Cover image for American Jewish desk reference
American Jewish desk reference
American Jewish Historical Society.
First edition.
Publication Information:
New York : Random House, 1999.
Physical Description:
xiv, 642 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
General Note:
Subtitle from t.p. verso.
Added Corporate Author:
Format :


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Material Type
Home Location
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E184.35 .A44 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Reference material
E184.35 .A44 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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From the Foremost Archive of the American Jewish Experience, the First All-Encompassing Reference to Jewish Life in the United States, from 1654 to the Present This authoritative reference of nearly 900 entries covers all aspects of America's lively and influential Jewish culture--history, religion, rituals, family life, law, politics, business, education, music and the arts, sports, entertainment, books, language, science, and more. It is at once an indispensable resource, the perfect gift for every bar/ bat mitzah, graduation, and wedding, and a book that every Jew and many non-Jews will want close at hand. American Jewish Desk Reference brings together the events, personalities, themes and issues of contemporary Jewish life in the United States on a scope never attained before in a single volume. It's brimming with in-depth essays on significant topics and compelling biographies of hundreds of prominent American Jewish personalities. Their achievements and contributions to all walks of life are here, from Bella Abzug, Mortimer Adler, and Woody Allen, to Elie Wiesel, Henny Youngman, and Florenz Ziegfeld. Effortless to use and a delight to both casual browsers and serious researchers, the book features:   Convenient chronological or alphabetical organization   Entries on over 500 influential Jewish Americans, over 100 topic essays, and well over 200 key historical events.   Over 100 black-and-white photographs from the American Jewish Historical Society, as well as private collections.   Fascinating sidebars, statistics, anecdotes and kernels of American Jewish lore that will surprise and delight even the most knowledgeable reader. American Jewish Desk Reference is the best place to look for ready answers to all your questions about Jewish life and history in America.

Reviews 4

Booklist Review

Produced by the American Jewish Historical Society, the oldest religious historical society in the U.S., this specialized encyclopedia comes with impeccable credentials. Since 1892, the society has published authoritative works documenting the Jewish experience in America. Recent society efforts include the five-volume Jewish People in America (Johns Hopkins, 1992) and the two-volume Jewish Women in America [RBB Ja 1 & 15 98]. American Jewish Desk Reference (AJDR) is unique as the first single-volume desk reference to focus on the "history, religious observances, culture, and achievements of the Jewish people in America." The value of this work is considerably enhanced through a thematic rather than straight alphabetical arrangement of entries. That is, the 900 entries are displayed in alphabetical order but within 14 separate, thematic chapters. These chapters cover broad topics such as "History of the Jews in America"; "Rituals, Celebrations, Holidays, and Family Life"; "Education and Intellectual Life"; and "Language and Literature." There is a minor drawback to this approach in that readers may need to spend several moments consulting the index before turning to a specific topic. However, this slight inconvenience is more than offset by the greater significance the information carries because it is arranged in a meaningful context. At least 85 percent of entries are biographical, covering noteworthy American Jews such as Jack Benny, Louis Brandeis, Albert Einstein, Milton Friedman, Samuel Gompers, Henry Kissinger, Sandy Koufax, Jerry Seinfeld, and Gloria Steinem. These entries are usually 150 to 500 words in length. The remaining entries may run to well over 3,000 words and cover topics including Academia, Israel-U.S. relations, Marriage, Orthodox Judaism, Labor movement, and Vaudeville. In addition to the comprehensive index, readers may locate information through the detailed table of contents or via the numerous internal cross-references. The graphic design is uncommonly good. Ample white space between entries and use of sensible typography make the volume very easy on the eyes. A careful sprinkling of photos (black and white) and brief sidebars further add to this encyclopedia's readability. Another characteristic that makes AJDR so readable is that it has a sense of humor. Although definitely a solid reference work, AJDR describes Shari Lewis as "The world's most delightful sock handler" and Jerry Seinfeld as "The man who made America laugh at nothing." AJDR is a recommended purchase for larger academic libraries, any academic library with a focus on ethnic/religious studies, and high-school and public libraries that serve a significant Jewish community. Libraries that can afford only one reference on the Jewish people may prefer a source like The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia (7th ed., Facts On File, 1992), which is not restricted to American Judaism.

