Cover image for Racial and ethnic relations in America
Racial and ethnic relations in America
Bankston, Carl L. (Carl Leon), 1952-
Publication Information:
Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press, [2000]

Physical Description:
3 volumes (xxxviii, 1148 pages, lx pages) : illustrations ; 26 cm
v. 1. Ability testing--Ethnic enclaves -- v. 2. Ethnic entrepreneurship--Political correctness -- v. 3. Politics and racial/ethnic relations in Canada--Zoot-suit riots.



Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
E49 .R33 2000 V.3 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating
E49 .R33 2000 V.1 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating
E49 .R33 2000 V.2 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating

On Order



These essays on the subject of American racial and ethnic relations present clear descriptions of ideas and theories, descriptions of people and events, and facts on topics including court cases, education, organizations, and movements.

Reviews 3

Booklist Review

Racial and ethnic differences are at the root of many of the problems facing both the U.S. and Canada today. The conflict between French-and English-speaking Canadians, and the increasing concerns about immigration, bilingual education, affirmative action, and English-only movements in the U.S., highlight the tensions between and among different ethnic and racial groups in both countries. This encyclopedia provides in-depth information about the background and history of racial and ethnic relations in the U.S. and Canada. The three volumes contain 897 signed entries in alphabetical order, beginning with Ability testing and ending with Zoot-suit riots. Some of the entries have less than 200 words and are followed by see also references that point to larger related topics. Other entries are comprehensive overviews of major topics, such as Latinos in the United States; Treaties and agreements with Indians: Canada; and Welfare reform: impact on racial/ethnic relations. These essays are preceded by statements of the significance of each topic and are followed by a list of core resources, as well as see also references. Each volume includes a categorized list of entries for the set, as well as an alphabetical list of volume-specific subject headings. Volume three has a section entitled "Pioneers of Intergroup Relations" that lists individuals alphabetically within ethnic groups and gives brief biographical information about each person. Volume three also contains a time line that begins in 1619, when the first blacks were brought to the Colony of Virginia as indentured servants, and moves through 1998, when Sam Bowers, a former Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, was sentenced to life in prison for ordering the 1966 murder of civil rights activist Vernon Dahmer. An extensive bibliography of more than 2,000 resources includes works by theorists such as Gordon Allport and Gunnar Myrdal but concentrates on research and resources within the past 20 years. The set concludes with two indexes, a general index and a personages index. Main entries are indicated in the general index by bold type This is a comprehensive resource that will be used in high-school, academic, and public libraries. The essays are thoughtful and clear, the language is easy to understand, and the scope is very broad. Pertinent charts and graphs, photographs, and illustrations accompany the essays. The binding and layout are well done, so that the volumes lie flat when open. Wide margins allow for easy photocopying. One minor drawback is that the general index is not included in all three volumes. Whether information is needed about the significance of rap music, the various civil rights acts, court cases that have defined racial identity and law, the influence of one minority group upon another, hate crimes, gangs, or historical demographics, it will be found here. Libraries that already own materials dealing with specific ethnic groups will find that this resource gives their collection more breadth. It is an excellent adjunct to Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America [RBB D 1 95] and is highly recommended.

School Library Journal Review

Gr 9 Up-An excellent compendium of articles related to race relations and ethnicity in the U.S. and Canada. Topics range from the obscure "Filipino Veterans' movement" to the landmark Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case, yet all were chosen for their theoretical, historical, and/or current relevance. An introductory paragraph summarizes the content of all but the shortest of the alphabetical entries. Longer articles such as "American Indian dance and music," "Japanese Americans," and the "Separatist movement in Quebec" are followed by an annotated bibliography and see-also references. Lists of entries by broad subject area, an index of people, and a general index facilitate access. Other features include a chronology of pertinent events, brief biographies of "Pioneers of Intergroup Relations," and a comprehensive bibliography. Black-and-white photographs, charts, time lines, and graphs are sprinkled throughout this authoritative resource.-Janet Woodward, Garfield High School, Seattle, WA (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Choice Review

