Cover image for The essential guide to telecommunications
The essential guide to telecommunications
Dodd, Annabel Z.
Personal Author:
Second edition.
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall PTR, [2000]

Physical Description:
xviii, 365 pages : illustrations, map ; 24 cm
Fundamentals -- Basic concepts -- Telephone systems and cabling -- Industry overview -- Network service providers -- Local competition and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 -- The public network -- Advanced technologies, the Internet, convergence and wireless -- Specialized network services -- Modems & access devices -- The Internet -- Convergence -- Wireless services.
Subject Term:
Format :


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TK5101 .D54 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Your complete, up-to-the-minute telecom/Internet briefing Whatever your role in telecom or Internet services, you'll be more effective if you understand the basics of telecommunications technology and the realities of the fast-changing telecom business. With The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, Second Edition, you will get this understanding-even if you have no technical background at all. In this book, leading consultant Annabel Z. Dodd teaches you everything you must know to understand the telecommunications industry. You'll find up-to-the-minute coverage of today's hottest technologies, including: * Convergence: what it means, what to expect, and how to see through the hype * Revolutionary new IP networking applications: telephony, virtual private networks, streaming media, call centers, PBXs, and beyond * High-speed Internet access alternatives: cable modems, DSL, and more * Frame relay, ATM, ISDN, wireless and other business communications alternatives * Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM): the new revolution in fiber optics * Dodd presents crystal-clear explanations of the fundamentals everyone in the business assumes you know: what bandwidth is, types of dig

Author Notes

Annabel Z. Dodd, the head of Dodd Consulting, is a writer and consultant specializing in telecommunications. She is the author of The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, which is intended as a layperson's overview of the industry and its technologies.

(Bowker Author Biography)

