Cover image for Earth almanac : an annual geophysical review of the state of the planet
Earth almanac : an annual geophysical review of the state of the planet
Goldstein, Natalie.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Phoenix, Ariz. : Oryx Press, 2000.
Physical Description:
xx, 387 pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Geographic Term:
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
QB631 .G65 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Non circulating

On Order



Appealing to a wide audience, Earth Almanac looks at the condition of our planet--including natural and human-made disasters--while explaining the science and developments behind them. This new almanac is comprehensive, with four main sections on Atmosphere, Oceans, Land, and Fresh Water. Background information, statistics, and a list of major events begin each section, with important additional information on how scientists may one day predict quakes, storms, and other occurrences.

Author Notes

NATALIE GOLDSTEIN is a freelance author focusing primarily on environmental subjects. For over ten years, she has written educational materials in environmental science and life sciences. She has worked for The Nature Conservancy in New York, the Hudson River Foundation, the Rare Animal Relief Effort (RARE

w part of the World Wildlife Fund), and the Audubon Society. She has also engaged in volunteer work for the Rainforest Alliance and the Sierra Club. She is a member of the National Association of Science Writers and the Society of Environmental Journalists, as well as the Editorial Freelancers Association. Ms. Goldstein holds Masters degrees in Environmental Science and Education.

Reviews 1

Library Journal Review

This new annual almanac reviews geophysical processes in four major areas: the Earth!s atmosphere, oceans, land, and fresh water. For each area, Goldstein"an author of numerous educational materials with a master!s degree in environmental science and education"summarizes research, covers major events (through 1998), and describes processes, cycles, and pertinent data. Appendixes outline selected treaties and law as well as selected national and international scientific programs. Teachers, students, and environmentally concerned citizens alike will greatly appreciate the comprehensive coverage of topics, which range from global warming and El NiOo to land use and permafrost, as well as the extensive use of interesting tables, graphs, and charts. In addition, the volume is quite appealing visually, with plenty of photos. Highly recommended for public and academic libraries for its solid presentation of basic scientific background information and socially and scientifically relevant data."Paul Haschak, Southeastern Louisiana Univ. Lib., Hammond (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Table of Contents