This ambitious work, attempting to cover the "most important topics, events, and issues surrounding relations between and among the peoples of North America," contains almost 900 entries, ranging from brief definitions of 200 words to essays of 2,500 or more written by dozens of contributors, mostly academics. It includes theoretical essays (assimilation theories, cultural pluralism), historical entries (Jewish Americans, Vietnamese Americans), and current events and issues (racial and ethnic demographic trends). Arranged alphabetically, most essays (except the brief definitions) include a "Significance" section summarizing the topic's importance for intergroup relations. Longer entries contain brief bibliographies; nearly every entry has several cross-references. Illustrated with graphs, charts, time lines, and more than 275 black-and-white photographs, each volume concludes with a categorized list of entries; the final volume includes a time line, a lengthy unannotated bibliography, name and subject indexes, and brief biographies of "pioneers of intergroup relations." The work's aim, to provide a "reliable and dispassionate source of facts and information," is exemplified in such entries as "Korean-African American relations" and "Asian Indians in the US," which provide excellent introductions. It also contains material on hard-to-locate subjects--e.g., "Japanese Peruvians in the United States" and "Irish-African American Relations." Although generally useful, this encyclopedia fails its ambitious goal to serve as the "basic and centralized resource from which to begin investigation." Many entries do not offer bibliographic references, and the bibliography at the end of v.3, while listing some 2,000 sources, makes no connection with individual entries. Although dated and lacking some of Salem's coverage, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, ed. by Stephan Thernstrom (CH, Jan'81), which offers annotated bibliographic references for every entry and more authoritative essays, remains the classic reference work. Salem, fine and generally useful, is recommended for all libraries, although its price will restrict purchase to larger academic and public libraries. D. Altschiller; Boston University