Library Journal Review

This one-volume reference to Jewish life in America is a monumental undertaking--and a grand accomplishment. Narrative sections on the history of Jews in America since 1585, Judaism, rituals, celebrations, and holidays are followed by extensive surveys of American Jews in the arts, sports, business, science, medicine, and other fields. Each comprehensive thematic essay runs from five to eight pages. Also included are bibliographical references and an alphabetically arranged collection of profiles (ranging from one-half to two pages in length) of major and lesser-known figures in each area--from Joachim Gaunse, who landed on Roanoke Island in 1585, to Rabbi Schneerson, Paul Strand, Lauren Bacall, and some 500 others. A glossary and an index (not seen) are included. Though multivolume references (such as Encyclopedia Judaica, Coronet Bks., 1994) cover more ground, this is the most comprehensive single-volume source available. A wonderful home reference for every Jewish family, this is also an excellent resource for students. Highly recommended for school and public libraries.--Marcia G. Welsh, Guilford Free Lib., CT (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

School Library Journal Review

Gr 6 Up-A comprehensive discussion of the history, religious practices, and culture of Jewish people. The book begins with a 36-page chronology. Subsequent chapters deal with aspects of life in the U.S. such as "Rituals, Celebrations, Holidays, and Family Life"; "Business, Labor, and Finance"; and "Music, Dance, and Theater." Each chapter starts with a list of topics to be discussed, followed by a brief overview of the subject. Next come quick biographies of significant people in the field (women are well represented) and/or short essays about a particular facet of the general theme. These well-written articles, though sometimes mildly opinionated, are not always signed. Each chapter concludes with a list for further reading. Throughout the book, sidebars clarify, expand on, or offer anecdotes on the different subjects. Occasional black-and white photographs illustrate the volume. Boldfaced see-also references and a detailed index facilitate access. While there are many books on the Jewish experience, this useful biographical and historical reference tool includes valuable supplementary information for immigration studies and will provide hours of enjoyment to browsers.-Linda Greengrass, Bank Street College Library, New York City (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Choice Review

This excellent, comprehensive reference tool is a welcome addition to the sparse literature on American Jewry. Its almost 900 entries in 14 chapters cover the full spectrum of US history and culture, including Judaism and community, law, government and politics, Zionism, business, labor, education, sports, the arts, literature, and science. Each chapter opens with a list of contents, arranges entries alphabetically, and ends with a bibliography. The book opens with a chronology of important dates in US Jewish history, and concludes with appendixes that provide information on additional resources. The entries include essays, some as long as four double-column pages, on topics, organizations, and movements, as well as biographical sketches. A comprehensive, analytical index ties the enormous amount of information together, with page citations in boldface indicating separate entries. Boldfaced names within articles highlight separate entries. Although authoritative, this well-written work has only a few signed articles. In virtually every category, one can quarrel with the proportion of space allotted (virtually the same for Rabbi Irving Greenberg and Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel); cite wrong definitions (e.g., "Glatt kosher"); or find omissions (e.g., the widespread Orthodox Beth Jacob School System, although a paragraph is assigned to Drisha, a women's study Institute; Agudath Israel, a major Orthodox organization, omitted from the index). These do not mar the book's overall excellence. Highly recommended for all libraries. D. Kranzler; Queensborough Community College, CUNY