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Part 1 Fundamentalsp. 1
1 Basic Conceptsp. 3
Analog and Digitalp. 4
Analog Signalsp. 5
Digital Signalsp. 7
Digital Telephone Company Equipment--Saving Money on Maintenance and Spacep. 11
Bauds, Bits, Bytes and Codes--Getting Down to Basicsp. 11
Overviewp. 11
Baud Rate vs. Bits per Second--Signal vs. Amount of Information Sentp. 12
Codes--Adding Meaning to Bitsp. 12
Bytes = Charactersp. 14
Bandwidth--Measuring Capacityp. 14
Narrowband vs. Wideband--Slow and Fastp. 15
Protocols and Architecturesp. 16
Architectures--Communications Framework for Multiple Networksp. 17
Compression and Multiplexingp. 18
Compression--Manipulating Data for More Capacityp. 18
Streaming Mediap. 21
Multiplexing--Let's Sharep. 23
LANS, MANS, and WANSp. 25
LANs--Local Area Networksp. 26
WANS--Wide Area Networksp. 31
MANs--Metropolitan Area Networksp. 31
LAN and WAN Congestionp. 31
Higher Speed Services for LAN Trafficp. 33
Higher Speed Services for LAN-to-LAN Backbone and LAN-to-WAN Trafficp. 33
New Devices for Carrier and Internet Service Provider Networksp. 34
Appendixp. 36
2 Telephone Systems and Cablingp. 37
Telephone Systems--From Stand-Alone to Connected Telephonesp. 38
What Is a PBX?p. 39
Connecting Telephone Lines to PBXsp. 39
PBX Telephonesp. 40
Centrexp. 41
Key Systemsp. 46
In-Building Wireless PBX and Key System Telephones--On-Site Mobilityp. 46
Direct-Inward Dialing--Bypassing the Operator for Incoming Callsp. 48
Convergence and Telephone Systemsp. 50
Add--On Sales to Key Systems, PBXS and Centrex Systemsp. 52
Call Accounting--Tracking Calls and Usagep. 52
Voice Mail--A Way to Take Messagesp. 53
ACDs--Specialized Equipment to Handle Large Volumes of Callsp. 58
Network-Based ACD Functionsp. 60
LAN/PBX/ACD Connectivity to Enhance Productivityp. 61
Downloading ACD Statistics to PCsp. 61
Voice Response Units--Using the Telephone as a Terminalp. 62
Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)--Routing Callers More Intelligentlyp. 63
ACDs and Internet-Based Orders and Inquiriesp. 65
Media: Fiber and Unshielded Twisted Pair Copperp. 65
Electrical Properties of Copper Cablingp. 66
Fiber Optic Cabling--High Capacity and High Costsp. 67
Part 2 Industry Overviewp. 75
3 Network Service Providersp. 77
The Bell System Prior to and After 1984p. 88
Bell and Independent Telephone Companiesp. 90
Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 93
Interexchange Carriersp. 95
Transporting Calls Between Local Phone Companies and Interexchange Carriersp. 96
Competitive Access Providers (Caps) to Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (Clecs)p. 98
Resellersp. 101
Resellers and Switchless Resellersp. 102
Agentsp. 104
International Alliancesp. 105
4 Local Competition and The Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 107
Local Competition Prior to the Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 109
Uneven Competition for Local Telephone Service Throughout the U.S.p. 109
Local Competition following Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 113
Strategies for Entering the Local Calling Market--Resale, Wireless, Cable TV and Construction of Facilitiesp. 115
Regulations Prior to the Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 121
Factors Leading to Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 122
The Telecommunications Act of 1996p. 124
Major Features of the Actp. 125
FCC Rulings, Legal Challenges and Progress Toward Deregulationp. 132
Local Access Fees--A Major Source of Bell Company Revenuesp. 135
Local Number Portabilityp. 135
Summaryp. 139
Appendixp. 140
5 The Public Networkp. 143
Switched Services--Local and Long Distance Callingp. 145
Attributes of Real-time Switching Servicesp. 146
DTMF: Access to Voice Mail and Computersp. 147
Analog or Digital--"The Last Mile"p. 149
Dedicated Servicesp. 154
Overview of Dedicated Servicesp. 154
Attributes of Dedicated Linesp. 155
Why Private Lines?p. 157
Topologies of Dedicated Lines--The View from the Topp. 159
Outsourcing to Manage Private Networksp. 162
Network Intelligence And Signalingp. 165
Overview of Signalingp. 165
Backgroundp. 167
Common Channel Signaling, Efficiency and Redundancyp. 170
End and Tandem Central Officesp. 170
Signaling System 7--The Glue for Links Between Carriersp. 171
SS7 Componentsp. 173
SS7 in IP-Based Networksp. 175
Part 3 Advanced Technologies, The Internet, Convergence and Wirelessp. 177
6 Specialized Network Servicesp. 179
T-1--24 Voice or Data Paths over one Telephone Circuitp. 181
Channel Banks--Connecting T-1 to Analog PBXs and Central Officesp. 182
DS-0 and DS-1--64,000 or 56,000 vs. 1,544,000 BPSp. 183
Media used for T-1 Signalsp. 184
European vs. American and Japanese T-1--24 vs. 30 Channelsp. 185
An Explanation of Time Division Multiplexing and its Limitationsp. 185
A Sampling of T-1 Configurations Using T-1 for Combining Voice, Fax, Video and Datap. 186
Digital Cross Connects--Flexible Capacityp. 186
Fractional T-1--When 24 Paths Are Not Requiredp. 187
T-3--The Capacity of 28 T-1 Lines, 672 Channelsp. 188
ISDN--Integrated Services Digital Networkp. 189
Basic Rate Interface ISDN--Two Channels at 64 Thousand BPSp. 190
Primary Rate Interface ISDN--24 Channelsp. 193
Digital Subscriber Line Technologyp. 196
Obstacles to Digital Subscriber Line Availability--Cost, Ease of Implementation and Availabilityp. 199
DSL--A Technical Explanationp. 200
DSL Lite--Lower Cost Servicep. 201
DSLAMs--Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexersp. 202
DSL--For Internet Access and as a Response to Competition from Cable Companiesp. 203
Frame Relay--A Shared Wide Area Network Servicep. 203
