Cover image for The 365 most important events of the twentieth century
Title:
The 365 most important events of the twentieth century
Author:
Baldwin, Paul.
Personal Author:
Edition:
First edition.
Publication Information:
New York : W. Morrow, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xxii, 280 pages ; 24 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780688156282
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

The 365 Most Important Events of the Twentieth Century provides a comprehensive view of the last hundred years through the touchstones that have shaped our century. The year 1916, for example, brought both Einstein's theory of relativity and the first official birth control clinic. The year 1953 was marked by the discovery of the DNA double-helix structure, the first successful impregnation with frozen sperm, and two men's victory over the 29,000-foot Mount Everest.

Chronicling the front-page stories that made social and political headlines, Paul Baldwin also touches on the moments that were not necessarily noted at the time but that went on to influence the future profoundly. From Agatha Christie's invention of Hercule Poirot to the official acknowledgment of AIDS in 1981, the events detailed in this book range from the inspiring to the terrifying to the wonderfully silly. Capturing our collective mistakes and triumphs, The 365 Most Important Events of the Twentieth Century offers a welcome perspective on where we have come from and where we might be headed.


Author Notes

Paul Baldwin has written books on a variety of social and historical subjects. He lives in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.


Table of Contents

Introduction
1. 1900--First Picasso Exhibition in Parisp. 3
2. 1900--William McKinley Reelectedp. 3
3. 1900--Cameras for Everyonep. 4
4. 1900--Hawaii and Puerto Rico Become U.S. Territoriesp. 4
5. 1900--Discovery of the Minoansp. 5
6. 1900--Publication of The Wonderful Wizard of Ozp. 5
7. 1900--Art Nouveau Subwaysp. 6
8. 1901--Death of Queen Victoriap. 7
9. 1901--The Nobel Prizesp. 7
10. 1901--The Assembly Linep. 8
11. 1901--"Pomp and Circumstance"p. 8
12. 1902--Ballot Initiativesp. 9
13. 1902--Caruso's First Recordingp. 9
14. 1902--Hormones Discoveredp. 10
15. 1902--Just So Storiesp. 10
16. 1902--The Rose Bowlp. 11
17. 1902--The Three Sistersp. 11
18. 1903--The Flying Machinep. 13
19. 1903--First Primary Electionsp. 13
20. 1903--A Message Sent Around the Worldp. 14
21. 1903--The World Seriesp. 14
22. 1903--The Tour de Francep. 15
23. 1903--The Harley-Davidson Motorcyclep. 15
24. 1904--Helen Keller Graduates from Radcliffe Collegep. 17
25. 1904--Yellow Fever Controlp. 17
26. 1904--The Tea Bagp. 18
27. 1904--Safety Razor Bladesp. 18
28. 1904--First American Subwayp. 19
29. 1904--The Great Train Robberyp. 19
30. 1904--Theodore Roosevelt Wins Landslide Victoryp. 20
31. 1904--The St. Louis Expositionp. 20
32. 1904--Madama Butterflyp. 21
33. 1904--Peter Panp. 21
34. 1905--U.S. Army Submarinesp. 23
35. 1905--Novocainep. 23
36. 1905--The Merry Widowp. 24
37. 1905--The Audubon Societyp. 24
38. 1906--A New Formula for Coca-Colap. 26
39. 1906--The Forward Passp. 26
40. 1906--San Francisco Earthquakep. 26
41. 1907--The Electric Washing Machinep. 28
42. 1907--Conservationp. 28
43. 1907--Daily Comic Stripp. 29
44. 1907--Corporate Campaign Contributions Outlawedp. 29