A sample of subjects covered in American Jewish Desk Reference 1585        The first known Jews to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse,                  Lands on Roanoke Island 1656        Congregation Sharith, although not yet allowed to worship in a synagogue                  in New York City, buys the first American Jewish cemetery site. 1777        New York grants full political rights to Jews 1871        The first Hebrew weekly in America is published. 1907        Physicist Albert Michelson is the first American Jew to win the Nobel                 Prize 1915        The predominantly Jewish Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union strikes                 to reduce the twelve-hour workday 1923        The first Hillel Foundation is established at the University of Illinois 1927        Oscar Hammerstein and Jerome Kern's Showboat debuts 1928        Hadassah's membership peaks at over 37,000 women 1944        Center-fielder Tiby Eisen joins the All-American Girls Professional                 Baseball League 1947        Arthur Miller's All My Sons wins the New York Drama Critics Circle Award 1948        William Paley creates CBS TV 1949        Mel Brooks leaves the Catskills to write for Sid Caesar's "Your Show of Shows" 1952        Harold Ross founds The New Yorker 1954        Sammy Davis, Jr., converts to Judaism 1962         Theodore H. White wins a Pulitzer Prize for The Making of the          President 1967        American Jews raise more than $317.5 million to support the Six-Day War 1970        Bella Abzug is the first woman elected to Congress on a woman's rights/ peace platform 1971        The first female rabbi in America, Sally Priesand, is ordained 1986        Elie Wiesel is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1990        The rate of interfaith marriages among Jews rises to 52% 1993       Stephen Spielberg's Schindler's List is released 1997       Woody Allen sets a new record with 13 Academy Award nominations for screenwriting Excerpted from American Jewish Desk Reference: The Ultimate One-Volume Reference to the Jewish Experience in America by American Jewish Historical Society Staff All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Part 1 History of Jews in Americap. 1
Strangers in a Strange Land, 1585-1775
Taking a Place in a New Country, 1775-1829
The Country Prepares for War, 1830-1860
War and Its Aftermath, 1861-1879
A New Community, 1880-1920
Americanization, Anti-Semitism, and Isolationism, 1920-1930
The Holocaust, 1930-1940
War and Beyond, 1941-49
The Transformation of American Jews and American Judaism, 1950-1999
Part 2 Judaism and Community in Americap. 37
American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Congress
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
Anti-Defamation League
B'nai B'rith
Belkin, Samuel
Conservative Judaism
Education, Jewish
Eilberg, Amy
Eisenstein, Ira
Feinstein, Moshe
Feminism, Jewish
Goldstein, Herbert
Goldstein, Israel
Gratz, Rebecca
Greenberg, Irving
Heschel, Abraham Joshua
Joseph, Jacob
Kaplan, Mordecai
Kelman, Wolfe
Kohler, Kaufman
Kushner, Harold
Leeser, Isaac
Levinthal, Israel
Lookstein, Joseph
Mendes, H. Pereia
Morais, Sabato
National Council of Jewish Women
Orthodox Judaism
Priesand, Sally
Reform Judaism
Rubenovitz, Herman
Schneerson, Menachem Mendel
Seixas, Gershom
Silver, Eliezer
Soloveitchik, Joseph
Steinberg, Milton
Teitelbaum, Joel
Wise, Isaac Mayer
Wise, Stephen S.
For Further Reading
Part 3 Rituals, Celebrations, Holidays, and Family Lifep. 97
Bar Mitzvah
Bat Mitzvah
Bris and Circumcision
Family Life
Food and Cooking
Kosher (Kashrut)
For Further Reading
Part 4 Law, Government, and Politicsp. 133
Abzug, Bella
Benjamin, Judah
Boxer, Barbara
Brandeis, Louis D.
Breyer, Stephen
Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan
Communist Party
Dershowitz, Alan
Feinstein, Dianne
Fiedler, Bobbi
Fortas, Abe
Frank, Barney
Frankfurter, Felix
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader
Goldberg, Arthur
Harman, Jane
Hays, Arthur Garfield
Javits, Jacob
Kahn, Florence Prag
Kaye, Judith S.
King, Carol Weiss
Kissinger, Henry
Koch, Edward I.
Kunstler, William
Law and Judicial System
Lehman, Herbert
Levy, Uriah P.
London, Meyer
Lowey, Nita M.
Marcus, David "Mickey"
Marshall, Louis
Meyer, Annie Nathan
Milk, Harvey
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.
New Left
Phillips, Rosalie Solomons
Rifkind, Simon
Rose, Ernestine
Rosenberg, Anna M.
Salomon, Hyam
Solomon, Edward S.
Spellman, Gladys Noon
Spingarn, Arthur
Straus, Oscar
For Further Reading/Reference
Part 5 American Zionism and United States Relations with Israelp. 177
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
Greenberg, Hayim
Israel-U.S. Relations
Lipsky, Louis
Magnes, Judah L.