Table of Contents

Volume 1

p. viii

Introduction: Editor's Notep. ix
List of Contributorsp. xiii
Ability testingp. 1
Abolitionp. 3
Aboriginal Action Planp. 4
Aboriginal Canadiansp. 5
Accent discriminationp. 9
Accommodationismp. 10
Adarand Constructors v. Penap. 11
Adolescent ethnic identityp. 11
Affirmative actionp. 14
African American-American Indian relationsp. 18
African American Baptist Churchp. 20
African American cowboysp. 21
African American literaturep. 22
African American musicp. 24
African American stereotypesp. 27
African American womenp. 29
African Americans and filmp. 31
African Americans in the Civil Warp. 33
African Canadiansp. 35
African Liberation Dayp. 38
Afro-Caribbeansp. 38
Afrocentrismp. 40
Aid to Families with Dependent Childrenp. 40
AIDS conspiracy theoryp. 41
Alaska Native Brotherhood and Alaska Native Claims Settlementp. 41
Alcatraz Island occupationp. 42
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Educationp. 43
Alianza Federal de Mercedesp. 43
Alien land lawsp. 44
Alienationp. 45
All African People's Revolutionary Partyp. 45
Allotment systemp. 46
AME Churchp. 46
AME Zion Churchesp. 48
Amerasian Homecoming Act of 1987p. 48
American Anti-Slavery Societyp. 49
American Civil Liberties Unionp. 50
American Colonization Societyp. 52
American Council on Race Relationsp. 52
American Indian activismp. 52
American Indian agriculturep. 55
American Indian civil rightsp. 57
American Indian Civil Rights Actp. 59
American Indian dance and musicp. 60
American Indian Defense Associationp. 62
American Indian demographicsp. 63
American Indian literaturep. 66
American Indian Movementp. 67
American Indian Policy Review Commissionp. 68
American Indian Religious Freedom Actp. 69
American Indian slaveryp. 69
American Indian stereotypesp. 71
American Indian studiesp. 72
American Indian theaterp. 75
American Indian womenp. 77
American Indians and filmp. 79
American Indians in the justice systemp. 80
American Jewish Committeep. 83
American Jewish Congressp. 83
American Nazi Partyp. 84
Amerindp. 85
Amistad slave revoltp. 86
Ancient Order of Hiberniansp. 87
Anglo-conformityp. 88
Anglo-Protestant stereotypesp. 88
Anglo-Protestantsp. 88
Anglo-Saxonp. 89
Anglophonep. 89
Annihilation of racial and ethnic groupsp. 89
Anti-Catholicismp. 91
Anti-Defamation Leaguep. 92
Anti-Semitismp. 92
Antislavery laws of 1777 and 1807p. 94
Apache Warsp. 96
Apartheidp. 97
Arab American intergroup relationsp. 99
Arab American stereotypesp. 102
Arab Americansp. 103
Arab Canadiansp. 108
Aryan Nationp. 109
Aryan "race"p. 109
Ashkenazic and German Jewsp. 110
Asian American Legal Defense Fundp. 110
Asian American literaturep. 111
Asian American movementp. 113
Asian American stereotypesp. 114
Asian American womenp. 115
Asian Americans and filmp. 118
Asian Indians in Canadap. 120
Asian Indians in the United Statesp. 123
Asian Pacific American Labor Alliancep. 126
Assimilation: cultural and structuralp. 127
Assimilation theoriesp. 129
Atlanta Compromisep. 131
Attitude-receptional assimilationp. 133
Authoritarian personality theoryp. 133
Bakke casep. 136
Banking practicesp. 137
Baseballp. 138
Batson v. Kentuckyp. 139
Behavior-receptional assimilationp. 140
Bigotryp. 140
Bilingual educationp. 140
Bilingual Education Actp. 143
Bilingualism in Canadap. 145
Biosocial theoriesp. 148
Biracialismp. 149
Bison slaughterp. 151
Black "brute" and "buck" stereotypesp. 153
Black cabinetp. 153
Black churchp. 154
Black codesp. 156
Black colleges and universitiesp. 156
Black conservatismp. 158
Black flightp. 160
Black Is Beautiful movementp. 161
Black Jewsp. 161
Black middle class/black underclass relationsp. 162
Black nationalismp. 164
Black-on-black violencep. 167
Black Panther Partyp. 167
Black Power movementp. 169
Blackness and whiteness: legal definitionsp. 170
Bleeding Kansasp. 171
Bloc Quebecoisp. 172
Blue lawsp. 173
Body of Libertiesp. 174
Bolling v. Sharpep. 175
Bracero programp. 176
Brain drainp. 177
British as dominant groupp. 178
Broadcast mediap. 179
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Portersp. 181
Brown v. Board of Educationp. 181
Buchanan v. Warleyp. 183
Bureau of Indian Affairsp. 183
Burke Actp. 184
Busing and integrationp. 185
Cable Actp. 188
Cambodian Americansp. 188
Campus ethnoviolencep. 189
Canarsie riotsp. 191
Carlisle Indian Schoolp. 191
Caste modelp. 192
Caucasianp. 193
Celtic Irishp. 193
Censuses, U.S.p. 194
Certificate of Degree of Indian Bloodp. 196
Charleston race riotsp. 196
Charter of Rights and Freedomsp. 196
Charter of the French Languagep. 198
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgiap. 199
Cherokee Tobacco casep. 200
