Cover image for Encyclopedia of management
Encyclopedia of management
Helms, Marilyn M., 1962-
Fourth edition.
Publication Information:
Detroit : Gale Group, [2000]

Physical Description:
xxviii, 1020 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm
Format :


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HD30.15 .E49 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize Non-Circ

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This revised edition covers 350 topics in management theories and applications, providing first-hand knowledge of such topics as: aggregate planning; business logistics; productivity measurement; and supply chain management.

Reviews 1

Booklist Review

Though described as a "fully revised" edition of Encyclopedia of Management (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982), any resemblance is faint indeed, as the fourth edition has eliminated many subjects covered in the third, renamed others, and added terms and concepts important in today's management circles. In format and style, the new volume bears a much greater resemblance to Gale's Encyclopedia of Business [RBB Je 1 & 15 96] than to its namesake. In terms of substance, the new edition stands on its own, with unique content and different contributors even for the few essay topics included in both titles. The 348 signed essays are clearly written, well-organized, and provide an excellent source of background information relevant to management today. One exception is the area of alternative dispute resolution, which receives short shrift. Conflict management does not specifically discuss either alternative dispute resolution or mediation, and neither of these popular methods is listed in the index. Management professors, business writers, and practitioners contributed essays that vary from one to more than seven pages. Essays generally provide definitions, background information, theoretical underpinnings, current applications, and future trends. Arranged alphabetically, they are assigned to one of 16 functional categories listed at the front of the book. Using these categories, readers can identify related topics and delve more deeply into specific areas of interest. "Management Thought Leaders: Past, Present, and Future," "Production and Operations Management," "Human Resources Management," and "Training and Development" are a few examples of functional categories. Subjects addressed range from classic management topics such as Economies of scale and economies of scope and Organization theory to topics such as Electronic commerce and Family-friendly business practices. Some essays include charts, graphs, tables, or formulas. These provide handy summaries of key points and help illustrate concepts such as management structures, matrix analysis, and so on. At least one table is missing: the entry Discrimination refers to a summary of major EEO laws contained in "Exhibit A," but no such exhibit is included. Essays provide suggestions for further reading, some of which include Web sites and books published as recently as 2000. See also references and boldface textual references point the reader to related topics. The editorial staff seem to have done a better job integrating these references than was the case with Encyclopedia of Business. However, they did not do nearly so well with the index. For example, Stress in organizations discusses a wide range of topics, including repetitive-motion disorders, AIDS in the workplace, substance abuse, and workplace violence--all issues of likely interest to readers. Readers will have a hard time locating the discussions, as none of these terms appear in the index. Likewise, Management leaders discusses Michael Eisner and Bill Gates in equivalent detail, yet only Eisner is included in the index. Glass ceiling is discussed in at least three essays, but only two of them are noted in the index. This poor indexing limits the usefulness of an otherwise valuable reference source. The Concise Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management (Blackwell, 1998) has more entries but generally less detail than Encyclopedia of Management. The six-volume International Encyclopedia of Business and Management (Routledge, 1996) obviously has more entries and greater depth. Both of these works have an international focus and were written for scholarly, specialized audiences. Encyclopedia of Management does a fine job of explaining both the practical and theoretical aspects of current management concepts in language accessible to the layperson. It is a worthwhile addition for public, business, and undergraduate libraries that do not have the Blackwell or Routledge titles or that need an introductory management encyclopedia.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xi
Preface and User's Guidep. xiii
Editor and Advisorsp. xvii
Contributorsp. xix
Guide to Functional-Area Readingsp. xxiii
Essay Titles
Activity-Based Costingp. 1
Aggregate Planningp. 3
Amoeba Management Systemp. 8