Meir, Golda
Silver, Abba Hillel
Syrkin, Marie
Szold, Henrietta
Zionist Organization of America
For Further Reading
Part 6 Business, Labor, and Financep. 205
Abramowitz, Bessie
Alinsky, Saul
Annenberg, Walter
Bamberger, Louis
Baruch, Bernard
Bellanca, Dorothy Jacobs
Blaustein, Louis
Bronfman, Edgar
Burns, Arthur Frank
Claiborne, Liz
Cohn, Fannia
Dubinsky, David
Eisner, Michael
Friedman, Milton
Goldman, Emma
Gompers, Samuel
Greenspan, Alan
Grossinger, Jennie
Hillman, Sydney
Hillquit, Morris
Kahn, Otto
Karan, Donna
Klein, Calvin
Kravis, Henry
Labor Movement
Lauder, Estee
Lubin, David
Newhouse Family
Newman, Pauline
Redstone, Sumner
Rosenwald, Julius
Rubinstein, Helena
Sachs, Samuel
Schiff, Jacob
Schneiderman, Rose
Soros, George
Strauss, Levi
Tisch, Laurence
Touro, Judah
Warburg, Felix
For Further Reading
Part 7 Education and Intellectual Lifep. 241
Adler, Cyrus
Adler, Felix
Adler, Mortimer
Arendt, Hannah
Baron, Salo
Brandeis University
Benjamin N. Cardozo Law School
Cohen, Morris Raphael
Day Schools and Yeshivas
Feldman, Sandra
Finkelstein, Louis
Flexner, Abraham
Gottschalk, Alfred
Handlin, Oscar
Hebrew Union College
Hook, Sidney
Howe, Irving
Jewish Theological Seminary of America
Kallen, Horace
Lamm, Norman
Myerhoff, Barbara
Panofsky, Erwin
Revel, Bernard
Richman, Julia
Schechter, Solomon
Schorsch, Ismar
Shanker, Albert
Stern College
Summer Camps
Touro College
Trilling, Lionel
Tuchman, Barbara
University of Judaism
Wolfson, Harry
Yeshiva University
For Further Reading
Part 8 Sports and Gamesp. 275
Alcott, Amy
Auerbach, Arnold "Red"
Baer, Max
Barron, Herman
Berenson, Senda
Copeland, Lillian
Eisen, Thelma "Tiby"
Epstein, Charlotte "Eppy"
Friedman, Benny
Glickman, Marty
Green, Milton
Greenberg, Henry "Hank"
Heldman, Gladys
Holman, Nat
Holzman, William "Red"
Karff, Mona N. May
Koufax, Sanford "Sandy"
Leonard, Benny
Lieberman-Cline, Nancy
Luckman, Sidney "Sid"
Rosenbloom, Maxie
Ross, Barney
Savitt, Richard "Dick"
Schayes, Adolph
Seixas, Victor
Spitz, Mark
Strug, Kerri
For Further Reading
Part 9 Art, Architecture, and Photographyp. 301
Adler, Dankmar
Arbus, Diane
Avedon, Richard
Berenson, Bernard
Bernstein, Theresa
Blume, Peter
Bunshaft, Gordon
Capa, Robert
Chicago, Judy
Davidson, Jo
Dine, Jim
Eisenman, Peter
Eisenstaedt, Alfred
Evergood, Philip
Frank, Robert
Frankenthaler, Helen
Gehry, Frank
Goldin, Nan
Golub, Leon
Goodman, Percival
Greenberg, Clement
Gropper, William
Gross, Chaim
Guggenheim, Peggy
Guston, Philip
Hesse, Eva
Kahn, Albert
Kahn, Louis
Kline, Franz
Krasner, Lee
Kruger, Barbara
Leibovitz, Annie
Levine, Jack
Lichtenstein, Roy
Lipchitz, Jacques
Meier, Richard
Myers, Myer
Neutra, Richard J.
Nevelson, Louise
Newman, Barnett
Painting and Sculpture
Penn, Irving
Ray, Man
Reinhardt, Ad
Rivers, Larry
Rothko, Mark
Rothstein, Arthur
Safdie, Moshe
Schapiro, Meyer
Scott Brown, Denise
Segal, George
Shahn, Ben
Sherman, Cindy
Soyer, Moses, Raphael, Isaac
Steinberg, Saul
Stern, Robert A. M.