List of Tablesp. ix
List of Figuresp. xiii
List of Graphics, Diagrams, Photos, and Satellite Imagesp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Scopep. xvii
Sourcesp. xvii
Overview, 1998p. xvii
Whole-Earth Events, 1998p. xviii
Earth Eventsp. xviii
Costly Disastersp. xviii
Solar Stormp. xviii
Gamma Raysp. xviii
Earth Researchp. xviii
Earth Tiltp. xviii
Tropical Arcticp. xix
Utah Meteorp. xix
Solid Corep. xix
The Slow Zonep. xix
Life on Earthp. xx
First Land Plantp. xx
Life in Rocksp. xx
Bacteria Biomass-ivep. xx
Atmospherep. 1
Atmosphere Dynamicsp. 1
Structure of the Atmospherep. 1
Layers of the Atmospherep. 1
Tropospherep. 1
Stratospherep. 1
Mesospherep. 2
Thermospherep. 2
Exospherep. 2
Chemical Composition of the Atmospherep. 2
Weatherp. 2
The Trade Windsp. 4
The Jet Streamp. 4
Stormsp. 4
Hurricanesp. 5
Hurricane Classificationp. 6
Atlantic Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1998p. 6
Pacific and Indian Ocean Cyclones and Typhoons, 1998p. 12
Other Storms, Tornadoes, and Floods, 1998p. 13
Research and Responsep. 17
Air Pollution and Energyp. 21
Major Pollutantsp. 27
Carbon Monoxidep. 27
Leadp. 29
Particulate Matterp. 30
Sulfur Dioxidep. 33
Nitrogen Oxides and Volatile Organic Compounds: Smog and "Bad" Ozonep. 37
Air Pollution Events, 1998p. 44
Air Pollution Research, 1998p. 47
Atmospheric Ozone: The "Good" Ozone Laoyerp. 47
Ozone Depletion over the Antarcticp. 53
Antarctic Ozone Depletion, 1998p. 53
The Montreal Protocolp. 54
Other Ozone-Related Events and Research, 1998p. 55
Energyp. 56
Overview of Energy Usep. 57
Fossil Fuels: Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gasp. 64
Transportationp. 68
Electricityp. 70
Household Appliancesp. 71
Energy Alternativesp. 73
Energy News, 1998p. 76
Global Warmingp. 81
The Greenhouse Effectp. 81
Carbon Dioxide and Global Warmingp. 81
Global Climate Modelsp. 86
Reservations and Uncertaintyp. 88
Controversyp. 88
The Kyoto Protocolp. 95
The United States and the Kyoto Protocolp. 96
Global Warming, 1998p. 98
High Temperatures, 1998p. 100
Health Effects of Global Warmingp. 103
Global Warming and Wildlifep. 103
Research and Responsep. 104
Oceansp. 107
Oceans: Environment, Fisheries, and Pollutionp. 107
Ocean Fundamentalsp. 107
Ocean Salinityp. 108
Ocean Mineralsp. 109
Ocean Sedimentp. 109
Ocean Circulation and Currentsp. 109
Sea Levelp. 113
Sea Surface Temperaturep. 115
Ocean Research, 1998p. 117
Fisheriesp. 117
Significant Fishery Events, 1998p. 122
United States and Fisheriesp. 124
Fishing Vessels: Global and United Statesp. 131
Bycatch, Habitat Destruction, and Marine Debrisp. 133
Ocean Pollutionp. 136
Chemical Contaminationp. 136
Ocean Pollution, 1998p. 141
Oil Spillsp. 141
Related Events and Researchp. 144
Oxygen Depletionp. 145
Phytoplanktonp. 147
Algae Bloomsp. 147
Coral Reefsp. 152
Life in the Oceans: Research, 1998p. 159
El Ninop. 161
Ocean-Atmosphere Interactionp. 161
El Nino Conditions in the Pacificp. 162
Teleconnections, or How El Nino Affects Global Climatep. 162
Causes of El Ninop. 166
La Ninap. 166
El Nino and Global Warningp. 167
Monitoring El Ninop. 167
ENSO: El Nino-Southern Oscillationp. 167
Tracking ENSO Todayp. 168
Significant El Nino/La Nina Events of 1998p. 173
Winter 1998p. 173
Spring 1998p. 178
Summer 1998p. 179
Extreme Events Affected by El Nino and La Ninap. 182
Other Effects from El Nino Conditionsp. 185
The Landp. 188
Geologic Processesp. 188
The Earth's Layered Structurep. 189
Continental Driftp. 189
Tectonic Platesp. 190
Tectonic Plate Movementp. 190
Divergent Boundariesp. 190
Convergent Boundariesp. 191
Transform Boundariesp. 193
The Sea Floor and Magnetismp. 195
Questions and Researchp. 195
Significant Earthquakes of 1998p. 202
Other Earthquakes, 1998p. 209
Tsunamip. 211
Tsunami Alertsp. 212
Tsunami, 1998p. 212
Research and Responsep. 214
Volcanoesp. 214
Volcanic Sitep. 215
Predicting Volcanic Eruptionsp. 216
Volcanic Gasesp. 216
Volcanoes and Global Climatep. 217
Monitoring Volcanic Activityp. 217
Volcanic Eruptions, 1998p. 223
Researchp. 229
Land Use Issues: Cover, Soil, and Forestsp. 232
Urbanizationp. 232
Events and News, 1998p. 234
Land Cover and Resourcesp. 236
Events and News, 1998p. 243
Agriculture and the Landp. 244
Events, Research, and Response, 1998p. 246
Soil Erosionp. 246
Erosion of U.S. Croplandp. 247
Agriculture and Soil, 1998p. 248
Deserts and Desertificationp. 249
Desertificationp. 249
Desertification and Drought, 1998p. 254
Wildfiresp. 255
Wildfires, 1997p. 255
Wildfires, 1998p. 256
Research and Responsep. 260
Forestsp. 260
Deforestationp. 261
Consequences of Deforestationp. 261
Causes of Deforestationp. 262
Forest Events and News, 1998p. 280
Forest Conservation and Forest Wildlifep. 282
Researchp. 283
...and Responsep. 284
Fresh Waterp. 286
Cryosphere: The Icep. 286
Antarcticap. 287
Greenlandp. 288
The Arcticp. 288
Other Glaciersp. 288
Permafrostp. 290
The Cryosphere and Climate Changep. 291
Research and Events: Antarcticap. 291
Events: Greenlandp. 294
Events: The Arcticp. 295
Events: Alaskap. 295
Events: Other Glaciersp. 296
Research and Events: Permafrost and Sea Icep. 297
Pollution of the Cryospherep. 300
Avalanches, 1998p. 301
Research and Responsep. 302
Nature of Fresh Water Environmentp. 304
Surface Waterp. 306
Water Use in the United Statesp. 314
Wild and Scenic Riversp. 321
Damsp. 325
The Example of Aswan Dam, Egyptp. 325
Groundwaterp. 326
The High Plains (Ogalla) Aquiferp. 330
MTBEp. 330
Water Conflictsp. 333
Middle East and North Africap. 335
Asiap. 336
Europep. 336
North Americap. 336
South Americap. 337
Water Pollution Events, 1998p. 337
Researchp. 339
...and Responsep. 340
Water and Wildlifep. 341
Laws and Lawsuitsp. 341
Appendix I Selected Treaties and Lawsp. 343
Montreal Protocol, 1987p. 343
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changep. 344
The Kyoto Protocolp. 345
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992p. 345
MARPOL (International Commision for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships at Sea)p. 346
Overview of Selected U.S. Lawsp. 347
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 1976p. 347
Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), 1972p. 347
Clean Water Act (CWA), 1977p. 348
The Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP), 1998p. 348
Clean Air Act (CAA)p. 349
Oil Pollution Act (OPA), 1990p. 349
Endangered Species Act (ESA), 1973p. 349
Appendix II Selected International and National Scientific Programsp. 350
International Programs and Organizationsp. 350
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)p. 350
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)p. 350
Other Selected International Organizationsp. 351
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)p. 351
Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)p. 352
The World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS)p. 352
Selected U.S. Government Agencies and Government-Sponsored Organizationsp. 353
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)p. 353
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)p. 354
National Climate Data Center (NCDC)p. 354
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)p. 355
Other U.S. Agencies and Organizationsp. 355
U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)p. 355
U.S. Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO)p. 355
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)p. 356
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)p. 356
Independent Organizationsp. 356
Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Securityp. 356
Glossaryp. 357
Conversion Formulasp. 361
Lengthp. 361
Areap. 361
Volumep. 361
Massp. 361
Conversionsp. 361
Lengthp. 361
Areap. 361
Volumep. 361
Mass and Weightp. 361
Temperaturep. 362
Conversions from Universal Timep. 363
Geologic Timelinep. 364
Earth Factsp. 365
Abbreviationsp. 366
Indexp. 367