Cover image for Art for dummies
Art for dummies
Hoving, Thomas, 1931-2009.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Foster City, CA : IDG Books Worldwide, [1999]

Physical Description:
xxiv, 382 pages, 32 unnumbered pages of color plates : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm.
Subject Term:
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
N7477 .H68 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
N7477 .H68 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
N7477 .H68 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf

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If you've always wanted to find out more about art but felt intimidated by the overeducated art world, then you've found the answer. Art For Dummies is the book that will have you and everyone you know clamoring outside the doors of your local museum. Thomas Hoving, former director of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, is credited with revolutionizing the Met, doubling its size during his tenure, and bringing art to the masses. Let him bring art to you as well.

In Art For Dummies , Thomas Hoving provides a how-to guide to the art world. First, he guides you through an introduction to art appreciation, pointing out the details that you've always noticed but have never been able to explain. Next, Hoving takes you on a ride through art history. (Have you ever regretted not taking those art history classes in school With Art For Dummies , you'll feel all caught up and ready to spar with the local intellectuals.) Hoving even includes a guide to the world?s top art cities and centers, a listing that can help you prepare for your next artistic voyage. With this guide, you can discover where to go in order to see the greatest works of art, and you can also find out about hidden treasures in nearby art museums.

You also get a great start for seeking out art with Hoving's lists of the greatest works of Western civilization, the most interesting artists, and the contemporary artists to watch. Don't wait another day to introduce yourself to the art world!

Author Notes

Thomas Hoving is the former director of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art and the former editor of Connoisseur magazine.

Reviews 1

Library Journal Review

In this delightful book, Hoving, the witty former director of the Metropolitan Museum, leads readers gently through thousands of years of art history. He spends most of the book historicizing Western art, but he also touches on how to start an art collection, how to evaluate artistically precocious children, how to visit museums (stop first, he says, at the postcard stand in the bookstore), and where to go to see art. His breathless enthusiasm is avuncular, scholarly, and quite infectiousÄan attitude that happily precludes condescension. He urges readers not to worry about contemporary "isms" and instead to pay attention to art that "makes the blood rush faster." He also provides juicy biographical information about major artists: Rembrandt was a "thoroughly disreputable" character, Drer "arrogant," Hogarth a "full-time curmudgeon." He even suggests CDs to listen to while watching the light show at Giza. The sole drawbacks are the insulting series title (for dummies this isn't) and the collection of pithy, puerile cartoons that epigrammatically open each chapter. A terrific book for students, travelers, tyros, and old hands alike, this is highly recommended for all libraries.ÄDouglas F. Smith, Oakland P.L., CA (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.



Chapter One What Is Art? * * * In This Chapter • Defining art • Recognizing different levels of art • Realizing the constant in art • Knowing good art * * * The definition of art has changed almost every day since the first artist created the first work at least fifty thousand years ago. In fact, the definition of art has to shift whenever an innovator appears. Definitions range across the full spectrum of humanity and are infinite in number. A classic sour one is that dreamed up by the Roman poet Horace: "He who knows a thousand works of art, knows a thousand frauds." Pretty and polite is that served up by the great 17th century French painter Nicholas Poussin, "The purpose of art is delectation." Smug and proper is a Victorian definition, "Art is something made with form and beauty." A well-known contemporary assessment is, "Art is," which, oddly, although slightly bewildering, is probably closer to the mark than anything. Toward a Definition of Art TOM SAYS The bottom