Stettheimer, Florine
Stieglitz, Alfred
Strand, Paul
Vishniac, Roman
Weber, Max
For Further Reading
Part 10 Music, Dance, and Theaterp. 343
Adler, Jacob P.
Adler, Larry
Adler, Stella
Arlen, Harold
Aronson, Boris
Belasco, David
Berlin, Irving
Bernstein, Aline
Bernstein, Leonard
Bikel, Theodore
Blitzstein, Marc
Bloch, Ernst
Brand, Oscar
Carlebach, Shlomo
Comden and Green
Copland, Aaron
Davis, Sammy, Jr.
Diamond, David
Dylan, Bob
Elman, Mischa
Fiedler, Arthur
Fierstein, Harvey
Fleischer, Leon
Friedman, Debbie
Gershwin, George
Gershwin, Ira
Getz, Stan
Glass, Philip
Goldfaden, Abraham
Goodman, Benny
Grant, Lee
Hammerstein, Oscar II
Hart, Lorenz
Hart, Moss
Heifetz, Jascha
Helburn, Theresa
Hershman, Mordechai
Hirsch, Judd
Horowitz, Vladimir
Houdini, Harry
Houseman, John
Hurok, Sol
Kalich, Bertha
Kern, Jerome
Kidd, Michael
Kirstein, Lincoln
Koussevitsky, Serge
Kushner, Tony
Lang, Pearl
Langner, Lawrence
Lavin, Linda
Lerner, Alan Jay
Levine, James
Maslow, Sophie
Menken, Adah Isaacs
Menuhin, Yehudi
Monk, Meredith
Oysher, Moishe
Papp, Joseph
Patinkin, Mandy
Peerce, Jan
Perahia, Murray
Perlman, Itzak
Peters, Roberta
Picon, Molly
Previn, Andre
Randall, Tony
Reed, Lou
Reiner, Fritz
Reisenberg, Nadia
Robbins, Jerome
Rodgers, Richard
Romberg, Sigmund
Rose, Billy
Rosenblatt, Yossele
Rubinstein, Artur
Schildkraut, Joseph
Schoenberg, Arnold
Schuman, William
Schwartz, Maurice
Secunda, Sholom
Shore, Dinah
Sills, Beverly
Simon and Garfunkel
Smith and Dale
Sondheim, Stephen
Stern, Isaac
Strasberg, Lee
Szell, George
Tamiris, Helen
Thomashefsky, Boris
Tourel, Jennie
Tucker, Richard
Tucker, Sophie
Wallach, Eli
Weber and Fields
Weisgall, Hugo
Yiddish and Klezmer Music
Yiddish Theater
Youngman, Henny
Ziegfeld, Florenz
Zukerman, Pinchas
For Further Reading
Part 11 Radio, Television, and Filmp. 431
Allen, Woody
Amsterdam, Morey
Arkin, Adam
Arkin, Alan
Arthur, Bea
Asner, Edward
Bacall, Lauren
Bara, Theda
Benny, Jack
Berg, Gertrude
Berle, Milton
Blanc, Mel
Brice, Fanny
Brooks, Mel
Bruce, Lenny
Burns, George
Buttons, Red
Caesar, Sid
Cantor, Eddie
Cobb, Lee J.
Cohn, Harry
Comedy and Comedians
Corwin, Norman
Crystal, Billy
Curtis, Tony
Deren, Maya
Diamond, Selma
Douglas, Kirk
Garfield, John
Gilford, Jack
Goldenson, Leonard
Goldwyn, Samuel
Hawn, Goldie
Hoffman, Dustin
Holliday, Judy
Howard, Leslie
Jaffe, Sam
Jessel, George
Jolson, Al
Kahn, Madeline
Kaye, Danny
King, Alan
Lahr, Burt
Lear, Norman
Lewis, Jerry
Lewis, Shari
Loeb, Philip
Loew, Marcus
Lumet, Sidney
Marx Brothers
Mason, Jackie
Matthau, Walter
May, Elaine
Mayer, Louis B.