Applicant Screeningp. 12
Appraisal System Designp. 12
Apprenticeship Programsp. 13
Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systemsp. 16
Assessment Centersp. 21
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)p. 22
Aufsichtsrat (Supervisory Board of Directors) and Betriebsrat (Works Council)p. 25
Authority and Powerp. 27
Automationp. 30
Autonomyp. 32
Balance Sheetsp. 33
Balanced Scorecardp. 36
Behavioral Approaches to Managementp. 40
Benchmarkingp. 45
Board of Directorsp. 49
Brainstormingp. 54
Break-Even Pointp. 55
Breakthrough Thinkingp. 59
Budgetingp. 61
Bundled Goods and Servicesp. 62
Business Forecastingp. 68
Capacity Planningp. 69
Case Method of Analysisp. 71
Cash Flow Analysisp. 72
Cash Flow Statementsp. 75
Cellular Manufacturingp. 77
Census of Manufacturesp. 81
Census, Economicp. 82
Centralization and Decentralizationp. 84
Chaebolp. 86
Chain of Command Principlep. 87
Change and Resistance to Changep. 88
Chaos Theoryp. 92
Coalition Buildingp. 94
Commitmentp. 97
Communicationp. 104
Competitive Advantagep. 104
Complexity Theoryp. 107
Computer Networksp. 110
Computer Securityp. 116
Computer Technology in Human Resourcesp. 121
Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturingp. 123
Computer-Based Trainingp. 126
Computer-Integrated Manufacturingp. 128
Concept Managementp. 130
Conflict Managementp. 132
Constraintsp. 135
Consultantsp. 137
Consumer Behaviorp. 138
Contingency Approach to Managementp. 142
Contingent Workersp. 143
Continuing Educationp. 145
Continuous Improvementp. 147
Corporate Governancep. 150
Corporate-Level Strategiesp. 152
Cost Accountingp. 154
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 157
Creativityp. 159
Cross-Cultural Trainingp. 161
Cultural Diversityp. 162
Customer Carep. 164
Cycle Timep. 167
Danwei in Chinap. 169
Data Processing and Data Managementp. 170
Decision Makingp. 174
Decision Rulesp. 178
Decision Support Systems in Portfolio Managementp. 184
Delegationp. 188
Deming, W. Edwardsp. 191
Deployment of American Managers Overseasp. 196
Deregulationp. 201
Dictionary of Occupational Titlesp. 203
Direct Access Storage Devicesp. 204
Discipline and Dischargep. 205
Discriminationp. 206
Dissatisfiersp. 210
Distance Learningp. 211
Distinctive Competencep. 214
Diversification Strategyp. 215
Diversity in the Workforcep. 218
Divestmentp. 220
Downsizingp. 226
E-managerp. 227
Economicsp. 228
Economies of Scale and Economies of Scopep. 232
Effectiveness and Efficiencyp. 235
Electronic Commercep. 237
Electronic Data Interchange and Electronic Funds Transferp. 241
Electronic Distribution Systemsp. 242
Electronic Mailp. 244
Employee Assistance Programsp. 246
Employee Benefitsp. 247
Employee Compensationp. 250
Employee Recruitment Planningp. 254
Employee Relationsp. 256
Employee Selectionp. 258
Employment Agencies and Outsourcingp. 262
Employment Law and Compliancep. 263
Employment Testingp. 268
Empowermentp. 271
Engineering Managementp. 275
Enterprise Resource Planningp. 276
Environmental Issuesp. 277
Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionp. 279
Ergonomicsp. 280
Ethics in Businessp. 281
European Unionp. 285
Expatriatesp. 290
Experience and Learning Curvesp. 291
Expert Powerp. 294
Exportingp. 295
Exporting Logisticsp. 301
Face-Savingp. 303
Facilitatorp. 304
Factory of the Futurep. 306
Fair Tradep. 308
Family-Friendly Business Practicesp. 311
Feedbackp. 315
Financial Issues for Managersp. 316
Financial Ratiosp. 319
First-Mover Advantagep. 323
Fishbone Diagramsp. 325
Flexible Manufacturingp. 326
Flow Chartsp. 329
Focused Factoryp. 330
Functional Structurep. 332
Functions of Managementp. 336
Gantt Chartsp. 337
Gap Analysisp. 338
Generic Competitive Strategiesp. 340
Globalization and International Managementp. 344
Goalsp. 348
Group Dynamicsp. 352
Guanxi in Chinese Culturesp. 360
Hall, Edward T.p. 361
Hawthorne Experimentsp. 363
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theoryp. 365
Hofstede, Geertp. 366
Horizontal Integrationp. 369
Hoshin Planningp. 372
Human Resource Developmentp. 375
Human Resource Managementp. 379
Human Resource Planningp. 385
Hypothesis Testingp. 392
Incentive Plansp. 393
Income Statementsp. 398
Industrial Relationsp. 402
Industrial Revolutionp. 407
Industrial Standardizationp. 408
Innovationp. 409
Intellectual Property Rightsp. 411
Internal Auditingp. 413
International Business Issuesp. 414
International Management Communicationp. 419
International Management Ethicsp. 423
International Management Issuesp. 425
International Monetary Fundp. 428
International Organization for Standardizationp. 431
International Strategyp. 434
Internet, World Wide Web, and Intranetsp. 438
Inventory Managementp. 443
Inventory Typesp. 447
Japanese Keiretsup. 451
Japanese Managementp. 454
Job Analysisp. 459
Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliancesp. 463
Just-in-Time Productionp. 469
Kaizen (Incremental Change)p. 471
Kibbutzp. 473
Knowledge Basep. 474
Knowledge Managementp. 475
Knowledge Workersp. 480
Labor Law and Collective Bargainingp. 481