Connections to Frame Relay--Frame Relay Access Devices and Access Line Speedsp. 204
Frame Relay for Transmitting Voicep. 205
Frame Relay Pricing--Ports, Circuits and Committed Information Ratep. 206
Potential Congestion on Frame Relayp. 207
ATM--Asynchronous Transfer Modep. 207
Fixed-Sized Cells--Less Processingp. 208
Asynchronous Switching--Improving Network Utilizationp. 209
Scalability--The Ability to Use ATM for Both High- and Low-Speed Applicationsp. 209
Elements of an ATM Networkp. 210
SONET--Synchronous Optical Networkp. 215
SDH--Synchronous Digital Hierarchy and SONETp. 216
SONET Functions--The Four Layersp. 216
SONET Rings--For Greater Reliablyp. 217
Telephone Company SONET Offeringsp. 219
SONET Connections to Wave Division Multiplexers and ATM Switchesp. 219
SONET Technology--High-Capacity Networks at Lower Costsp. 220
7 Modems and Access Devicesp. 221
Transferring Data from Computers to Telephone Linesp. 221
DCE--Connections to Telephone Linesp. 224
Modems--Analog Telephone Lines with Digital Devicesp. 225
Fax Modemsp. 225
56 KBPS Modems--To Achieve Higher Speedsp. 226
Modem and Fax Servers--Sharing Resources Within Organizationsp. 227
PCMCIA Modems--Smaller Is Betterp. 229
NTIs--Connecting Devices to an ISDN Linep. 231
CSU/DSUs--Connecting Devices to a Digital Linep. 232
Cable Modems--Using Cable TV Facilities for Data Communicationsp. 232
Cable Modems for Remote Accessp. 237
Cable TV Set-Top Boxesp. 238
Appendix Modem Standardsp. 239
8 The Internetp. 243
The History of the Internetp. 244
Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs)p. 246
Who Runs the Internet?p. 247
Who Owns the Internet?p. 248
Peering--A Way to Exchange Data Between Networksp. 248
Internet Servicesp. 248
The World Wide Web--Linking and Graphicsp. 249
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)--Web Speakp. 250
Home Pagesp. 251
Hosting--Computers Connected to the Internet with Home Pagesp. 251
Browsers--Moving from Web Site to Web Sitep. 253
E-mail--Computers That Send, Store and Receive Messagesp. 255
E-mail Attachments--To Aid Collaborative Projectsp. 256
Internet2p. 257
Privacy on the World Wide Webp. 257
Internet Service Providers and Portalsp. 260
Internet Service Providersp. 260
Portals--Content As Well As Internet Accessp. 262
Internet Addressesp. 265
The Structure of Internet Addressesp. 265
New Internet Address Namesp. 266
Electronic Commerce and Advertising on the Webp. 267
Advertising on the Web--A Source of Revenuep. 267
Money Spent to Produce and Maintain Web Sitesp. 268
Online Commerce--What Sells?p. 270
Web Congestion--World Wide Waitp. 272
Intranets--Impact of Web Technology on Internal Operationsp. 274
Extranets--Using Internet Technology with Customers, Partners and Vendorsp. 276
Security on the World Wide Web--Establishing Trustp. 277
Conclusion--Reliability, Security and Capacityp. 279
9 Convergencep. 283
Savings on Carriers' Networksp. 285
More Competition, Falling Margins on Voice Servicesp. 285
Elimination of Overlay Networksp. 286
New Competitorsp. 288
Technical Advances Leading to Improvements in IP Networksp. 288
Improvements in Switching Routersp. 289
Digital Signal Processorsp. 290
Voice Compressionp. 291
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)p. 292
Programmable Switchesp. 293
Examples of Converged Networksp. 295
Free Calls Over the Internetp. 296
H.323--A Way to Make Telephone Calls Over IPp. 296
Calls Over the Internet from PCs to Telephonesp. 297
Calls Over the Internet from Telephonesp. 297
Carriers with Their Own Facilitiesp. 298
Data-Only Networks Using IP and ATMp. 299
Applications for Convergencep. 300
Prepaid Debit Cardsp. 300
Document Sharingp. 301
VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) Between Corporate Sites and for Electronic Commercep. 302
Security on Virtual Private Networksp. 304
Voice and Data Using IP on Dedicated Lines Between Customer Premisesp. 305
Connecting Telephone Systems to IP Networksp. 305
Call Center Connections to the Internetp. 307
IP-Based Telephone Systemsp. 309
Transparency of Changes to the Public Networkp. 310
Summaryp. 310
10 Wireless Servicesp. 313
Historical Background of Mobile and Cellular Servicesp. 317
Spectrum Allocationp. 317
Cellular Telephone Service--Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)p. 318
The Cellular Marketp. 320
Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service--D-AMPSp. 322
PCS--Personal Communications Servicesp. 325
PCS--Lack of Interoperability and Antenna Requirementsp. 327
Cellular Vendorsp. 327
Smart Devices for Internet and Remote Accessp. 329
Called Party Pays--an Impediment to Cellular Usagep. 331
Wireless for Local Telephone Servicep. 332
Using the Same Number for Cellular and Wireline Servicesp. 333
Cellular Services for Data Communicationsp. 334
Limitations of Circuit-Switched Cellular for Data Communicationsp. 334
CDPD--Cellular Digital Packet Data, IP Wirelessp. 335
Specialized Mobile Radio--Originally for Voicep. 336
Private Networks over Mobile Radio Frequenciesp. 336
BellSouth Mobile and American Mobile Satellite Company Packetized Radio on Specialized Mobile Radio Spectrump. 337
Specialized Mobile Frequencies for Voice--Nextelp. 337
Paging Servicesp. 338
Paging vs. Wireless Telephone Servicep. 339
Nationwide and Worldwide Reach of Pagingp. 339
Two-Way Paging Using Narrowband PCSp. 340
Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Networks (LEOs) and Middle Earth Orbiting Satellites (MEOs)p. 341
Vendors of LEOs and MEOsp. 342
Time Division Multiple Access and Code Division Multiple Accessp. 343
Glossaryp. 347
Bibliographyp. 356
Indexp. 357
About the Authorp. 365