
5.2 File Types under Unixp. 75
5.3 All About Directoriesp. 76
5.3.1 The Home Directoryp. 77
5.3.2 The Working Directoryp. 77
5.3.3 Understanding Paths and Pathnamesp. 78
5.3.4 Using File and Directory Namesp. 79
5.4 Directory Commandsp. 81
5.4.1 Displaying Directory Pathname: The pwd Commandp. 81
5.4.2 Changing Your Working Directory: The cd Commandp. 81
5.4.3 Creating Directoriesp. 82
5.4.4 Removing Directories: The rmdir Commandp. 85
5.4.5 Listing Directories: The ls Commandp. 85
5.5 Displaying File Contentsp. 94
5.6 Printing File Contentsp. 95
5.6.1 Printing: The lp Commandp. 95
5.6.2 Cancelling a Printing Request: The cancel Commandp. 97
5.6.3 Getting the Printer Status: The lpstat Commandp. 97
5.7 Deleting Filesp. 98
5.7.1 Before Removing Filesp. 100
6 The vi Editor: Last Lookp. 105
6.1 More About the vi Editorp. 107
6.1.1 Invoking the vi Editorp. 107
6.1.2 Using the vi Invocation Optionsp. 108
6.1.3 Editing Multiple Filesp. 108
6.2 Rearranging Textp. 109
6.2.1 Moving Lines: dd and p or Pp. 110
6.2.2 Copying Lines: yy and p or Pp. 111
6.3 Scope of the vi Operatorsp. 112
6.3.1 Using the Delete Operator with Scope Keysp. 112
6.3.2 Using the Yank Operator with Scope Keysp. 114
6.3.3 Using the Change Operator with Scope Keysp. 115
6.4 Using Buffers in vip. 116
6.4.1 The Numbered Buffersp. 116
6.4.2 The Alphabetic Buffersp. 119
6.5 The Cursor Positioning Keysp. 119
6.6 Customizing the vi Editorp. 120
6.6.1 The Options Formatsp. 121
6.6.2 Setting the vi Environmentp. 122
6.6.3 Line Length and Wraparoundp. 124
6.6.4 Abbreviations and Macrosp. 124
6.6.5 The .exrc Filep. 126
6.7 The Last of the Great vi Commandsp. 127
6.7.1 Running shell Commandsp. 127
6.7.2 Joining Linesp. 128
6.7.3 Searching and Replacingp. 128
7 The UNIX File System Continuedp. 133
7.1 File Readingp. 135
7.1.1 The vi Editor Read-Only Version: The view Commandp. 135
7.1.2 Reading Files: The pg Commandp. 135
7.1.3 Specifying Page or Line Numberp. 136
7.2 Shell Redirectionp. 137
7.2.1 Output Redirectionp. 137
7.2.2 Input Redirectionp. 139
7.2.3 The cat Command Revisitedp. 139
7.3 Enhanced File Printingp. 142
7.4 File Manipulation Commandsp. 145
7.4.1 Copying Files: The cp Commandp. 145
7.4.2 Moving Files: The mv Commandp. 147
7.4.3 Linking Files: The ln Commandp. 148
7.4.4 Counting Words: The wc Commandp. 150
7.5 Filename Substitutionp. 152
7.5.1 The ? Metacharacterp. 152
7.5.2 The * Metacharacterp. 153
7.5.3 The [] Metacharactersp. 153
7.5.4 Metacharacters and Hidden Filesp. 154
7.6 More File Manipulation Commandsp. 155
7.6.1 Finding Files: The find Commandp. 155
7.6.2 Displaying the Beginning of a File: The head Commandp. 159
7.6.3 Displaying the End of a File: The tail Commandp. 160
7.6.4 Selection of Portions of a File: The cut Commandp. 161
7.6.5 Joining Files: The paste Commandp. 162
7.6.6 Another Pager: The more Commandp. 163
7.7 Unix Internals: the File Systemp. 164
7.7.1 UNIX Disk Structurep. 164
7.7.2 Putting It Togetherp. 165
8 Exploring the shellp. 175
8.1 The UNIX shellp. 178
8.1.1 Understanding the shell's Major Functionsp. 179
8.1.2 Displaying Information: The echo Commandp. 180