45. 1908--The Model-Tp. 30
46. 1908--William H. Taft Is Electedp. 30
47. 1909--Freud Visits Americap. 31
48. 1910--Marie Curie Isolates Radiump. 32
49. 1910--The Boy Scoutsp. 32
50. 1910--The Return of Halley's Cometp. 33
51. 1910--Equal Billing for Black Performerp. 34
52. 1910--Mount Wilson Telescopep. 34
53. 1911--Adoption of Greenwich Mean Timep. 36
54. 1911--Amundsen Reaches the South Polep. 36
55. 1911--Rupert Brooke's Poemsp. 37
56. 1911--Traffic Controlp. 37
57. 1911--Standard Oil Is Broken Upp. 38
58. 1911--Der Rosenkavalierp. 38
59. 1912--The SOS Distress Codep. 40
60. 1912--Parachutingp. 40
61. 1912--The Concept of Continental Driftp. 41
62. 1912--The Consumer Price Indexp. 41
63. 1912--Woodrow Wilson Elected Presidentp. 42
64. 1912--Piltdown Man, the "Missing Link"p. 42
65. 1912--Massachusetts Sets Minimum Wagep. 43
66. 1912--Hollywood Studiosp. 44
67. 1912--The Keystone Comediesp. 44
68. 1913--Income Taxesp. 46
69. 1913--B'nai B'rith Anti-Defamation Leaguep. 46
70. 1913--The Rite of Springp. 47
71. 1913--Irish Home Rule Defeatedp. 47
72. 1914--Shakespeare at the Old Vicp. 49
73. 1914--Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinandp. 49
74. 1914--The "St. Louis Blues"p. 50
75. 1914--The Elastic Brassierep. 50
76. 1914--The Machine Gunp. 51
77. 1914--Battle of the Marnep. 51
78. 1915--Transcontinental Phone Servicep. 53
79. 1915--"The Metamorphosis"p. 53
80. 1916--First Birth Control Clinicp. 54
81. 1916--First Woman Elected to U.S. Congressp. 54
82. 1916--Einstein's General Theory of Relativityp. 55
83. 1916--Wilson Narrowly Wins Reelectionp. 55
84. 1916--The Battle of the Sommep. 56
85. 1916--Louis Brandeis Named to the Supreme Courtp. 57
86. 1916--Clarence Birdseye's Frozen Food Experimentsp. 57
87. 1917--United States Enters World War Ip. 58
88. 1917--The Draftp. 58
89. 1917--The Russian Revolutionp. 59
90. 1917--Pravdap. 60
91. 1917--The Word "Surrealist" Is Coinedp. 60
92. 1917--Technicolor Moviesp. 61
93. 1917--"Ready-mades" as Artp. 62
94. 1917--The Pulitzer Prizesp. 62
95. 1918--Spanish Flu Epidemicp. 64
96. 1918--Daylight Saving Timep. 65
97. 1918--Knute Rockne Becomes Coach at Notre Damep. 65
98. 1919--The Treaty of Versaillesp. 67
99. 1919--Prohibition Ratifiedp. 67
100. 1919--First Nonstop Flight Across Atlanticp. 68
101. 1920--Commercial Radiop. 70
102. 1920--The Plague in Indiap. 70
103. 1920--Robotsp. 71
104. 1920--Hercule Poirot Makes His Entrancep. 71
105. 1920--Women Get the Votep. 72
106. 1920--Miss Americap. 73
107. 1920--Warren G. Harding Elected Presidentp. 74
108. 1920--League of Women Votersp. 74
109. 1920--100 Million Strongp. 75
110. 1921--Ku Klux Klan Resurfacesp. 76
111. 1921--Germany Given $132 Billion Reparations Billp. 76
112. 1921--Tomb of the Unknown Soldierp. 77
113. 1921--The Perfume of the Centuryp. 78
114. 1922--Reader's Digestp. 79
115. 1922--Abie's Irish Rosep. 79
116. 1922--The Waste Landp. 80
117. 1923--Tut-Ankh-Amen's Inner Tomb Openedp. 81
118. 1923--Earthquake in Japan Kills 500,000p. 81
119. 1923--Sound Picturesp. 82
120. 1923--The Charlestonp. 82
121. 1924--The First Winter Olympicsp. 84
122. 1924--J. Edgar Hooverp. 84
123. 1924--Weissmuller Sets World Recordp. 85
124. 1924--Calvin Coolidge Elected in His Own Rightp. 86
125. 1924--Native Americans Given Citizenshipp. 86
126. 1924--Billy Buddp. 87
127. 1925--Scotch Tape Inventedp. 89