Chicago Conferencep. 200
Chicano movementp. 201
Children in the Civil Rights movementp. 204
Chin, Vincent, murderp. 204
Chinatownsp. 205
Chinese American Citizens Alliancep. 206
Chinese Americansp. 208
Chinese Canadiansp. 210
Chinese Exclusion Actp. 213
Chinese Six Companiesp. 214
Christian Frontp. 216
Christian Identity movementp. 217
Church burningsp. 217
Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. Hialeahp. 218
Citizens' Councilsp. 218
Citizenship Actp. 219
Civic assimilationp. 220
Civil libertiesp. 220
Civil Liberties Act of 1988p. 223
Civil rightsp. 224
Civil Rights Act of 1957p. 226
Civil Rights Act of 1960p. 227
Civil Rights Act of 1964p. 228
Civil Rights Act of 1968p. 229
Civil Rights Act of 1991p. 231
Civil Rights Acts of 1866-1875p. 231
Civil Rights casesp. 232
Civil Rights movementp. 232
Civil Rights Restoration Actp. 236
Civil Warp. 237
Class theories of racial/ethnic relationsp. 240
"Classless" societyp. 242
Clinton massacrep. 243
Clinton's Initiative on Racep. 243
Code switchingp. 244
Colegrove v. Greenp. 244
Coleman Reportp. 244
Colfax massacrep. 245
College admissionsp. 245
College entrance examinationsp. 246
Colliflower v. Garlandp. 249
Colonial model of racismp. 249
"Color-blind" societyp. 250
Color codingp. 250
Colored Women's Leaguep. 251
Columbus's voyagesp. 251
Competition theory and human ecologyp. 253
Compromise of 1850p. 254
Compromise of 1877p. 256
Confiscation Acts of 1861 and 1862p. 256
Conformity theoriesp. 256
Congress of Racial Equalityp. 257
Congressional Black Caucusp. 258
Congressional Hispanic Caucusp. 259
Conquest and annexationp. 260
Conservatives and racial/ethnic relationsp. 262
Constitutional racismp. 263
Contact and adaptation patternsp. 264
Contact hypothesisp. 266
Cooliesp. 268
Cooper v. Aaronp. 269
Cooperative learningp. 269
Council of Federated Organizationsp. 271
Crack cocainep. 272
Creolep. 273
Cress theoryp. 273
Crime and race/ethnicityp. 274
Criminal justice systemp. 277
Critical race theoryp. 281
Crown Heights conflictsp. 282
Cuban-African American relationsp. 283
Cuban American National Foundationp. 285
Cuban Americansp. 286
Cuban Revolutionp. 288
Cultural citizenshipp. 290
Cultural pluralismp. 290
Cultural relativity vs. ethnocentrismp. 290
Culture and languagep. 291
Culture of povertyp. 292
Curanderismop. 295
Declaration of First Nationsp. 296
Deference ritualsp. 296
Delano Grape Strikep. 297
Delgamuukw v. British Columbiap. 299
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Developmentp. 299
Desegregation: defensep. 300
Desegregation: public schoolsp. 302
Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sovereigntyp. 304
Detroit riotp. 305
Diasporap. 306
Discriminationp. 307
Discrimination: behaviorsp. 308
Discrimination: direct institutionalizedp. 309
Discrimination: direct vs. indirectp. 309
Discrimination: indirect institutionalizedp. 310
Discrimination: intentional vs. unintentionalp. 311
Discrimination: overt/expressed vs. covertp. 311
Discrimination: racial and ethnicp. 312
Discrimination: responses top. 315
Discrimination: spatial dimensionsp. 317
Discrimination: systemicp. 318
Disease and intergroup contactp. 318
Disfranchisement laws in Mississippip. 321
Disidentificationp. 322
Disparate impact theoryp. 322
Distinct society conceptp. 323
Diversityp. 324
Diversity training programsp. 324
Dominant groupp. 326
Dominican Americansp. 327
Dot-bustingp. 329
Draft riotp. 329
Drugs and racial/ethnic relationsp. 331
Duro v. Reinap. 334
Dyer antilynching billp. 334
Eastern European Jewsp. 335
Ebonicsp. 335
Economics and racep. 336
Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Companyp. 339
Education and African Americansp. 339
Education and American Indiansp. 342
Education and Asian Americansp. 346
Education and racial/ethnic relationsp. 349
Egalitarian symbiosisp. 352
Elk v. Wilkinsp. 352
Emancipation Proclamationp. 353
Employment among African Americansp. 355
Employment among American Indiansp. 358
Employment among Asian Americansp. 361
Employment among Latinosp. 363
Employment Division, Dept. of Human Resources of the State of Oregon et al. v. Smithp. 366
Employment in Canadap. 367
Enclave economiesp. 369
English-only and official English movementsp. 370
Entitlement programsp. 372
Environmental racismp. 375
Epithet transferp. 375
Epithets and pejorative languagep. 376
Equal educational opportunityp. 377
Equal Employment Opportunity Actp. 380
Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionp. 380
Equalityp. 381
Equality of opportunityp. 382
Ethnic cleansingp. 382
Ethnic enclavesp. 383
Categorized List of Entriesp. III
Volume 2