line is that art can be almost anything. What is considered to be good art and bad art has also changed over the eons. I find it significant that with each change of definition, something considered non-art or bad art by a previous generation is suddenly acceptable. Because I am a medievalist (when every kind of art was as good as another and art was always part of daily life), I define all art -- past, present, and future -- in the broadest possible way. My definition is, "Art happens when anyone in the world takes any kind of material and fashions it into a deliberate statement." All-encompassing? You bet. You'll say, but this definition includes popular art and crafts. Yes, it does. And why not? Folk art and especially crafts are as legitimate as so-called "high art" (and in 50 years or so may be thought of as far more legitimate than the somewhat off-putting contemporary "high art"). From the birth of modern art in 1907 ( Les Demoiselles d'Avignon by Picasso), art doesn't have to please as Poussin would have it or have beauty and form as the Victorians would insist. It can even be deliberately ugly and be profoundly satisfying. In fact, the only true enemy of art is taste. True art has no taste, good or bad. (Although it can be disgusting and tasteless.) Think of it this way: does the explosive Last Judgment by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel have taste? (See Figure 1-1.) No. Or even the Sistine Chapel Ceiling itself? No, again. Is a penetrating late self-portrait by Rembrandt showing the artist as a bloated wreck in good taste? Of course not. Great works of art are beyond taste, fashion, and what's trendy. Levels of art Even if virtually anything can be art, there are levels of quality. I suppose a cute green clay frog or a sad circus clown painted on fuzzy black velvet can be a phenomenal work of art, but I doubt it. Yet, something created out of chopped up green-frog clay or the paint made by grinding up the tatters of paintings of oh-so-sad circus clowns can definitely be art and may even be great art, too. The constant in art The one constant thing about all art is that it is forever changing. There have been countless changes in the long history of art. The most significant have been brought about by the genius of a single artist. Some changes have come about through the invention of new media and new techniques -- say, the birth of mosaic, manuscript illumination, oil paint, or perspective. Other changes have come about because a young artist threw aside all traditions and depicted his or her world in a fresh, different, and completely new way. Leonardo Da Vinci was one such revolutionary. So was Claude Monet. And Pablo Picasso, of course. (You can find all these artists described in this book.) Each change was Initially looked upon with suspicion and skepticism as to its artistic worth, but in time, each was accepted. And the same will be true of all the "nutty" subjects, styles, and media that will show up in the future. How to Recognize Good Art TIP How can you tell if a work of art is any good? That's simple. * Does it express successfully what it's intending to express? * Does it amaze you in a different way each time you look at it? * Does it grow in stature? * Does it continually mature? * Does its visual impact of mysterious, pure power increase every day? * Is it unforgettable? If the answers are all Yes! then it's got a chance to be great. All great art will strongly affect the viewer in some way. Some great art is bothersome -- for example, at times I find the paintings of the French Post-Impressionist Paul Cézanne (described in Chapter 14) puzzlingly awkward, even inept, but I cannot keep my eyes off them nonetheless. To appreciate a work of art, is it okay to like what you like (and the heck with the art critics or experts)? Absolutely. Even ceramic green frogs? Yes. But to a point. For if you learn how to appreciate true art (explained immediately below), it is a given that you'll probably begin by loving a fairly primitive and unsophisticated kind of art, and you will soon elevate your sights and in time look to new heights. TOM SAYS As you climb the stairs of quality, you'll meet individual works that you'll need for the rest of your life, works that will thrill you, energize you, lift your soul, soothe you, make you smile, make you think about the fate of mankind and the universe, make you have to see them again and again for the good of your psyche, state of mind, and strength of heart. Chapter Two How to Appreciate Art Without an Advanced Degree * * * In This Chapter • Becoming a connoisseur • Knowing what is good • Going beyond book learning • Remaining a connoisseur * * * There have been many gifted and sharp-eyed curators (keepers and protectors) in the 129-year history of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art -- hundreds of them, expert in fields as diverse as ancient Egypt, Arms and Armor, and Prints, Drawing, and Photographs. Line up the letters designating the advanced degrees held by the curators who worked at the Metropolitan over the years -- those MAs, MFAs, and Ph.D.s -- and they'd stretch from Maine to Oregon. Yet the single most accomplished curator in the history of the grand institution had no advanced degree and was self-taught in art history. He was for most of his life a stockbroker. His name was William Ivins, and he was responsible for establishing the all-encompassing Prints collection. He was perhaps the most legendary "eye" or connoisseur in the history of the Metropolitan. The Key to Being a Connoisseur What is an "eye"? Simply, someone who can instantly spot quality in art in all its subtle gradations. How did Bill Ivins become such a special "eye"? First, he had the urge to know about art, and second, he possessed an inborn talent for appreciating art, which he may not have recognized for some years. But he needed more than that. He recognized he'd never be able to appreciate art in the right way if he didn't get saturated. The bottom line of connoisseurship and art appreciation is saturation -- seeing it all. Ivins immersed himself in prints, tens of thousands of them of all kinds and levels of quality. Soon he was cataloging in his keen mind every unique quality -- the strokes of genius and the glitches, too. If you examine every one of thousands of existing prints of Rembrandt van Rijn, those in great condition, the messed up ones, the genuine articles, the copies and fakes, in a shorter time than you think, you'll be able to recognize quality. Ivins did. Just by opening his eyes and looking. Distinguishing the good from the bad If you keenly examine every painting, sketch, or drawing by that grand Flemish master of the 17th century, Peter Paul Rubens -- there are hundreds -- you'll be able to distinguish yards away which one is real and which questionable. If you saturate yourself in absolutely everything Claude Monet ever painted, no matter if that painting is hanging in the Music d'Orsay in Paris, in the Getty in Los Angeles, or in the bedroom of some wealthy private collector on Park Avenue, you'll become an expert in Monet. After a total immersion, you'll be able to spot a top piece -- or a phony -- a hundred feet away. TIP You don't have to start at such heights. If you saturate yourself starting with those ceramic green frogs or clowns on black velvet, you'll soon gravitate to something better and better, and before you know it, you'll be blissfully soaking up Rembrandt prints, or Monet paintings, or drawings by Peter Paul Rubens. Gravitating upwards is the normal process -- it's all but automatic with the passage of time. Examining the real thing Book learning and attending countless lectures by the best art professors and scholars may help sharpen your eye. But they won't equal a gradual and complete saturation. After I had secured my Ph.D. in art history and archaeology and joined the staff of the Met (on the lowest rung of the curatorial ladder), I found to my dismay I had to work hard to get over my enslavement to art theories that came hand in hand with the doctorate. I had to start looking at works of art in the flesh. No more black-and-white photographs. Or the printed word. Early on in my career, I had the good fortune to work with a young German super-curator who came to New York for a year on a special fellowship and was assigned to my department, Medieval Art. After hours, together we opened every glass case in the galleries. Over the months, I took in my hands thousands of works -- manuscripts, sculptures, bejeweled reliquaries, ivories, enamels, and silver and gold. Seeing these marvelous things very close to, from all angles, feeling their heft and weight, studying with a pocket magnifying glass and a spotlight the tiniest bumps and knocks of time, and figuring out the almost-secret way they were made was a revelation. In time, I devoured in the same way the works of virtually every department in the Met. My German "teacher" guided me every step of the way and urged me to grill the works of art as though they were living human beings. Ask questions! Why is something this