128. 1925--The "Monkey Trial"p. 89
129. 1925--The New Yorker Foundedp. 90
130. 1925--George Bernard Shaw Wins the Nobel Prizep. 91
131. 1925--Country Music Gains Popularityp. 92
132. 1926--The Eight-Hour Dayp. 93
133. 1926--Gertrude Ederle Swims the English Channelp. 93
134. 1926--Book-of-the-Month Club Foundedp. 94
135. 1926--The Death of Valentinop. 94
136. 1926--Liquid Fuel Rocketp. 95
137. 1926--"Pooh"p. 96
138. 1927--Lindbergh's Solo Atlantic Flightp. 97
139. 1927--Car Insurancep. 97
140. 1927--Execution of Sacco and Vanzettip. 98
141. 1927--Babe Ruth Sets Home-Run Recordp. 98
142. 1927--The First "Disc Jockey"p. 99
143. 1928--Herbert Hoover Elected Presidentp. 100
144. 1928--"Steamboat Willie"p. 100
145. 1928--Antimatterp. 101
146. 1928--Academy Awardsp. 101
147. 1929--The St. Valentine's Day Massacrep. 103
148. 1929--"Black Friday"p. 103
149. 1929--Byrd Flies Over South Polep. 104
150. 1929--The Museum of Modern Artp. 105
151. 1930--The Ninth Planet Discoveredp. 106
152. 1930--The Grand Slam of Golfp. 106
153. 1930--Population Explosionp. 107
154. 1930--The World Cupp. 107
155. 1931--A National Anthemp. 109
156. 1931--Nevada Legalizes Gamblingp. 109
157. 1931--The Empire State Buildingp. 110
158. 1931--The British Commonwealth of Nationsp. 111
159. 1932--Franklin D. Roosevelt Elected Presidentp. 112
160. 1932--A Depression Anthemp. 112
161. 1932--Mobilesp. 113
162. 1932--Into the Stratospherep. 113
163. 1933--The Concept of the Chain Reactionp. 114
164. 1933--"Fireside Chats"p. 115
165. 1933--Ulysses Allowed into United Statesp. 116
166. 1934--Hitler as Fuhrerp. 117
167. 1934--The Long Marchp. 117
168. 1934--The Dust Bowlp. 118
169. 1935--National Labor Relations Actp. 119
170. 1935--Social Securityp. 119
171. 1935--Joliot-Curies Win Nobel Prize in Chemistryp. 120
172. 1935--Alcoholics Anonymousp. 121
173. 1936--Life Magazinep. 122
174. 1936--Spanish Civil Warp. 122
175. 1936--The "Nazi Olympics"p. 123
176. 1936--Abdication of Edward VIII of Great Britainp. 124
177. 1936--Roosevelt Reelected to Second Termp. 125
178. 1936--The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Portersp. 125
179. 1937--Burning of the Hindenburgp. 127
180. 1937--Amelia Earhart Disappears in Pacificp. 127
181. 1938--Xeroxingp. 129
182. 1938--The House Un-American Activities Committeep. 129
183. 1938--"Peace in Our Time"p. 130
184. 1938--Polytetrafluorethylenep. 131
185. 1939--New York World's Fairp. 132
186. 1939--Hitler Invades Polandp. 132
187. 1939--Black Holesp. 133
188. 1939--Nylon Stockingsp. 133
189. 1939--First Commercial Transatlantic Flightp. 134
190. 1939--Hollywood's Greatest Yearp. 135
191. 1939--The Helicopterp. 135
192. 1940--The Retreat from Dunkirkp. 136
193. 1940--The Battle of Britainp. 136
194. 1940--Roosevelt Elected to Unprecedented Third Termp. 137
195. 1940--The Magnetronp. 138
196. 1940--Lend-Leasep. 138
197. 1940--The Blood Bankp. 139
198. 1941--The Siege of Leningradp. 140
199. 1941--Marian Anderson Sings at the Lincoln Memorialp. 140
200. 1941--Mount Rushmore Memorial Completedp. 141
201. 1941--Mass Production of Penicillinp. 142
202. 1941--The Attack on Pearl Harborp. 143
203. 1941--The United Nationsp. 144
204. 1942--The "Final Solution"p. 145
205. 1942--Japanese Internment Camps in the United Statesp. 145
206. 1942--"I Shall Return"p. 146
207. 1942--The Battle of Midwayp. 146