Lateral Thinkingp. 484
Lawrence and Lorsch Modelp. 486
Layoutp. 487
Leadershipp. 490
Lean Manufacturingp. 495
Leveraged Buyoutsp. 496
Licensing and Licensing Agreementsp. 498
Life Cycle Strategyp. 500
Limited Partnershipp. 502
Line-and-Staff Organizationsp. 503
Location Strategyp. 505
Longitudinal Scenariosp. 509
Macroenvironmental Forcesp. 511
Maintenancep. 516
Make-or-Buy Decisionsp. 520
Management and Executive Developmentp. 523
Management Auditp. 526
Management Awardsp. 529
Management Controlp. 535
Management Educationp. 537
Management Information Systemsp. 540
Management Leadersp. 542
Management Leaders: Economistsp. 548
Management Leaders: U.S. Laborp. 555
Management of Informationp. 559
Management of Technologyp. 564
Management Sciencep. 566
Management Societies and Associations: Domesticp. 570
Management Societies and Associations: Internationalp. 573
Management Stylesp. 576
Managerial Gridp. 579
Managerial Rolesp. 580
Manufacturing Resource Planningp. 582
Maquiladora Systemp. 585
Market Sharep. 588
Marketing Communicationp. 589
Marketing Concept and Philosophyp. 594
Marketing Researchp. 597
Matching Structure with Strategyp. 600
Mechanistic Organizationsp. 605
Mentoring in Organizationsp. 606
Mergers and Acquisitionsp. 608
Metropolitan Areasp. 611
Middle Managersp. 612
Mission and Vision Statementsp. 614
Mitbestimmung (Co-determination)p. 618
Models and Modelingp. 620
Modes of Communicationp. 625
Moralep. 628
Motivation and Motivation Theoryp. 629
Multimediap. 632
Multinational Corporationsp. 633
Multiple-Criteria Decision Makingp. 640
Nepotismp. 641
Neurolinguistic Programmingp. 643
New Product Developmentp. 645
Non-compete Agreementsp. 649
Nonprofit Organizationsp. 650
Nontraditional Work Arrangementsp. 653
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)p. 659
Object-Oriented Programmingp. 661
Ohio State Leadership Studiesp. 663
Open and Closed Systemsp. 664
Operant Conditioningp. 665
Operating Systemsp. 667
Operations Managementp. 668
Operations Schedulingp. 669
Operations Strategyp. 672
Opportunity Costp. 676
Order-Winning and Order-Qualifying Criteriap. 677
Organic Organizationsp. 679
Organization Theoryp. 681
Organizational Analysis and Planningp. 682
Organizational Changep. 685
Organizational Culturep. 689
Organizational Learningp. 691
Organizational Structurep. 692
Organizingp. 699
Parallel Designp. 703
Pareto Analysisp. 706
Participative Managementp. 707
Patents and Trademarksp. 709
Path-Goal Theoryp. 711
Performance Appraisalp. 713
Performance Measurementp. 717
Pioneers of Managementp. 719
Planningp. 724
Poison Pill Strategiesp. 727
Poka-Yokep. 729
Popular Press Management Booksp. 734
Porter's Five-Forces Modelp. 738
Porter-Lawler Expectancy Modelp. 741
Pricing Policy and Strategyp. 743
Problem Solvingp. 746
Process Managementp. 749
Product Designp. 755
Product Differentiation and Diversificationp. 760
Product Life Cycle and Industry Life Cyclep. 763
Product-Process Matrixp. 767
Production Economicsp. 771
Production Planning and Schedulingp. 773
Productivity Conceptsp. 774
Productivity Measuresp. 778
Professional Reading for Managersp. 779
Profit Sharingp. 782
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM)p. 783
Project Managementp. 789
Prospector, Defender, Analyzer, and Reactor Organizationsp. 793
Purchasingp. 800
Quality of Work Lifep. 803
Reinforcement Theoryp. 805
Research Methodsp. 807
Research Processp. 811
Resumesp. 815
Ringiseidop. 816
Risk Managementp. 818
Roboticsp. 821
Rolesp. 824
Safety at the Workplacep. 825
Scenario Planningp. 830
Schools of Management Thoughtp. 831
Securities and Exchange Commissionp. 835
Sensitivity Trainingp. 837
Service Operationsp. 840
Service Qualityp. 844
Shareholdersp. 847
Simulationp. 851
Small Businessp. 854
Social Auditp. 859
Sociocultural Dimension in Managementp. 862
Sociotechnical Systemsp. 863
Span of Controlp. 865
Statisticsp. 866
Strategic Partnershipsp. 870
Strategic Planning Failurep. 875
Strategic Planning Toolsp. 880
Strategy Formulationp. 885
Strategy Implementationp. 890
Strategy Implementation Issuesp. 895
Strategy in the Global Environmentp. 900
Strategy Levelsp. 904
Stress in Organizationsp. 909
Supply Chain Management (SCM)p. 914
Sweatshopsp. 917
Synergyp. 919
Systems Analysisp. 921
Systems Design, Development, and Implementationp. 926
Task Analysisp. 927
Teamsp. 929
Technological Forecastingp. 932
Technology Managementp. 933
Technology Transferp. 939
Telecommunicationsp. 944
Theory of Constraintsp. 950
Theory X and Theory Yp. 954
Theory Zp. 957
Time-Based Competitionp. 958
Training Methodsp. 962
Transnational Organizationp. 969
Uniform Commercial Codep. 971
Utility Theoryp. 973
Value Analysisp. 975
Value Chain Managementp. 977
Value-Added Taxp. 979
Vendor Ratingp. 982
Videoconferencingp. 985
Virtual Organizationsp. 988
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-Making Modelp. 994
Women in Business and Industryp. 995
World-Class Manufacturerp. 1000
Zero-Based Budgetingp. 1003
Zero-Sum Gamep. 1007
Indexp. 1009