8.1.3 Removing Metacharacters' Special Meaningsp. 181
8.2 Shell Variablesp. 183
8.2.1 Displaying and Removing Variables: The set and unset Commandsp. 184
8.2.2 Assigning Values to Variablesp. 184
8.2.3 Displaying the Values of shell Variablesp. 185
8.2.4 Understanding the Standard shell Variablesp. 186
8.3 More Metacharactersp. 189
8.3.1 Executing the Commands: Using Single Back Quotation Marksp. 189
8.3.2 Sequencing the Commands: Using the Semicolonp. 190
8.3.3 Grouping the Commands: Using Parenthesesp. 190
8.3.4 Background Processing: Using the Ampersandp. 190
8.3.5 Changing the Commands: Using the Pipe Operatorp. 191
8.4 More UNIX Utilitiesp. 192
8.4.1 Timing a Delay: The sleep Commandp. 192
8.4.2 Displaying the PID: The ps Commandp. 192
8.4.3 Keep on Running: The nohup Commandp. 194
8.4.4 Terminating a Process: The kill Commandp. 194
8.4.5 Splitting the Output: The tee Commandp. 196
8.4.6 File Searching: The grep Commandp. 197
8.4.7 Sorting Text Files: The sort Commandp. 199
8.4.8 Sorting on a Specified Fieldp. 201
8.5 Startup Filesp. 203
8.5.1 System Profilep. 203
8.5.2 User Profilep. 204
8.6 The Korn shell (ksh)p. 205
8.6.1 The Korn shell (ksh) Variablesp. 205
8.6.2 The Korn shell (ksh) Optionsp. 205
8.6.3 Commands History (ksh): The history Commandp. 206
8.6.4 Redoing Commands (ksh): The r (redo) Commandp. 207
8.6.5 Aliases (ksh): The alias Commandp. 208
8.6.6 Command Line Editing (ksh)p. 208
8.6.7 Login and Startup: The Korn shell Stylep. 210
8.6.8 Adding Event Numbers to the Prompt (ksh)p. 211
8.7 UNIX Process Managementp. 211
9 UNIX Communicationp. 221
9.1 Ways to Communicatep. 223
9.1.1 Using Two-Way Communication: The write Commandp. 223
9.1.2 Inhibiting Messages: The mesg Commandp. 224
9.1.3 Displaying News Items: The news Commandp. 225
9.1.4 Broadcasting Messages: The wall Commandp. 226
9.1.5 Using Two-Way Communication: The talk Commandp. 227
9.2 Electronic Mailp. 228
9.2.1 Using Mailboxesp. 229
9.2.2 Sending Mailp. 229
9.2.3 Reading Mailp. 230
9.2.4 Exiting mailx: The q and x Commandsp. 232
9.3 mailx Input Modep. 233
9.3.1 Mailing Existing Filesp. 236
9.3.2 Sending Mail to a Group of Usersp. 237
9.4 mailx Command Modep. 237
9.4.1 Ways to Read/Display Your Mailp. 238
9.4.2 Ways to Delete Your Mailp. 240
9.4.3 Ways to Save Your Mailp. 241
9.4.4 Ways to Send a Replyp. 242
9.5 Customizing the mailx Environmentp. 243
9.5.1 Shell Variables Used by mailxp. 243
9.5.2 Setting Up the mailrc Filep. 245
9.6 Communications Outside the Local Systemp. 245
10 Program Developmentp. 251
10.1 Program Developmentp. 253
10.2 Programming Languagesp. 253
10.2.1 Low-level Languagesp. 254
10.2.2 High-level Languagesp. 254
10.3 Programming Mechanicsp. 255
10.3.1 Steps to Creating an Executable Programp. 256
10.3.2 Compilers/Interpretersp. 257
10.4 A Simple C Programp. 258
10.4.1 Correcting Mistakesp. 259
10.4.2 Redirecting the Standard Errorp. 260
10.5 Unix Programming Tracking Utilitiesp. 261
10.5.1 The make Utilityp. 261
10.5.2 The SCCS Utilityp. 262
11 Shell Programmingp. 263
11.1 Understanding Unix shell Programming Language: an Introductionp. 265
11.1.1 Writing a Simple Scriptp. 265