way, and something else that way? I remember him seizing a beautiful German Gothic medieval reliquary, a silver finger in the shape of an actual index finger set on three delicate feet, embellished with a splendid ring decorated with a huge emerald. Devour this! he urged. Peel it like an onion with your eyes! Interrogate it. The piece had been given to the museum in the early 1930s by a wealthy industrialist who'd specialized in collecting medieval reliquaries. Finger reliquaries are the rarest of the rare -- and ones embellished with emeralds were unique. This object was stunning and very costly, but it was not 13th century my "teacher" warned. It's a fraud. To find out, he demanded that I ask the reliquary some questions. * Why can't the emerald ring be removed? That was a bad sign, for no genuine finger reliquary would ever be adorned, when it was made, with such a secular ornament. Rings were always added later in homage to the saint whose finger bone was preserved in the finger. * Why were there three small silver hallmarks on one of the feet? The problem was that they were typical export marks only applied to gold, not silver, and during the 18th, not the 13th, century, in France, not Germany. * Why was the black material making up the inscription (which happened to be unreadable, by the way) actually made of common tar (my "teacher" had easily picked out a tiny hunk and actually tasted it)? The material should be a hard jet-black enamel (called niello ). The problematical answers to the questions all summed up to the reliquary being a fake, made, no doubt, to trap the rich collector who had to pay dearly because, naturally, the emerald was real. In time, through saturation, I was able to conduct my own interrogations and find on my own whatever inconsistencies existed. I could never have learned how to do this by reading books or attending seminars. I became a connoisseur only by saturation, which allowed me to react at once to any work I spotted from then on. I could see at once how it stacked up in quality -- good, better, or best. I could determine quickly if I should buy it or pass on it. Keeping your eye in tune It doesn't matter how you go about gorging yourself. To see originals is vital, but photographs can keep your eye constantly trained. One of the keenest great, late art dealers never went to sleep without poring through dozens of photographs of a wide variety of works. Keeping his eye in tune. Saturation means not only examining all the originals of the artist or period. It also means a judicial reading of the scholarly literature and picking through specialist magazines. But the bottom line is looking, looking, and more looking. Looking will transform a totally untrained person with a keen mind and good vision (for it helps a lot to have great eyesight or polished glasses) into a superior art expert. And the beauty is that anyone can do it with a little obsession and a little time. TOM SAYS The bottom line is never pass up the opportunity to look hard at any work of art (even those frogs), and pass your fingers over its surface (if you're allowed), and ask a bunch of sharp questions. I never fail to do so, and I find that no matter what the art is, I invariably learn something revealing and profound. Chapter Three How to Visit a Museum the Way the Pros Do * * * In This Chapter • Getting a postcard • Making a wish list • Looking at what you don't like • Becoming a museum member • Avoiding guides • Listening to same music * * * The best way to go is to be already a highly placed member of the curatorial staff of an American museum, especially one that happens to hand out large grants. Or be a museum director as I once was. Then you'll have no trouble getting around, even after hours! Doing What the Pros Do For those of you who are not professional curators or directors or don't have the good luck to be armed with the likes of Jackie Onassis (check out the sidebar, "It pays to go with a famous person -- the likes of Jackie Onassis"), visit any museum you've never been to before the ways the pros do. Get a postcard Go first to the postcard shop. There's always one. Even in tiny, out-of-the-way museums in the outback of Turkey, there will be a postcard shop. And as you may expect, the pride of the museum's holdings will be sitting there ready for you to purchase. So in an instant, you can assess the strengths of the place without getting embroiled in what can be frustratingly uninformative conversations in Turkish or Korean or whatever. Virtually every museum in the world publishes