Cover image for Eisenhower
Title:
Eisenhower
Author:
Perret, Geoffrey.
Personal Author:
Edition:
First edition.
Publication Information:
New York : Random House, 1999.
Physical Description:
xii, 685 pages ; 25 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780375500466
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

A study of the life of Dwight David Eisenhower sheds new light on his military and political career, including his alleged affair with Kay Summersby, his rise to commander of the Allied forces, and his two terms as president.


Author Notes

Geoffrey Perret was educated at Harvard University and the University of California at Berkeley. He was enlisted in the U.S. Army for three years. He lives in England with his wife.

(Bowker Author Biography)


Reviews 4

Booklist Review

Perret exhibits a psychologist's knack for dissecting personalities, a novelist's eye for detail, and a dramatist's sense of pacing in this portrait of Eisenhower, just as he did in his biographies of MacArthur and Grant. There are really two Eisenhowers: the grinning Kansas kid who climbed the army hierarchy and the D-Day Eisenhower, a columnar figure supporting the marble edifice of History. Perret most effectively illuminates the former and the formative influences on Ike. He astutely critiques the departures from probable truth about incidents in Ike lore or in Ike's various memoirs, for example, concerning his enrollment in the military academy. That prize was endangered by a white lie about his age and by a pro-Democratic Party speech he made (his only public political utterance before 1952). Ike overcame the indiscretion in a way that foreshadowed his future rise: by impressing the powerful. Rivals in olive-drab complained about his ingratiation, but ineffectually, since Eisenhower scored tops in the army's command courses, and its top generals valued his writing ability. Mamie appears among the various postings Perret chronicles, complaining about housing conditions on base. When Perret reaches the war, his subject's meteoric ascent into fame almost outdistances the man in the uniform--perhaps a reason for the national inquiry about his aide Kay Summersby: Did they or didn't they? ask the gossips. Impossible to say, but Perret skewers the defects in Summersby's claims. The presidential Ike becomes remoter still, perhaps a function of a suburbanizing, nuclear-arming, civil-rights a-bubbling America becoming ever more distant from its president's small-town roots. Yet on all aspects of Ike's familiar story, Perret manages to stud his agile prose with original insights. Gilbert Taylor


Publisher's Weekly Review

Breaking no new ground in the way of facts or interpretation, Perret (Old Soldiers Never Die; Ulysses S. Grant) nevertheless provides a useful, generally efficient summary of Ike's long and multifaceted lifeÄalbeit one devoid of critical judgments and one that is stronger on Ike's military career than on his political career. Evidently an ardent fan of the warrior-president, Perret fails to give adequate scrutiny to such troubling events as Eisenhower's well-known abandonment of his old friend George Marshall during the McCarthy era, or his key role in fostering the plan for the ill-starred Bay of Pigs invasion, put into effect so disastrously by KennedyÄwhom he despisedÄonce Ike had left office. Perret is strong in portraying all aspects of Eisenhower in his role as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during WWII. The author is particularly good at depicting Ike's intense, sometimes tense relationships with British Field Marshall Montgomery and President Roosevelt, as well as with his own wife, Mamie, who tried but failed to get the general to assure their son John safe duty away from combatÄsomething neither father nor son thought proper. What the book lacks as a presidential biography, it makes up for as the biography of a great military leader. (Oct.) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved


Library Journal Review

Stephen Ambrose's landmark biography Eisenhower (1983) inspired this work, an effort justified by the availability of new primary-source materials on various aspects of Ike's life and career. Perret (Ulysses S. Grant, LJ 7/97) traces Eisenhower's meteoric rise in the army, his early promotions owing not to his experience but to his organizational genius, gift for writing, and ability to "go along" with unpalatable assignments. Following Pearl Harbor, he oversaw the campaigns in North Africa and Sicily as theater commander, preparatory to the Normandy invasion (Overlord). Perret salutes his subject as the architect of Operation Overlord, and his fluid prose keeps pace with Ike's race for the Rhine. At war's end, Eisenhower appears as a Cold War realist but with a dangerous overreliance on nuclear weapons as instruments of military and political containment. Perret praises Ike's domestic reforms and budget surpluses but shows Eisenhower to be a "go-slow" civil rights reformer and not entirely courageous in opposing McCarthyism. An impressive biography; recommended for public and academic libraries.ÄJohn Carver Edwards, Univ. of Georgia Libs., Athens (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.