Mazursky, Paul
Midler, Bette
Mostel, Zero
Muni, Paul
Myerson, Bess
Nichols, Mike
Nimoy, Leonard
Paley, William
Perlman, Rhea
Pollack, Sydney
Radner, Gilda
Reiner, Carl
Reiner, Rob
Rivers, Joan
Robinson, Edward G.
Sahl, Mort
Sarnoff, David
Sarnoff, Robert
Schary, Dore
Seinfeld, Jerry
Shatner, William
Sidney, Sylvia
Silverman, Fred
Silvers, Phil
Spielberg, Steven
Streisand, Barbra
Susskind, David
Thalberg, Irving
Three Stooges
Walters, Barbara
Warner, Harry
Warner, Jack
Wilder, Gene
Winters, Shelley
Wynn, Ed
For Further Reading
Part 12 Books, Newspapers, and Magazinesp. 499
Bernstein, Carl
Buchwald, Art
Cahan, Abraham
Capp, Al
Cerf, Bennett
Friedan, Betty
Goldberg, Rube
Jewish Daily Forward
Kristol, Irving
Lippmann, Walter
Ochs, Adolph S.
Podhoretz, Norman
Pulitzer, Joseph
Rosenbach, A.S.W.
Ross, Harold
Schiff, Dorothy
Sendak, Maurice
Sonneschein, Rosa
Spiegelman, Art
Steinem, Gloria
Sulzberger, Arthur O.
Trillin, Calvin
Weiss-Rosmarin, Trude
White, Theodore
Winchell, Walter
Zuckerman, Mortimer
For Further Reading
Part 13 Language and Literaturep. 519
Antin, Mary
Asch, Sholem
Asimov, Isaac
Behrman, S.N.
Bellow, Saul
Brodsky, Joseph
Calisher, Hortense
Chayefsky, Paddy
Chomsky, Noam
Falk, Marcia
Ferber, Edna
Ginsberg, Allen
Gold, Herbert
Hecht, Ben
Heller, Joseph
Hellman, Lillian
Hobson, Laura Z.
Hurst, Fannie
Jong, Erica
Kaufman, George S.
Kazin, Alfred
Kramer, Larry
Kunitz, Stanley
Lazarus, Emma
Mailer, Norman
Malamud, Bernard
Mamet, David
Miller, Arthur
Moise, Penina
Nemerov, Howard
Odets, Clifford
Olsen, Tillie
Ozick, Cynthia
Paley, Grace
Parker, Dorothy
Perelman, S.J.
Potok, Chaim
Rand, Ayn
Ribalow, Menachem
Rice, Elmer
Rich, Adrienne
Rosten, Leo
Roth, Henry
Roth, Philip
Rukeyser, Muriel
Ruskay, Esther
Salinger, J.D.
Samuel, Maurice
Schulberg, Bud
Shaw, Irwin
Sholem Aleichem
Simon, Neil
Singer, Isaac Bashevis
Sontag, Susan
Stein, Gertrude
Terkel, Studs
Untermeyer, Louis
Uris, Leon
Wasserstein, Wendy
West, Nathanael
Wiesel, Elie
Wouk, Herman
Yezierska, Anzia
Yiddish Language and Culture
For Further Reading
Part 14 Science, Medicine, and Social Sciencep. 571
Bettelheim, Bruno
Boas, Franz
Brothers, Joyce
Einstein, Albert
Elion, Gertrude
Erikson, Erik
Levi-Montalcini, Rita
Mental Health Professions
Michelson, Albert Abraham
Noether, Emmy
Oppenheimer, J. Robert
Rabi, Isidor Isaac
Resnik, Judith
Rickover, Hyman George
Sabin, Albert B.
Sagan, Carl
Salk, Jonas
Schick, Bela
Social Work/Social Reform
Steinmetz, Charles Proteus
Teller, Edward
Wald, George
Wald, Lillian
Westheimer, Ruth
Yalow, Rosalyn
For Further Reading
Appendix 1 Finding Out About Jews Around the Worldp. 603
Appendix 2 Organizations and Resourcesp. 605
Indexp. 615