208. 1942--The Battle of Alameinp. 147
209. 1942--The Jeepp. 148
210. 1942--Controlled Chain Reactionp. 148
211. 1942--"Rosie the Riveter"p. 149
212. 1943--The Loss of a Starp. 151
213. 1943--The Pentagonp. 151
214. 1943--The Battle of Kurskp. 152
215. 1943--Superfortress B-29sp. 152
216. 1943--Italy Switches Sidesp. 153
217. 1944-D-Dayp. 154
218. 1944-The V-1 Rocketp. 155
219. 1944-Bretton Woods Conferencep. 155
220. 1944--General de Gaulle Returns to Parisp. 156
221. 1944-Roosevelt Wins Fourth Termp. 156
222. 1945--American Flag Raised at Iwo Jimap. 158
223. 1945--Yaltap. 158
224. 1945--Hitler Commits Suicidep. 159
225. 1945--The European War Overp. 159
226. 1945--Potsdam Conferencep. 160
227. 1945--Atomic Bomb Dropped on Hiroshimap. 161
228. 1946--The "Iron Curtain"p. 162
229. 1946--"Spock Says"p. 162
230. 1946--Nazi War Leaders Condemned to Deathp. 163
231. 1946--ENIACp. 163
232. 1947--The Marshall Planp. 165
233. 1947--Jackie Robinson Breaks the Baseball Color Linep. 165
234. 1947--Partition of India and Pakistanp. 166
235. 1947--Breaking the Sound Barrierp. 167
236. 1947--Polaroid Camerap. 167
237. 1948--Gandhi Assassinatedp. 169
238. 1948--The State of Israel Is Bornp. 169
239. 1948--Apartheid Formalizedp. 170
240. 1948--"Dewey Defeats Truman"p. 171
241. 1948--The Long-Playing Recordp. 171
242. 1949--The People's Republic of Chinap. 173
243. 1949--Radiocarbon Datingp. 173
244. 1949--National Basketball Associationp. 174
245. 1950--First Organ Transplantp. 175
246. 1950--The Korean War Beginsp. 175
247. 1950--The Diner's Club Cardp. 176
248. 1950--Alger Hiss Convictedp. 176
249. 1951--Truman Fires MacArthurp. 178
250. 1952--Dick Button's Triple Jumpp. 179
251. 1952--Dwight Eisenhower Elected Presidentp. 179
252. 1952--Hydrogen Bombp. 180
253. 1953--DNAp. 181
254. 1953--Everest Conqueredp. 182
255. 1953--Coronation of Elizabeth IIp. 182
256. 1953--Successful Impregnation with Frozen Spermp. 183
257. 1954--Nuclear-Powered Submarinep. 184
258. 1954--Breaking the Four-Minute Milep. 184
259. 1954--Polio Vaccinep. 185
260. 1954--Cigarettes Cause Cancerp. 185
261. 1954--Solar Batteriesp. 186
262. 1954--Northland Shopping Mallp. 187
263. 1954--McCarthyismp. 188
264. 1956--Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycottp. 189
265. 1956--The Hungarian Uprisingp. 190
266. 1956--Eisenhower Reelectedp. 190
267. 1956--Television Remote Controlp. 191
268. 1957--Civil Rights Actp. 192
269. 1959--Hawaii Becomes Fiftieth Statep. 193
270. 1959--Castro's Cubap. 193
271. 1959--De Gaulle and the Fifth Republicp. 194
272. 1960--Lasersp. 195
273. 1960--The Guggenheim Museump. 195
274. 1960--First Televised Presidential Debatesp. 196
275. 1960--John F. Kennedy Elected Presidentp. 197
276. 1961--The "Military-Industrial Complex"p. 199
277. 1961--Yuri Gagarin Is First Man to Orbit Earthp. 199
278. 1961--Rudolf Nureyev Defectsp. 200
279. 1961--The Berlin Wall Risesp. 201
280. 1961--The Peace Corpsp. 201
281. 1962--John Glenn Is First American to Orbit Earthp. 202
282. 1962--Silent Springp. 202
283. 1963--The Feminine Mystiquep. 204
284. 1963--The March on Washingtonp. 204
285. 1963--President Kennedy Assassinatedp. 205
286. 1964--The Beatles Come to Americap. 206
287. 1964--Ranger 7 Transmits Photos of Moonp. 206
288. 1964--Khrushchev Ousted as Soviet Leaderp. 207
289. 1964--Warren Commission Reportp. 207
290. 1964--Lyndon Johnson Wins Landslide Victoryp. 208