p. xxix

Ethnic entrepreneurshipp. 385
Ethnic heritage revivalp. 387
Ethnic identities of womenp. 388
Ethnic studies programsp. 393
Ethnicity and ethnic groupsp. 395
Ethnocentrismp. 397
Ethnocidep. 397
Ethnogenesis theoryp. 398
Ethnoviolencep. 398
Euro-Americanp. 399
Eurocentrismp. 399
European immigration to Canada: 1867-presentp. 399
European immigration to the United States: 1790-1892p. 401
European immigration to the United States: 1892-1943p. 404
Ex parte Crow Dogp. 407
External colonialismp. 407
Fair Employment Practices Committeep. 408
Fair Housing Actp. 408
Family and socialization: African Americansp. 410
Family and socialization: American Indiansp. 412
Family and socialization: Asian Americansp. 414
Family and socialization: Latinosp. 415
Fascism in Canadap. 417
Federal riotp. 418
Federally recognized tribesp. 418
Fifteen Principlesp. 419
Fifteenth Amendmentp. 419
Filipino Americansp. 420
Filipino Veterans' movementp. 422
Fish-insp. 422
Foreign professionalsp. 423
Fourteenth Amendmentp. 424
Francophonep. 426
Frank, Leo, lynchingp. 426
Free African Societyp. 426
Free blacksp. 428
Free-Soil Partyp. 428
Freedmen's Bureaup. 428
Freedom Ridersp. 430
Freedom Summerp. 431
French Canadian womenp. 431
French Canadiansp. 432
Friends of the Indianp. 435
Friendships, interracial/interethnicp. 435
Frustration-aggression theoryp. 438
Fugitive slave lawsp. 439
Fullilove v. Klutznickp. 440
Fusion movementp. 441
Gadsden Purchasep. 442
Gamblingp. 442
Gendered racismp. 443
General Allotment Actp. 444
Generational acculturationp. 445
Genetic basis for racep. 447
Genocide: culturalp. 449
Genocide of American Indiansp. 450
Genocide: physicalp. 452
Gentlemen's Agreementp. 453
German Americansp. 455
Ghost Dance religionp. 457
Glass ceilingp. 458
Goetz, Bernhard, incidentp. 458
Graham v. Richardsonp. 459
Grandfather clausesp. 460
Great Migrationp. 460
Green v. County School Board of New Kent Countyp. 461
Greensboro sit-insp. 462
Griffin v. Breckenridgep. 463
Griggs v. Duke Power Companyp. 463
Grovey v. Townsendp. 464
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty ofp. 464
Guinn v. United Statesp. 465
Gullahp. 466
Gypsiesp. 466
Haitians and Haitian refugeesp. 467
Hansen effectp. 468
Harlem Renaissancep. 469
Harlins, Latasha, murderp. 469
Harper v. Virginia Board of Electionsp. 470
Hate Crime Statistics Actp. 470
Hate crimesp. 471
Hate speechp. 473
Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Americansp. 474
Hawkins, Yusuf, murderp. 477
Head Startp. 477
Health care and racial/ethnic relationsp. 478
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United Statesp. 480
Hirabayashi v. United Statesp. 481
Hispanic vs. Latinop. 481
Hmong Americansp. 482
Holocaustp. 484
Holocaust denialp. 487
Homelessnessp. 488
Horton, Willie, incidentp. 490
Housingp. 490
Human Rights Actp. 493
Hymietown statementp. 495
Hypersegregationp. 496
Hypodescentp. 496
Hypogamyp. 497
"I Have a Dream" speechp. 498
Identification assimilationp. 500
Ideological racismp. 500
Illegal aliensp. 500
Immigrant advantagep. 501
Immigrant womenp. 501
Immigration Act of 1917p. 503
Immigration Act of 1924p. 504
Immigration Act of 1943p. 506
Immigration Act of 1990p. 507
Immigration and emigrationp. 508
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952p. 511
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965p. 512
Immigration and Naturalization Servicep. 514
Immigration "crisis"p. 514
Immigration law: Canadap. 517
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986p. 519
Incorporationp. 520
Indentured servitudep. 521
Indianp. 521
Indian Act of 1876p. 521
Indian Act of 1951p. 522
Indian Act of 1989p. 522
Indian Appropriation Actp. 523
Indian Child Welfare Actp. 525
Indian Citizenship Actp. 525
Indian Claims Commissionp. 526
Indian Education Actsp. 526
Indian Gaming Regulatory Actp. 526
Indian New Dealp. 528
Indian offensesp. 528
Indian preferencep. 529
Indian Removal Actp. 529
Indian Reorganization Actp. 530
Indian Rights Associationp. 531
Indian Territoryp. 531
Indian-white relations: Canadap. 532
Indian-white relations: United Statesp. 534
Indigenous superordinationp. 538
Individual racismp. 538
Inequalityp. 539
Institutional racismp. 539
Integrationp. 542
Intelligence and racep. 545
Intelligence testingp. 548
Internal colonialismp. 549
Internalized racismp. 551
International Indian Treaty Councilp. 552
Interracial and interethnic marriagep. 552
Iranian Americansp. 555
Irish-African American relationsp. 556
Irish American stereotypesp. 557
Irish Americansp. 558
Irish Catholic "race"p. 560
Irredentismp. 560
Israeli Americansp. 561
Italian American stereotypesp. 563
Italian Americansp. 564
Jamaican Americansp. 568
Japan bashingp. 569
Japanese American Citizens Leaguep. 570
Japanese American internmentp. 572
Japanese Americansp. 573
Japanese Canadiansp. 576
Japanese Peruvians in the United Statesp. 579
Jewish-African American relationsp. 580
Jewish American outmarriagep. 582
Jewish Americansp. 583
Jewish Americans as a middleman minorityp. 586
Jewish-Arab American relationsp. 588
Jewish Canadiansp. 590
Jewish Defense Leaguep. 592
Jewish ethnicity: definitionsp. 592
Jewish stereotypesp. 593
Jewish womenp. 594
Jim Crow lawsp. 595
Job Corpsp. 597
