Cover image for Measuring minds : Henry Herbert Goddard and the origins of American intelligence testing
Title:
Measuring minds : Henry Herbert Goddard and the origins of American intelligence testing
Author:
Zenderland, Leila.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Physical Description:
ix, 466 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Contents:
Introduction : Motives, meanings, and contexts -- Spirit and science : faith, healing, and mission -- "A little child shall lead them" : educational evangelism and child study -- "Psychological work among the feeble-minded" : the medical meaning of "mental deficiency" -- Psychological work in the schools : the statistical meaning of "subnormality" -- Causes and consequences : the Kallikak family as eugenic parable -- The biology and sociology of "prevention" : defectives, dependents, and delinquents" -- Psychological work and the state : reformers, professionals, and the public --Psychological work and the nation : the political meaning of intelligence -- Leaving Vineland : popularity, notoriety, and a place in history -- Epilogue : Psychological legacies, historical lessons, and luck.
ISBN:
9780521443739
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

This book explores the origins of the American intelligence testing movement. It follows the life and work of Henry Herbert Goddard, America's first intelligence tester and author of the most popular American eugenics tract, The Kallikak Family. The book traces the controversies surrounding Goddard's efforts to bring Alfred Binet's tests of intelligence from France to America and to introduce them into the basic institutions of American life - from hospitals to classrooms to courtrooms. It shows how testers used their findings to address the most pressing social and political questions of their day, including poverty, crime, prostitution, alcoholism, immigration restriction, and military preparedness. It also explores the broader legacies of the testing movement by showing how Goddard's ideas helped to reshape the very meaning of mental retardation, special education, clinical psychology, and the 'normal' mind in ways that would be felt for the rest of the century.


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Zenderland's excellent biography of H.H. Goddard traces his life from his evangelical Quaker origins to the doubts and bewilderment that assailed him as his work came under increasing criticism during his later years. In the process Zenderland examines Goddard's role in promoting use of intelligence tests as a diagnostic tool by physicians, and their adoption in public schools, courts of law, and at Ellis Island. Whereas Raymond Fancher's The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy (CH, Dec'85) is primarily an intellectual history of the heredity-environment debate, this study offers the first social history of the adoption of intelligence testing by various American institutions and includes an examination of the post-WW I controversies about the meaning and the political implications of testing. By effectively using the voices of Goddard's contemporaries, Zenderland helps the reader understand both the early acceptance and the later rejection of his notorious "scientific" study of feeblemindedness, The Kallikak Family (1919). Goddard's enormous influence on the understanding of mental retardation, and thus on the "normal" mind, make this book not only fascinating, but also essential for historians, psychologists, educators, and anyone interested in issues regarding the measurement of intelligence. All levels. K. S. Milar; Earlham College


Table of Contents

Introduction: motives, meanings, and contexts
1 Spirit and science: faith, healing, and mission
2 'A little child shall lead them': educational evangelism and child study
3 'Psychological work among the feeble-minded': the medical meaning of 'mental deficiency'
4 Psychological work in the schools: the statistical meaning of 'subnormality'
5 Causes and consequences: the Kallikak family as eugenic parable
6 The biology and sociology of 'prevention': defectives, dependents, and delinquents
7 Psychological work and the state: reformers, professionals, and the public
8 Psychological work and the nation: the political meaning of intelligence
9 Leaving Vineland: popularity, notoriety, and a place in history
Epilogue: psychological legacies, historical lessons, and luck