a color postcard of the hottest material. I buy what I want to see in the galleries -- I always find several works that I had no idea were there. Postcards are cheaper and are a whole lot easier to lug around than three-pound guidebooks (which most museums don't have anyway and if they do are in Azerbajianian or something). I proceed to the entrance, flash the card of the painting I want to see, and the guard motions me to it. I never get lost, or feel trapped, or silly. When I lose my way, I simply flash another postcard at a guard deep in the bowels of the museum and get further directions quickly. I also obtain solid information, for invariably the description of the work is crisper on postcards than the labels or catalogs and is in English to boot. Make a "wish list" The pros do several other tricks that I'd recommend. If they go in pairs or a small group and tour the galleries alone, they write down the three items they'd steal -- that is, the three best works in the entire collection. Almost always they select the same ones as their colleagues. It's amusing to compare notes. This happens virtually the same with people who aren't postgraduately trained, too. Look at what you don't like Another trick is to deliberately go to the galleries containing materials you just know you don't like. For me it's 18th-century porcelains, especially Sèvres. Know what? I usually find something that surprises me by its elegance and power, something often that's as good as anything the museum puts in their top 10 pieces. I also will ask the information desk what section of the museum is the least visited and take a look, for wonderful finds may come out of that, too. Become a member of the museum I have also become a member of the museum, even for a day's visit. Most European museums have a common membership for a number of museums in the same city -- the government owns them all -- and the benefits come right away. I have, on occasion, even asked the hotel concierge to call the curator of a department I want to see seeking an appointment and have always been pleasantly surprised at how hospitably I'm received (and in these cases, I didn't identify myself as a former director). I also haunt the information desks and courtesy booths in whatever museum has one. CAUTION! I never hire a guide inside or outside the place, especially in Egypt or the Middle East, unless, of course, I feel in the need of a few belly laughs. What I have heard over the years from expert guides is a constant fountain of joy to dispel momentary downers. ART ANECDOTE It pays to go with a famous person -- the likes of Jackie Onassis I recall fondly during my tenure as director of the Metropolitan those special entrees into storerooms that few outsiders had ever been allowed in. Once the soviets threw the visitors out when I arrived -- nothing could change their minds. It's also handy to go with a famous professional. In the Hermitage, one was never taken to storerooms. Once I had total run of the most secret one. The reason was that I had a secret weapon -- in Jaqueline Kennedy Onassis, who was editing the catalogue of the Russian costume show at the Met. Jackie kept badgering the soviet cultural nabobs to send just one item from the clothing of Czar Nicholas and his Czarina Alexandra. They refused. The explanation we got was that the killings of the Czar, his wife, and the children was Lenin's only sin, and to send a dress or a military costume would remind the world of that sin. Jackie shot back that she'd feel better if we could have for the show the marvelous winter sledding cape of Princess Elizabeth. Sorry, it had vanished. She insisted it was still around -- she knew. No, it's disappeared. Jackie turned on the right pout. My Russian colleagues cringed, and I knew they had to do something big in exchange for the turn-downs. A few days later in the Hermitage, we were taken by the Costumes curator and the Communist Party representative of the museum to "someplace where no one has been very often." When we got to a massive door in the middle of a gallery, he said to Jackie and me, "For security reasons, we beg you to close your eyes and we shall lead you." We did. After a trip down a small flight of stairs and through another door, we were halted in a place, told to open our eyes, and there we were in Stygian blackness. Suddenly, an array of spotlights was illuminated, and there was a steel sled of wondrous Baroque design -- as large as a Volkswagen Beetle -- upholstered in beautiful green velvet with a luxurious green cape in silks and