291. 1965--Early Bird Communications Satellitep. 209
292. 1965--The Great Blackoutp. 209
293. 1965--Geminis in Space Rendezvousp. 210
294. 1966--Draft Protestsp. 211
295. 1966--Miranda Rightsp. 211
296. 1966--The "Cultural Revolution" in Chinap. 212
297. 1967--Six-Day War in Middle Eastp. 213
298. 1967--Thurgood Marshall Becomes First Black on Supreme Courtp. 213
299. 1967--First Heart Transplantp. 214
300. 1968--Martin Luther King, Jr., Assassinatedp. 215
301. 1968--Robert F. Kennedy Assassinatedp. 215
302. 1968--Richard M. Nixon Elected Presidentp. 216
303. 1968--Apollo Astronauts Orbit Moonp. 216
304. 1969--Men Walk on Moonp. 217
305. 1970--Ozone Layer Warningsp. 218
306. 1971--Communist China Admitted to the United Nationsp. 219
307. 1972--U.S./Soviet Arms Agreementp. 220
308. 1972--U.S. Supreme Court Bars Death Penaltyp. 220
309. 1972--Equal Rights Amendmentp. 221
310. 1972--Israeli Olympians Killedp. 221
311. 1972--Nixon Reelected in Landslidep. 222
312. 1973--Stephen Sondheim Ascendantp. 223
313. 1973--Vice President Agnew Resignsp. 224
314. 1974--President Nixon Resignsp. 225
315. 1975--Watergate Conspirators Guiltyp. 226
316. 1975--Microsoft Foundedp. 226
317. 1976--Viking 1 Lands on Marsp. 228
318. 1976--Ordination of Women as Episcopal Priestsp. 228
319. 1976--Jimmy Carter Elected Presidentp. 229
320. 1977--Vietnam Draft Evaders Pardonedp. 230
321. 1977--Panama Canal Treatyp. 230
322. 1977--The Gossamer Condorp. 231
323. 1978--John Paul IIp. 233
324. 1978--The Camp David Accordsp. 234
325. 1979--Three Mile Island Nuclear Accidentp. 235
326. 1979--Margaret Thatcher Becomes Prime Minister of Great Britainp. 235
327. 1979--The Hostages in Iranp. 236
328. 1980--The Walkmanp. 238
329. 1980--Microbes Can Be Patentedp. 238
330. 1980--Moscow Olympics Boycottedp. 239
331. 1980--Ronald Reagan Elected Presidentp. 239
332. 1981--First Shuttle Flightp. 240
333. 1981--Abortion Approved by Italian Votersp. 241
334. 1981--AIDS Officially Recognizedp. 241
335. 1981--First Woman on Supreme Courtp. 242
336. 1982--"Pac-Man of the Year"p. 243
337. 1983--Pioneer 10 Leaves Solar Systemp. 244
338. 1983--U.S. Loses America's Cupp. 244
339. 1984--Torvill and Dean Find Perfectionp. 245
340. 1984--Home Video Taping Legalp. 245
341. 1984--Breakup of ATandTp. 246
342. 1984--Reagan Reelected by Huge Marginp. 246
343. 1985--Famine in Ethiopiap. 248
344. 1986--Soviets Launch Mir Space Stationp. 249
345. 1986--Antiapartheid Act Passed by U.S. Congressp. 249
346. 1988--The Grand Slam Plusp. 251
347. 1988--George Bush Elected Presidentp. 251
348. 1989--The Berlin Wall Fallsp. 253
349. 1990--The Hubble Telescopep. 254
350. 1990--Surgery on the Unbornp. 254
351. 1990--Lech Walesa Elected President of Polandp. 255
352. 1991--Pan American Airlines Closed Downp. 256
353. 1991--"Operation Desert Storm"p. 256
354. 1991--The End of the Soviet Unionp. 257
355. 1992--William Jefferson Clinton Elected Presidentp. 258
356. 1993--The Internetp. 259
357. 1994--Election of Nelson Mandelap. 260
358. 1995--The Oklahoma City Bombingp. 261
359. 1996--Clinton Reelected Presidentp. 262
360. 1997--Dolly, a Cloned Sheepp. 263
361. 1997--Death of Princess Dianap. 263
362. 1998--Hong Kong Reverts to Chinap. 265
363. 1998--Peace in Northern Irelandp. 265
364. 1999--Impeachment of President Clintonp. 267
365. 1999--The Millennium Bugp. 268