Choice Review

In the first full biography of Eisenhower since Stephen Ambrose's Eisenhower (v.1, CH, Jan'84; v.2, CH, Feb'85), Perret fashions an admiring yet occasionally critical portrait. The author has written biographies of Generals Grant and MacArthur, and books on the impact of war on American society, and his interests show in this work as well. He emphasizes Eisenhower the general over Ike the president, devoting more attention (in text and photographs) to six years of WW II than to the eight years of Eisenhower's presidency, and beginning each chapter with a five-star emblem. Perret's familiarity with military history graces his portrayal of Eisenhower's growth as supreme allied commander, arguing that if anyone practiced total war, it was going to be Eisenhower, not Hitler. The author balances praise of Eisenhower's presidential leadership with criticism of his Third World policy and accusations of distortions--even lies--in Eisenhower's memoirs. On McCarthyism and civil rights, where scholars have criticized Eisenhower, Perret passes judgment indirectly, establishing the president's stance, then praising people like scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer and Chief Justice Earl Warren whose positions differed. An informal style keeps Perret's narrative flowing and marks this as the best one-volume Eisenhower biography. General readers; undergraduates. A. J. Dunar; University of Alabama in Huntsville


Excerpts

Excerpts

Change of Plan They had been waiting a long time for him; nearly three years, in fact. The British never expected to destroy Nazi Germany on their own. It would take the mightiest coalition in history to do that. But there were two related thoughts that sustained them through the darkest times: Hitler would never defeat them, and the United States could not stay out of the war indefinitely. One day, an American general would arrive as an avatar in khaki, brass buttons and a rainbow smear of medal ribbons, the manifest form of the assurance of victory, with all the power of America at his back, and the forces of democracy would then possess the amassed strength that would save the world. Ike also brought something else with him, something more prosaic but almost as welcome--a crate of fresh fruit. The British, he knew from his earlier visit, not only craved the downfall of Hitler but yearned, too, for oranges, bananas and grapes, which had been unobtainable almost since the war began. Bearing these gifts, he landed in Britain on June 24, to intense, openly expressed curiosity and an understood but understated sense of relief.1 Ike moved into a suite at Claridge's, the most fashionable hotel in London, with his naval aide and longtime friend Harry C. Butcher, a lieutenant commander in the Navy Reserve. When they had first met, Butcher was editor of The Fertilizer Review; he had since risen to a vice-presidency at CBS. Ike had also brought to London another old friend, Thomas Jefferson Davis. Once Ike's strongest supporter in many a fierce argument with MacArthur, Davis was now Ike's adjutant general. Eisenhower felt uneasy in the luxurious, upper-crust atmosphere of Claridge's, a place where anything that doesn't move is likely to be gilded and anything that does is likely to carry an aroma of snobbery. "I feel like I'm living in sin," he told Butcher. Eisenhower's chief of staff, Brigadier General Charles Bolté, gave him another good reason to move. "Claridge's is like a hunk of sugar," said Bolté. "One bomb and the whole building will dissolve." He urged him to come and live where he did, in the Dorchester, which was built of concrete and steel. The Dorchester also had a more modern, almost American, atmosphere. Two weeks after his arrival, Ike moved with something like a sigh of relief. The Dorchester faced Hyde Park and was only a brisk five-block walk to his ETO headquarters at 20 Grosvenor Square.2 As the word spread that he was in London, invitations flooded in--to speak, to receive awards, to be feted and toasted, to open this or inaugurate that. He turned nearly all of them down, including a dinner hosted by the lord mayor of London. He also rejected, to Butcher's dismay, a chance to meet George Bernard Shaw. "To hell with it," said Ike. "I've got work to do!"3 Almost from the moment he arrived, Ike missed Mamie intensely. He wrote to her three or four times a week. He apologized for not being able to tell her anything specific about what he was doing but tried to give her a rough idea: "In a place like this, the Commanding General must be a bit of a diplomat--lawyer--promoter--salesman--social hound--liar (at least to get out of social affairs)--mountebank, actor--Simon Legree--humanitarian--orator and incidentally (sometimes I think most damnably incidentally) a soldier!" The main thing in his letters to Mamie wasn't what little news they contained but the constant reassurance that he was all right; that, and the warrior's eternal plea: "Lots of love--don't forget me."4 He also agonized over keeping in touch with John. "He's on my mind all the time," Ike told Mamie. Before he left for London, Ike had told John how much it would mean to him to get a letter, however brief, once a week, but like most young men his age, John was shy and self-conscious when it came to correspondence. After he had been in England six weeks and received nothing but a short note from his son, Ike became exasperated and couldn't help comparing his own upbringing with Johnny's: "Sometimes I worry that he may be just a bit spoiled. . . . Things have been easy for him. . . . After all--suppose he'd have had to start at 13 or 14 getting up at 4 or 5 in the morning working through a hot summer day to 9:00 at night--day after day--or doing his winter work with cold chapped hands and not even gloves--maybe he'd think