11.1.2 Executing a Scriptp. 266
11.2 Writing More shell Scriptsp. 268
11.2.1 Using Special Charactersp. 269
11.2.2 Logging Off in Stylep. 271
11.2.3 Executing Commands: The dot Commandp. 272
11.2.4 Reading Inputs: The read Commandp. 273
11.3 Exploring the shell Programming Basicsp. 275
11.3.1 Commentsp. 275
11.3.2 Variablesp. 275
11.3.3 The Command Line Parametersp. 277
11.3.4 Conditions and Testsp. 280
11.3.5 Testing Different Categoriesp. 285
11.3.6 Parameter Substitutionp. 290
11.4 Arithmetic Operationsp. 293
11.4.1 Arithmetic Operations (sh): The expr Commandp. 293
11.4.2 Arithmetic Operations (ksh): The let Commandp. 295
11.5 The loop Constructsp. 296
11.5.1 The For Loop: The for-in-done Constructp. 296
11.5.2 The While loop: The while-do-done Constructp. 297
11.5.3 The Until loop: The until-do-done Constructp. 299
11.6 Debugging shell Programsp. 301
11.6.1 The sh Commandp. 301
12 Shell Scripts: Writing Applicationsp. 307
12.1 Writing Applicationsp. 309
12.1.1 The lock1 Programp. 309
12.2 Unix Internals: the Signalsp. 311
12.2.1 Trapping the Signals: The trap Commandp. 312
12.2.2 Resetting the Trapsp. 312
12.2.3 Setting Terminal Options: The stty Commandp. 313
12.3 More About Terminalsp. 314
12.3.1 The Terminals Database: The terminfo Filep. 314
12.3.2 Setting the Terminal Capabilities: The tput Commandp. 315
12.3.3 Solving the lock1 Program Problemsp. 316
12.4 More Commandsp. 319
12.4.1 Multiway Branching: The case Constructp. 319
12.4.2 Revisiting the greetings Programp. 321
12.5 A Menu-Driven Applicationp. 322
12.5.1 The Hierarchy Chartp. 322
12.5.2 The ERROR Programp. 327
12.5.3 The EDIT Programp. 327
12.5.4 The ADD Programp. 328
12.5.5 Record Retrievalp. 332
12.5.6 The DISPLAY Programp. 332
12.5.7 The UPDATE Programp. 336
12.5.8 The DELETE Programp. 339
12.5.9 The REPORTS Programp. 342
12.5.10 The REPORT_NO Programp. 342
13 Farewell to Unixp. 349
13.1 Disk Spacep. 351
13.1.1 Finding Available Disk Space: The df Commandp. 351
13.1.2 Summarizing Disk Usage: The du Commandp. 352
13.2 More Unix Commandsp. 352
13.2.1 Displaying Banners: The banner Commandp. 352
13.2.2 Running Commands at a Later Time: The at Commandp. 353
13.2.3 Revealing the Command Type: The type Commandp. 355
13.2.4 Timing Programs: The time Commandp. 355
13.2.5 Reminder Service: The calendar Commandp. 356
13.2.6 Detailed Information on Users: The finger Commandp. 356
13.2.7 Saving and Distributing Files: The tar Commandp. 359
13.3 Spelling Error Correctionp. 361
13.3.1 Creating Your Own Spelling Listp. 362
13.4 Unix Securityp. 363
13.4.1 Password Securityp. 364
13.4.2 File Securityp. 364
13.4.3 Directory Permissionp. 366
13.4.4 The Super-userp. 366
13.4.5 File Encryption: The crypt Commandp. 366
13.5 Using FTPp. 367
13.5.1 FTP Basicsp. 368
13.5.2 Anonymous FTPp. 374
13.6 Working with Compressed Filesp. 376
13.6.1 The compress and uncompressed Commandsp. 376
Appendix A Command Indexp. 383
Appendix B Command Index by Categoryp. 387
Appendix C Command Summaryp. 391
Appendix D Summary of vi Editor Commandsp. 405
Appendix E ASCII Tablep. 411
Appendix F Reference Booksp. 417
Indexp. 418