John Brown's raidp. 597
Jokes and humorp. 599
Jones Act of 1917p. 601
Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Companyp. 602
Judaismp. 603
Jury nullificationp. 605
Jury selectionp. 606
Kansas-Nebraska Actp. 608
Keeler Commissionp. 608
Keetoowah Societyp. 608
Kennedy Reportp. 609
Kerner Reportp. 609
Keyes v. Denver School District No. 1p. 610
King, Martin Luther, Jr., assassinationp. 611
King, Rodney, casep. 612
Know-Nothing Partyp. 614
Komagata Maru incidentp. 614
Korean-African American relationsp. 614
Korean Americansp. 616
Korematsu v. United Statesp. 617
Ku Klux Klanp. 618
Ku Klux Klan Actsp. 620
Labor movementp. 621
Latinasp. 624
Latino literaturep. 626
Latino stereotypesp. 627
Latinos and filmp. 628
Latinos in the United Statesp. 630
Lau v. Nicholsp. 633
League of United Latin American Citizensp. 635
Liberator, Thep. 637
Lincoln-Douglas debatesp. 639
Literacy testsp. 640
Little Bighorn, Battle of thep. 640
Little Havanap. 642
Little Italiesp. 642
Little Rock school desegregationp. 643
Little Tokyosp. 644
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcockp. 644
Long Walkp. 645
Longest Walkp. 647
Loo, Ming Hai, murderp. 648
Los Angeles riots of 1992p. 649
Lynchingsp. 650
Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Associationp. 652
McCleskey v. Kempp. 653
Machine politicsp. 653
Mainstreamingp. 654
Majority and minorityp. 654
Malcolm X assassinationp. 655
Maquiladorasp. 657
Mariel boatliftp. 658
Marital assimilationp. 660
Marranosp. 660
Marxist modelsp. 661
Massie casep. 661
Meech Lake Accordp. 662
Melting pot theoryp. 662
Meritocracy mythp. 663
Mestizop. 663
Metisp. 664
Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 666
Mexican American Women's National Associationp. 666
Mexican deportationsp. 666
Miami riots of 1980p. 668
Middleman minoritiesp. 669
Migrant superordinationp. 671
Military and racial/ethnic relationsp. 671
Military desegregationp. 673
Milliken v. Bradleyp. 674
Million Man Marchp. 675
Million Woman Marchp. 676
Minority and majority groupsp. 677
Minority voting districtsp. 679
Miscegenation lawsp. 679
Missions, missionaries, and American Indiansp. 680
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Partyp. 681
Missouri Compromisep. 682
"Model" minoritiesp. 684
Molly Maguiresp. 686
Mongrelizationp. 687
Montgomery bus boycottp. 687
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvisp. 689
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1890p. 689
Motown Recordsp. 690
Moynihan Reportp. 690
Mulattoesp. 691
Multiculturalismp. 691
Multiculturalism Actp. 693
Multiculturalism in Canadap. 694
Multiracial identityp. 695
Multiracial movementp. 697
Muslims in North Americap. 700
Naivete explanation of racismp. 702
Nation of Islamp. 702
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disordersp. 704
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoplep. 704
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Defense and Educational Fundp. 707
National Association of Colored Womenp. 707
National Black Women's Political Leadership Caucusp. 708
National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in Americap. 708
National Congress of American Indiansp. 708
National Council of American Indiansp. 709
National Council of Colored Peoplep. 709
National Council of Negro Womenp. 711
National Indian Associationp. 712
National Indian Youth Councilp. 712
National Urban Leaguep. 713
Native Americanp. 714
Native American Churchp. 714
Native American Church v. Navajo Tribal Councilp. 714
Native American Rights Fundp. 715
Nativismp. 715
Naturalization Act of 1790p. 717
Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Actp. 717
Navajo Rehabilitation Actp. 718
Navajo Warp. 719
Nazismp. 719
Negro Conventionsp. 721
New York City slave revoltp. 722
Newark race riotsp. 724
Newberry v. United Statesp. 725
Nez Perce exilep. 725
Niagara Movementp. 727
Nisga's Agreement in Principlep. 729
Nixon v. Herndonp. 729
Nonviolent resistancep. 730
Nordic "race"p. 731
North Star, Thep. 732
Northwest Ordinancep. 734
Nunavut Territoryp. 734
October crisisp. 735
Official Languages Actp. 737
Oka crisisp. 738
Oklahoma Indian Welfare Actp. 739
Ole Miss desegregationp. 739
Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribep. 741
One-drop rulep. 742
Operation Bootstrapp. 742
Operation Wetbackp. 743
Oppositional culturep. 745
Oppression mentalityp. 745
Options for ethnic identityp. 746
Orangeburg massacrep. 746
Orderly Departure Programp. 747
Orientalismp. 747
"Other" theoryp. 747
Out-groupp. 748
Ozawa v. United Statesp. 748
Page lawp. 751
Pan-Africanismp. 753
Panethnicityp. 753
Pan-Indianismp. 753
Pasadena City Board of Education v. Spanglerp. 755
Passingp. 756
Patriarchal systemp. 756
Peltier killingsp. 757
Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slaveryp. 757
People of colorp. 759
People v. George Hallp. 759
Peyote religionp. 760
Philadelphia riotsp. 761
Philippine insurrectionp. 763
Pine Ridge shootoutp. 765
Platt Amendmentp. 765
Plessy v. Fergusonp. 767
Pluralism vs. assimilationp. 769
Pluralism vs. particularismp. 770
Plyler v. Doep. 771
Pogromp. 772
Police brutalityp. 772
Polish Americansp. 775
Political correctnessp. 777
Categorized List of Entriesp. XV
Volume 3