satins edged in ermine laying over its front seat. It was Princess Elizabeth's sled. She had the habit of flooding the halls of the Hermitage during the winter and opening the windows so she could skate and sled. Our Russian colleagues told us that they had "found" the missing cape as well as the sled and assured us that we could have both for the costume show -- and that they were far better than anything Nicholas or Alexandra ever owned. I never listen to the recorded guide machines unless they are the ones designed to give you a mini-lecture within a short distance of the work of art you choose or those set up so that you can go where you want rather than being forced through the galleries the way the tape or CD demands. Listen to some music What many professionals do when they are solo is to bring along a portable CD or tape player and listen to classical music. From years of experience, here are a few of my choices. TOM SAYS Sound and light at Giza To be very, very specific now, I find that the long, boring, but visually exciting sound and light at the Pyramid at Giza (forget the sound, for this is the one that starts off pompously with, "Man fears time, time fears the Pyramids") is energized by Richard Strauss' opera Aegyptische Helena , or Helen of Troy in Egypt (from any handy portable CD or tape player). For the sound and light at Karnack, I always go on Arabic night when the full mystery of the gigantic temple complex is enhanced by a marvelous voice intoning in this entrancing language, not a word of which I understand, but that's what makes it better. * For the Golden Age of the 17th century, Ludwig von Beethoven -- anything except the opera Fidelio , which gets in the way. * For the 18th century, Mozart, naturally. * For Impressionism, Saint-Saens. * When poking through Italian Renaissance delights, I try Puccini and Verdi. * Telemann is super for the academic artists of the 19th century. * Albinoni is invigorating for classical art of all kinds. * Bach, Chant, and anything by the genius Hildegard of Bingen (c. 1100) is perfect for medieval art. Dress code Be practical. In general, walking shoes are the best. Abroad, be sure that shorts as well as short sleeves are acceptable. At the entrance to St. Peter's in the Vatican, for example, "dress-code" watchers turn away people wearing shorts. Of course, at any Islamic site, be sure to wear discreet, respectful clothing. A final plea In conclusion, a plea and an exhortation: the best way to see any museum in the United States is to become a member of the institution first or a member of the American Association of Museums, for freebies, discounts at the gift shops, and for the warm feeling you'll get when you know you've become a lifelong supporter of a place that honors beauty, artistic excellence, and the truth. Copyright © 1999 IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xxv
Introductionp. 1
Part 1 Appreciating Artp. 7
Chapter 1 What Is Art?p. 9
Toward a Definition of Artp. 9
Levels of artp. 10
The constant in artp. 10
How to Recognize Good Artp. 12
Chapter 2 How to Appreciate Art Without an Advanced Degreep. 13
The Key to Being a Connoisseurp. 13
Distinguishing the good from the badp. 14
Examining the real thingp. 14
Keeping your eye in tunep. 16
Chapter 3 How to Visit a Museum the Way the Pros Dop. 17
Doing What the Pros Dop. 17
Get a postcardp. 17
Make a "wish list"p. 18
Look at what you don't likep. 18
Become a member of the museump. 18
Listen to some musicp. 19
Dress codep. 20
A final pleap. 20
Part II Art through the Agesp. 21
Chapter 4 Prehistoric Art (More Sophisticated Than You Would Believe)p. 23
Prehistoric Cave Artp. 23
Altamirap. 24
Lascauxp. 24
Chauvetp. 26
Art Leaves the Cavesp. 26
Chapter 5 The Ancient World: Still the Most Excitingp. 29
The Ancient Near Eastp. 30
Mesopotamia (Iraq)p. 30
Anatolia (Turkey)p. 32
Persia (Iran)p. 32
Egypt, the True Grandmother of the Fine Artsp. 33
The character of Egyptian artp. 34
Where to see Egyptian artp. 35
The best of Egyptian artp. 35
The Glory That Was Greecep. 40
Portraying the figurep. 41
The Temple of Apollo at Olympiap. 42
More figures from the 5th centuryp. 43
The Hellenistic periodp. 47
The Art of Romep. 50
Etruscan influencesp. 50
Discovering Roman artp. 51
Pompeii and Herculaneump. 53
Roman silverworkingp. 54
Christian influencesp. 55
Chapter 6 Medieval Art (Definitely Not the Dark Ages)p. 57
Early Christian Artp. 58
The early Christian "look"p. 58
The rise of the mosaic as a mediump. 58
The early Christian style in Romep. 59
The apogee of early Christian artp. 60