writing a letter wasn't so terribly difficult!"5 It almost never occurred to Eisenhower that he might be responsible for the emotional distance between them. He was doubtless handicapped by the daunting self-control essential to any military career. More important, though, was the distant, emotionally stiff relationship with his own father. Ike frequently wrote to old friends and sent them his love or told them just how much they meant to him. No matter how far he traveled or how long they were parted, he did not do that with his own son. Even after he had shunned all but a minimal effort on what he called "the Social Front," Eisenhower found the city too crowded, too noisy. Besides, the headquarters at 20 Grosvenor Street was in a building that the Navy owned, not the Army. He told Bolté he wanted to move out of the city--about fifty miles away, preferably. Bolté said that was impossible. He had to be within easy reach of the Ministry of Defence, the Air Ministry, Downing Street and so on. As for fifty miles, "You can't even drive at 20 miles an hour in the blackout," Bolté warned him.6 Despite this, his determination to get away from Grosvenor Square grew stronger. It was terrible to withstand the incessant demands imposed on him by two governments and make life-or-death decisions all day and then have nothing but a hotel to go home to at night. "I want to get the hell out of London," he told Butcher. The British generals and politicians he was dealing with nearly all had a place in the country to retreat to on the weekends where they could relax. Why shouldn't he do the same? Butcher found the ideal place: a two-story, five-bedroom house called Telegraph Cottage built in mock-Tudor style. It was in the heart of London's stockbroker belt, near Kingston on Thames, a forty-minute drive from Grosvenor Square. Telegraph Cottage was set back from the main road at the end of a long driveway, had a large garden at the front and ten acres of woodland at the back. Best of all, perhaps, it was adjacent to a golf course. At first, Ike spent only weekends at Telegraph Cottage, but by the fall he was there for half the week. In London, up to twenty people a day came to see him. Between visitors, he wrestled with mountains of plans and correspondence and there were dozens of telephone calls. At the cottage, he could play a few rounds of golf with Butcher, weather permitting, and think. Or stroll around in his wood, and think. Or plant a vegetable garden, and think. Telegraph Cottage soon had something like a family atmosphere. Ike, Butcher, Ike's Army aide Major "Tex" Lee, his stenographer, Warrant Officer Walter Marshall, and his orderly, Sergeant Mickey McKeogh, shared the house. Ike's secretaries and female drivers were billeted with families living nearby, but they came to the cottage most evenings when he was in residence to watch a movie, play cards or simply chat. There was only one thing missing, Ike decided. He asked Lee one day if Army regulations prevented him from having a pet. Lee said he wasn't aware of one. A few days later, Ike called Butcher into his office and told him, "I'm going to get a dog." He already had the ETO Service of Supply looking for one, preferably a Scottie. Butcher tried to persuade him to embrace a more exotic breed, but Eisenhower's mind was made up. "I like the independent attitude of a strutting Scottie." A week later, he had his dog, a black bundle of fur that he named Telek. It sounded like a cable address for Telegraph Cottage, but it amused him to tell curious journalists that the dog's strange name was "a military secret."7 From the moment Eisenhower arrived, the British were more than eager to learn all they could about this American general come to command the European Theater of Operations, the main theater of war. So, too, were many millions of Americans. He was almost as obscure a figure to his countrymen as he was to the British. The first morning he went to work at 20 Grosvenor Square, he had to carve a path, smiling and nodding, through a crowd of jostling, bulb-popping photographers. Ike's predecessor in London, Lieutenant General James Chaney, had imposed a wide range of restrictions on the press, and many journalists came to feel the Army disdained, if not despised, them. Eisenhower changed all that. Three weeks after he arrived in London, he held what he called "a conference with the press," instead of a press conference. The point wasn't to give them news but to establish a working relationship. He talked about how well he'd gotten along with journalists during his nine years working with and for MacArthur. "I have only been double crossed by one newspaperman in my life," he said, shrugging it off as one of those things.8 They disliked the strict censorship rules, they said, and complained about how long it took to get photographs and stories through censorship. Ike told them he'd relax the rules immediately and would hire more censors to speed things up. They said they weren't allowed to give the names of any but the two highest-ranking American generals, himself and Carl Spaatz, commander of the Eighth Air Force. That rule is now abolished, Ike replied. And there was the subject of race. Reporters weren't allowed to file copy on racial friction between American troops or submit stories on black soldiers dating English women. Ike said the ban was lifted as of now. The journalists left dazzled. It was like emerging from a tunnel into sunshine. "I don't think he needs a public relations adviser," wrote an astonished Butcher, who had arrived in England convinced that Ike would need his extensive experience with newspapers and radio stations back home to help get the press on his side. "He is tops."9 Excerpted from Eisenhower by Geoffrey Perret All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.