p. xxxviii

Politics and racial/ethnic relations in Canadap. 779
Politics of hatep. 781
Poll taxp. 781
Poor People's March on Washingtonp. 782
Pope's Revoltp. 782
Positive ethnocentrismp. 784
Poverty and racep. 784
Power elitep. 787
Powwowsp. 789
Prejudice and discrimination: Merton's paradigmp. 790
Prejudice and stereotypingp. 791
Prejudice: effectsp. 793
Prejudice: reductionp. 796
President's Committee on Civil Rightsp. 798
Proclamation of 1763p. 798
Progressive inclusion theory of assimilationp. 799
Proposition 187p. 799
Proposition 209p. 800
Proslavery argumentp. 802
Psychological theories of intergroup relationsp. 803
Psychology of racismp. 806
Public Law 280p. 808
Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 809
Puerto Ricop. 809
Push and pull factorsp. 811
Quotasp. 812
Race as a conceptp. 813
Race cardp. 816
Race-neutralityp. 816
Race relations cyclep. 817
Race riots of 1866p. 819
Race riots of 1943p. 821
Race riots of the twentieth centuryp. 823
Racial and ethnic demographics in Canadap. 825
Racial and ethnic demographics: trendsp. 826
Racial/ethnic relations in Canadap. 829
Racial/ethnic relations: race-class debatep. 836
Racial/ethnic relations: theoretical overviewp. 838
Racial formation theoryp. 840
Racial hierarchyp. 841
Racial propagandap. 841
"Racial" vs. "ethnic"p. 843
Racism as a "system of advantage"p. 844
Racism as an ideologyp. 845
Racism: changing nature ofp. 847
Racism: history of the conceptp. 848
Rainbow Coalitionp. 851
Rap musicp. 852
R.A.V. v. City of St. Paulp. 853
Reapportionment casesp. 853
Reconstructionp. 855
Red Scarep. 856
Redemption periodp. 858
Redistrictingp. 858
Redliningp. 860
Redress movementp. 860
Refugee fatiguep. 861
Refugees and racial/ethnic relationsp. 862
Refugees: Canadian policyp. 863
Refugees: U.S. policyp. 864
Reitman v. Mulkeyp. 865
Relative deprivation theoryp. 865
Religion-based ethnicitiesp. 866
Relocation of American Indiansp. 868
Repatriationp. 870
Representation: gerrymandering, malapportionment, and reapportionmentp. 870
Republic of New Africap. 871
Reservation system of the United Statesp. 872
Reserve system of Canadap. 875
Resistance, cultures ofp. 876
Restrictive or racial covenantsp. 876
Retribalizationp. 877
"Reverse" racismp. 877
Reynolds v. Simsp. 877
Richmond v. J. A. Croson Companyp. 878
Riel Rebellionsp. 878
Roldan v. Los Angeles Countyp. 880
Roosevelt coalitionp. 880
Rootsp. 880
Rosenberg trialp. 881
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoplesp. 882
Runyon v. McCraryp. 884
Russian Americansp. 885
Sabotagep. 887
Sacco and Vanzetti trialp. 887
Sanctuary movementp. 889
Sand Creek massacrep. 890
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinezp. 891
Santeriap. 891
Scandinavian Americansp. 892
"Scientific" racismp. 894
Scotch-Irish "race"p. 895
Scott v. Sandfordp. 895
Scottsboro trialsp. 896
Segmented assimilation theoryp. 898
Segregationp. 898
Segregation: de facto and de jurep. 900
Segregation on the frontierp. 900
Segregation vs. integrationp. 901
Self-determination movementsp. 903
Self-identification among Asian Americansp. 904
Self-identification among Latinosp. 905
Self-segregationp. 906
Sell-outp. 907
Selma-Montgomery marchp. 907
Seminole Warsp. 908
Separatismp. 909
Separatist movement in Quebecp. 910
Sephardic Jewish Americansp. 912
Set-asidesp. 912
Settlement housesp. 913
Sexual fears and racismp. 914
Sharecroppingp. 915
Shaw v. Renop. 916
Shelley v. Kraemerp. 916
Sikhs in Canadap. 917
Sikhs in the United Statesp. 918
Simpson, O. J., trialp. 919
Sioux Warp. 921
Skinheadsp. 922
Slave codesp. 923
Slave rebellionsp. 924
Slavery and race relationsp. 925
Slavery and the justice systemp. 928
Slavery: historyp. 931
Slavery: North American beginningsp. 935
Smith v. Allwrightp. 937
Social Darwinism and racismp. 938
Social identity theoryp. 939
Social mobility and racep. 941
Social perception of othersp. 943