The "Dark Ages"p. 61
The Lindisfarne Gospelsp. 61
The Book of Kellsp. 61
The decline of the "Dark Ages"p. 62
The Romanesquep. 63
Gislebertusp. 63
Master Hugop. 64
Pinpointing the greatest Romanesque worksp. 65
The Gothicp. 65
The International Stylep. 68
Byzantine Artp. 70
Macedonian Renaissancep. 72
Late Byzantine Artp. 72
Chapter 7 The Renaissance and Revivalsp. 73
Renascencesp. 74
The Italian Proto-Renaissancep. 74
Italian Early Renaissancep. 76
Brunelleschip. 77
Masacciop. 78
Donatellop. 79
Ghibertip. 80
Piero della Francescap. 80
Albertip. 80
Andrea Mantegnap. 81
Sandro Botticellip. 82
Italian High Renaissancep. 83
Leonardo da Vincip. 83
Raphaelp. 84
Andrea Palladiop. 85
Giorgionep. 86
Titianp. 87
Correggiop. 87
Michelangelop. 88
Chapter 8 The Northern European "Renaissance"p. 91
The Grandeur of the Northern Renaissancep. 91
Robert Campinp. 92
Jan van Eyckp. 92
Rogier van der Weydenp. 94
Hugo van der Goesp. 95
Hieronymus Boschp. 95
Pieter Breughel the Elderp. 97
Hans Holbein the Youngerp. 97
Matthias Grunewaldp. 98
Albrecht Durerp. 99
Northern Sculpturep. 99
Viet Stossp. 99
Tilman Riemenschneiderp. 100
Chapter 9 Mannerism: Sensuality and the Bizarrep. 101
The Real and the Invented Mannerismp. 101
Jacopo da Pontormop. 102
Rosso Fiorentinop. 103
Bronzinop. 103
Parmigianinop. 104
Veronese and Tintorettop. 105
French Mannerismp. 106
El Grecop. 107
Chapter 10 The Baroque: The True Golden Agep. 111
The Birth of Baroquep. 111
Caravaggiop. 111
Georges de la Tourp. 112
The Caravaggesque Style Elsewherep. 113
The Flourishing of the Baroquep. 113
Gianlorenzo Berninip. 114
Peter Paul Rubensp. 115
Jan Vermeerp. 117
Rembrandt van Rijnp. 118
Baroque Tendencies in Francep. 120
Pierre Pugetp. 120
Nicholas Poussinp. 120
The Best of the 17th Century: Diego Velazquezp. 122
Chapter 11 The Sparkling 18th Centuryp. 125
France and the Rococo Stylep. 125
Jean-Antoine Watteaup. 126
Francois Boucherp. 127
Jean-Honore Fragonardp. 127
Painters of the middle classp. 128
French sculpturep. 129
French decorative artp. 131
Germany and the Rococop. 131
The Impact of Italyp. 132
Piazzetta and Tiepolop. 132
Caneletto, Guardi, and Belottop. 132
English Contributionsp. 133
William Hogarthp. 133
Thomas Gainsboroughp. 133
English decorative artsp. 134
The Emergence of Americap. 135
The End of the Rococop. 136
Chapter 12 Neoclassicism and the Romantic Twingep. 137
Neoclassicismp. 137
Jacques-Louis Davidp. 138
The reach of Neoclassicismp. 140
Antonio Canovap. 140
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingresp. 140
Romanticismp. 141
William Blakep. 141
Joseph Mallord William Turnerp. 142
Caspar David Friedrichp. 142
Eugene Delacroixp. 143
Theodore Gericaultp. 144
Francisco Goyap. 145
Chapter 13 Impressionism (The Poetry of the Land and Mankind)p. 147
The Roots of Impressionismp. 147
Creative forebearsp. 147
Seminal thoughtsp. 148
Political influencesp. 148
The advent of photographyp. 148
The impact of sciencep. 148
The art establishment fallsp. 149
The Key Role of Edouard Manetp. 149
Claude Monetp. 150
The Impressionist "Style"p. 152
Chapter 14 Post-Impressionism (Or Better, Pre-Modern)p. 155
Painting after the Impressionistsp. 155
Georges Seuratp. 156
Paul Gauguinp. 157
Vincent van Goghp. 159
Paul Cezannep. 160
Chapter 15 Modern Art: The Bold, the Beautiful, and the Not-So-Beautifulp. 163
Pablo Picassop. 164
ISMs and Other Stylesp. 169
Fauvismp. 169
Die Brucke ("The Bridge")p. 169
Der Blaue Reiter ("The Blue Rider")p. 169
Futurismp. 170
Constructivismp. 171
Suprematismp. 171
Dadaismp. 171
Surrealismp. 172
The Bauhausp. 172
Sezession (Secession)p. 172
Is Modern Art Something of a Joke?p. 173
Chapter 16 Contemporary Art and Its "ISMs" (Not Always So Nice, but Ever Exciting)p. 175
The Lowdown on Contemporary Artp. 175
Abstract Expressionismp. 176
Color Field Paintingp. 177
Pop Artp. 178
Abstract Illusionismp. 179
Art Brutp. 180
Body Artp. 180
Minimalismp. 180
Conceptual Artp. 181
Earthworksp. 181
Hairy Whoism and Chicago Imagismp. 181
"True" Artp. 181
Neurotic Realismp. 182
Transavantgardismp. 182
Installation Artp. 182
Chapter 17 A Look at Art Beyond the Western Worldp. 185
Chinap. 185
The essence of Chinese artp. 185
Taipei treasuresp. 188
Japanp. 190
Unbreakable traditionsp. 190
India and Southeast Asiap. 192
Islamic Art -- Only God Remainsp. 192
Beginnings -- Early Caliphs and the Umayyads (633-750)p. 193
Fatimids (909-1171)p. 194
Seljuq art (1037-1300)p. 194
Moorish Spain (719-1492)p. 195
Mamluk art (1250-1517)p. 195
Ottoman art (1299-1893)p. 196
Safavid art (1502-1736)p. 196
Mughal art (1525-1857)p. 197
Africa, Oceania, and the Americasp. 197
Africap. 198
Oceaniap. 199
The Americasp. 200
Part III Beginning Your Own Collectionp. 203
Chapter 18 Getting Ready to Collectp. 205
Getting Set to Collectp. 205
1 Record your first impressionp. 206
2 Describe the item in writingp. 206
3 Determine the conditionp. 208
4 Figure out how the work was usedp. 208
5 Determine the stylep. 208
6 Find out where a piece came fromp. 209
7 Consult an expertp. 209
8 Run some testsp. 209
9 Compare your first impression with what you have found outp. 210
The Don'ts of Collecting Artp. 210
Chapter 19 How to Play the Buying Gamep. 213
The Many Faces of Forgeriesp. 213
Where to Go to Buyp. 216
Knowing What to Askp. 216
Understanding Dealer-Speakp. 217
Taking Your Chances at an Auctionp. 218
What to Collect and What to Avoidp. 219
What to Look Into or Avoidp. 219
Part IV The Part of Tensp. 221
Chapter 20 The Greatest Works of Western Civilizationp. 223
King Tut's Golden Maskp. 224
The Sculptures of the Parthenonp. 224
The Scythian Gold Pectoralp. 225
Nicholas of Verdun's Enameled Altarp. 225
Giotto's Arena Chapelp. 226
The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyckp. 227
Leonardo's "Mona Lisa"p. 228
Michelangelo's "David"p. 228
The Isenheim Altarpiece by Mathias Grunewaldp. 229
El Greco's "Burial of Count Orgaz"p. 229
Diego Velazquez's "Las Meninas"p. 230
Rembrandt's "Return of the Prodigal Son"p. 230
Francisco Goya's "The Third of May, 1808"p. 231
Pierre-Auguste Renoir's "Luncheon of the Boating Party"p. 231
Picasso's "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon"p. 232
Chapter 21 The Ten Most Interesting Artists (And Why)p. 233
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)p. 233
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)p. 234
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)p. 236
Francisco Goya (1746-1828)p. 237
Diego Velazquez (1599-1660)p. 238
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1573-1610)p. 239
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)p. 241
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)p. 241
Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564)p. 242
Lysippus (Flourished 4th century B.C.)p. 243
Chapter 22 Ten Artists Worth Watchingp. 245
Mark di Suvero (b. 1933)p. 246
Gary Simmons (b. 1964)p. 246
Helen Frankenthaler (b. 1928)p. 246
Andrew Wyeth (b. 1917)p. 246
Frank Stella (b. 1936)p. 247
Anselm Kiefer (b. 1945)p. 247
Wayne Thiebaud (b. 1920)p. 247
Robert Rauschenberg (b. 1925)p. 247
Jenny Saville (b. 1970)p. 248
Dale Chihuly (b. 1941)p. 248
Chapter 23 How to Tell if Your Child Has Artistic Genius and Then What to Dop. 249
Part V Appendixesp. 251
Appendix A Artspeak Unmaskedp. 253
Appendix B The Professional's Checklist on How to Buy Artp. 255
Appendix C Art Chronologyp. 259
The Essential Guide to the World's Top Art Cities and Centersp. 263
The Awesome Americasp. 265
United Statesp. 265
Arizonap. 265
Arkansasp. 266
Californiap. 266
Los Angeles Areap. 266
San Diego Areap. 270
San Francisco Areap. 270
Coloradop. 271
Connecticutp. 271
District of Columbiap. 271
Washington, D.C.p. 271
Illinoisp. 273
Chicagop. 274
Indianap. 274
Marylandp. 274
Baltimorep. 274
Massachusettsp. 276
Boston areap. 276
Michiganp. 278
Minnesotap. 278
Missourip. 279
Kansas Cityp. 279
Saint Louisp. 280
New Yorkp. 281
Buffalop. 281
Corningp. 281
New Yorkp. 281
North Carolinap. 290
Ohiop. 290
Clevelandp. 290
Oberlinp. 291
Toledop. 291
Oklahomap. 292
Pennsylvaniap. 292
Philadelphiap. 292
Texasp. 293
Austinp. 293
Dallasp. 294
Fort Worthp. 294
Houstonp. 295
Virginiap. 296
Wyomingp. 296
Canadap. 296
Montrealp. 296
Ottawap. 297
Torontop. 298
Vancouverp. 298
Latin Americap. 298
Brazilp. 298
Mexicop. 298
Perup. 300
Venezuelap. 300
Europe (All That's Worth a Detour)p. 301
Austriap. 301
Viennap. 301
Francep. 305
Parisp. 305
Germanyp. 311
Berlinp. 311
Cologne (Koln)p. 312
Dresdenp. 312
Munichp. 313
Greecep. 315
Athensp. 315
Irelandp. 316
Dublinp. 316
Italyp. 316
Florencep. 316
Romep. 324
Venicep. 335
Netherlands, Thep. 339
Amsterdamp. 339
The Haguep. 341
Russiap. 341
Moscowp. 341
St. Petersburgp. 342
Spainp. 346
Barcelonap. 346
Bilbaop. 347
Madridp. 347
Switzerlandp. 350
Basel (Switzerland)p. 350
Zurichp. 350
United Kingdomp. 350
Londonp. 350
Non-Western Destinationsp. 357
Egyptp. 357
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqarap. 357
The Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx, and the Giza Plateaup. 357
Cairop. 358
Luxorp. 359
Aswanp. 360
Israelp. 361
Jerusalemp. 361
Turkeyp. 363
Istanbulp. 363
Bibliographyp. 367
Indexp. 369
Book Registration Informationp. 382