Social rearticulationp. 946
Social stratification theoriesp. 946
Socialization and reference groupsp. 950
Society of American Indiansp. 953
Sociobiology and racep. 953
Somatic norm theoryp. 954
Soulp. 954
Southern Christian Leadership Conferencep. 955
Southern Conference for Human Welfarep. 956
Southwest Voter Registration Education Projectp. 957
Soviet Jewish immigrantsp. 957
Split labor market theoryp. 958
Sportsp. 959
Standardized testing and IQ testing controversiesp. 962
Standing Bear v. Crookp. 964
Status Indiansp. 964
Stereotypep. 965
Stereotyping and the self-fulfilling prophecyp. 965
Structural assimilationp. 967
Structural racismp. 967
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committeep. 968
Subordinate groupp. 969
Summit Meeting of National Negro Leadersp. 969
Supreme Court and ethnic representationp. 969
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Educationp. 970
Sweatt v. Painterp. 971
Symbolic interactionismp. 971
Symbolic racismp. 973
Syncretismp. 973
Taiwanese Americansp. 975
Talented Tenthp. 975
Technology: impact on American Indiansp. 976
Tecumseh's Rebellionp. 977
Termination Resolutionp. 978
Teutonic "race"p. 980
Third World strikep. 980
Thirteenth Amendmentp. 980
Thomas/Hill hearingsp. 981
Three-fifths compromisep. 982
Tibetans in North Americap. 983
Tokenismp. 984
Tolerancep. 984
Trial of Broken Treatiesp. 984
Trail of Tearsp. 985
Transnationalism and ethnonationalismp. 987
Transracial adoptionp. 987
Treaties and agreements with Indians: Canadap. 989
Treaties and agreements with Indians: United Statesp. 991
Tribal councilsp. 994
Tribal courtsp. 994
Tribal sovereigntyp. 995
Tribalismp. 997
Triple oppressionp. 997
Turner's slave insurrectionp. 998
Tuskegee Airmenp. 999
Tuskegee experimentp. 1000
Twice migrantsp. 1000
Tydings-McDuffie Actp. 1001
Underclass theoriesp. 1002
Underground Railroadp. 1002
Undocumented worker/migrantp. 1004
United Farm Workersp. 1005
United Jewish Appealp. 1006
United Negro College Fundp. 1006
United States Commission on Civil Rightsp. 1006
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thindp. 1008
United States v. Cruikshankp. 1008
United States v. Kagamap. 1008
United States v. Reesep. 1008
United States v. Washingtonp. 1009
United Steelworkers of America v. Weberp. 1009
Universal Negro Improvement Associationp. 1010
Urban Indiansp. 1012
Urban underclass and the rural poorp. 1013
Vietnamese Americansp. 1016
Vietnamese Canadiansp. 1017
Visible minority allophones in Canadap. 1019
Voting Rights Act of 1965p. 1022
Voting rights of aboriginals: Canadap. 1023
Voting rights of American Indians: United Statesp. 1024
War Brides Actp. 1026
Wards Cove Packing Company v. Atoniop. 1027
Washington v. Davisp. 1028
WASPp. 1028
Water rightsp. 1029
Watts riotp. 1029
Weber v. Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporationp. 1031
"Welfare queen" stereotypep. 1031
Welfare reform: impact on racial/ethnic relationsp. 1032
Welfare stereotypesp. 1034
Welfare's impact on racial/ethnic relationsp. 1035
West Indian Americansp. 1037
West Indian uprisingsp. 1039
White Aryan Brotherhoodp. 1041
White churchp. 1041
White ethnicsp. 1042
White flightp. 1043
White man's burdenp. 1043
White Paper of 1969p. 1043
White "race"p. 1044
White supremacist groupsp. 1045
Whitesp. 1046
Wilson-Willie debatep. 1047
Wisconsin v. Mitchellp. 1048
Women and racismp. 1048
Women of All Red Nationsp. 1051
Women of colorp. 1051
Wong Kim Ark v. United Statesp. 1053
Work ethicp. 1054
Wounded Knee massacrep. 1055
Wounded Knee occupationp. 1056
Xenophobia, nativism, and eugenicsp. 1058
Yellow peril campaignp. 1061
Yellow Powerp. 1063
Young Lordsp. 1063
Zionismp. 1065
Zoningp. 1065
Zoot-suit riotsp. 1066
Pioneers of Intergroup Relationsp. 1067
Time Linep. 1087
Bibliographyp. 1101
Categorized List of Entriesp. XXVII
Personages Indexp. XXXVII
Indexp. XLII