Cover image for Video editing and post-production : a professional guide
Title:
Video editing and post-production : a professional guide
Author:
Anderson, Gary H. (Gary Hale)
Edition:
Fourth edition.
Publication Information:
Boston : Focal Press, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xii, 196 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780240803371
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Videotape Editing and Post-Production emphasizes the basic information that professionals need to acquire a practical, working knowledge of editing equipment and the post-production process. This book is a "real world" guide to both the technical and non-technical aspects of videotape production. The text and numerous illustrations bring the reader up-to-date on the latest developments in video, including component video signal, field rate SMPTE time code, Betacam SP (TM), VHS HiFi, the videotape editing bay, control edit list cleaning, and multi format editing. Anderson also provides timely information on the latest film to video offline systems, track editing, time-code editing, offline editing, digital video effects systems, electronic animation and graphics systems, and personal computers that function as edit controllers and edit list management tools. Combining basic information on editing equipment and techniques with tips on budgeting, organization, and getting into video editing, this is a valuable reference tool for experienced and novice editing professionals.


Author Notes

Gary H. Anderson is a freelance videotape editor in Hollywood, CA. He has won four Emmy awards and six nominations for outstanding videotape editing and is a member of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, the Directors Guild of America, and the Motion Picture Editors Guild IATSE Local 776


Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Introductionp. xi
1 The History, Technology, and Technique of Video Editingp. 1
A Short History of Video Editing Technologyp. 2
Slice and Splicep. 3
Electronic Editingp. 4
Time-Code Editingp. 6
Computerized Video Editingp. 6
Small-Format Editingp. 6
Nonlinear and Digital Effects Editingp. 9
The Art and Technique of Video Editingp. 10
Shots and Anglesp. 10
Types of Shotsp. 10
Extreme Wide Shots (EWS)p. 10
Wide Shots (WS)p. 11
Medium Shots (MS)p. 11
Close-Ups (CU)p. 12
Playing the Anglesp. 12
Objective Anglep. 12
Subjective Anglep. 13
Point-of-View Anglep. 13
Constructing Continuityp. 13
Rough Cuttingp. 14
Fine Cuttingp. 14
Continuity Cuttingp. 14
Maintaining Proper Screen Directionp. 14
Screen Positionp. 14
Matching Actionp. 15
Matching Action Cutsp. 15
Pace and Timingp. 16
Montage Sequencesp. 16
Audio and Other Concernsp. 17
Conclusionp. 17
2 The TV Signal, Time Codes, Digital Video, and Videotape Formatsp. 18
Television Fields and Interlaced Scanningp. 18
The Composite Video Signalp. 19
Horizontal Line Synchronizing Pulsesp. 20
Color Reference Burstp. 20
Reference Black Levelp. 20
Picture Luminance Informationp. 21
Color Saturationp. 21
Color Huep. 21
Blanking Intervalsp. 21
Horizontal Blanking Intervalp. 21
Front Porchp. 21
Back Porchp. 22
Breezewayp. 22
Vertical Blanking Intervalp. 22
Pre-Equalizing and Post-Equalizing Pulsesp. 22
Vertical Synchronizing Pulsesp. 22
FCC Blanking Requirementsp. 22
The Electronic Video Signal and the Color TV Picturep. 22
NTSC Split Field Color Bar Reference Signalp. 24
The PAL Color Television Signalp. 26
Phase Reversalp. 27
PAL and NTSCp. 28
Use of PALp. 31
The Component Video Signalp. 31
Digital Videop. 31
Samplingp. 32
Pixelsp. 33
Video Compressionp. 33
JPEGp. 33
MPEGp. 33
MPEG 2p. 33
The Television Aspect Ratiop. 34
The Theory and Practice of SMPTE/EBU Time Codep. 34
Basic Binary Codep. 34
Components of Time Codep. 36
Time Identification Slotsp. 37
User Bit Slotp. 37
Sync Word Slotp. 37
Dropped-Frame Bitp. 37
Non-Drop-Frame and Drop-Frame Time Codep. 37
Using Vertical Interval Time Codep. 38
Adding VITC and LTC to Tapesp. 38
Components of VITCp. 39
Sync Bitsp. 39
Field Bitp. 39
Cyclic Redundancy Check Code (CRC)p. 39
Advantages of VITCp. 40
Basic Video Recordingp. 40
Getting It on Tapep. 40
Videotape Basicsp. 42
Videotape Recorder Formatsp. 42
Quadruplex (Quad) VTRsp. 43
Type C Helical VTRsp. 44
U-Type Cassette VTRsp. 45
Betacam VTRsp. 47
VHS Hi-Fi VTRsp. 48
S-VHSp. 49
Digital Video Recordingp. 50
Analog-to-Digital Conversion (A/D)p. 50
Digital-to-Analog Conversion (D/A)p. 50
Digital-to-Digital Conversion (D/D)p. 51
Digital Video Recordersp. 51
D1p. 51
D2p. 52
D3p. 52
D7p. 53
Digital Sp. 55
Choosing the Best Videotape Format for a Projectp. 56
Conclusionp. 56
3 The Videotape Editing Bayp. 57
Control-Track Editing Systemsp. 57
Advantages of Control-Track Editingp. 57
Disadvantages of Control-Track Editingp. 58
Automatic Time-Code Editing Systemsp. 59
Computerized Time-Code Editing Systemsp. 60
The Computerp. 60
Interfacesp. 62
The Consolep. 62
Basic Editing Termsp. 62
Assemble Editp. 62
Insert Editp. 62
Controlling the Basic Computer Editing Systemp. 63
VTR Selectionp. 63
Edit Point Entryp. 63
Multiple-Take Synchronizations Using the Trim Functionp. 65
Selecting Edit Modesp. 65
Selecting Edit Transitionsp. 65
Dissolvesp. 66
Wipesp. 66
Keysp. 66
Preview Selectionp. 66
Video-Video-Video (VVV)p. 66
Video-Black-Video (VBV)p. 66
Black-Video-Black (BVB)p. 67
Engaging Manual Recordp. 67
Computer-Assisted Automatic Assemblyp. 67
A Modep. 67
B Modep. 68
C Modep. 68
D Modep. 68
E Modep. 68
Load and Dump Listsp. 69
Putting the Pieces Togetherp. 69
Videotape Recordersp. 69
Time-Base Correctorp. 70
The Video Switcherp. 70
Effects Rowsp. 72
Key Effectsp. 72
Fancier Switchersp. 72
Waveform Monitorp. 72
Vectorscopep. 74
Video Monitorsp. 75
Audio Mixing Boardp. 75
Volume Unit (VU) Metersp. 76
General Purpose Interfacep. 76
Title Camerasp. 76
Processing Amplifierp. 76
Noise Reduction, Image Enhancement, and Color Correction Equipmentp. 77
Digital Video Effects Controllersp. 78
Conclusionp. 78
4 Preparing for Post-Productionp. 79
Preparing a Budgetp. 80
Pre-Duping Costsp. 80
Offline Editing Costsp. 80
Online Editing Costsp. 82
Audio Post-Production Costsp. 82
Special Costsp. 82
Reserving Post-Production Facilitiesp. 83
Using Your Own Videotape Stockp. 84
Preparing Film-to-Tape Transfersp. 84
Transferring 24-Frame Film to 30-Frame Televisionp. 84
Film-to-Video Transferp. 85
Film Transfers Using a Telecine Synchronization Systemp. 86
Edge Numbersp. 86
Converting Film Footage to Television Framesp. 89
Preparing Film A/B Rolls for Television Transferp. 89
Contrast Ratios: TV versus Filmp. 90
Assembling a Post-Production Teamp. 90
The Producerp. 92
The Associate Producerp. 92
The Director and the Associate Directorp. 92
The Script Supervisorp. 93
The Editorp. 93
The Online Editor's Assistantp. 93
Conclusionp. 94
5 The Offline Editing Processp. 95
Types of Offline Editingp. 96
Control-Track Offline Editingp. 96
Automatic Time-Code Offline Editingp. 96
Computerized Offline Editingp. 97
Preparation of Workprint Reelsp. 98
Criteria for Preparing Workprint Reelsp. 98
Playback Materialp. 98
Record Edit Master Stockp. 98
Workprints: Six Important Facts to Checkp. 98
Logging Offline Edit Decision Lists by Handp. 99
Computerized Edit Decision Listsp. 100
Floppy Disk EDL Storagep. 101
Managing Your Edit Decision Listsp. 101
Edit List Cleaning with the 409 Programp. 102
The Trace Programp. 103
Nonlinear Offline Editingp. 104
Digital Nonlinear Offline Editing Systemsp. 105
Digital Editing Disk Storage Devicesp. 106
Floppy Disksp. 107
Magnetic Hard Disksp. 107
Optical Disksp. 107
Magneto-Optical (MO)p. 108
Phase-Change Optical (PCO)p. 108
Preparing the Telecine Transfer for a Film Finishp. 108
Nonlinear Offline Editing Processp. 108
Process #1 Shoot on Video, Nonlinear Offline, Linear Onlinep. 108
Process #2 Shoot on Film, Nonlinear Offline, Linear Onlinep. 108
Process #3 Shoot on Film, Nonlinear Offline, Finish on Filmp. 109
Process #4 Shoot on Film or Video, Nonlinear Offline, Direct Outputp. 109
System Considerations from the Editor's Viewpointp. 109
Organizing the Nonlinear Editing Projectp. 110
Designating a Project Areap. 110
Creating Work Binsp. 111
Logging the Source Material into the Binsp. 111
Digitizing the Materialp. 112
The Digitizing Ratep. 112
The Image Qualityp. 112
The Audio Qualityp. 112
The Number of Audio Channelsp. 112
Editing the Projectp. 112
The Splice Keyp. 113
The Timelinep. 113
The Overwrite Keyp. 113
The Trim Functionp. 113
Creating an Alternate Versionp. 114
Outputting a Viewing Copyp. 114
Outputting an Edit Decision Listp. 114
Reassembling at Higher Resolutionp. 115
Nonlinear Edit Systemsp. 115
Avid Media Composerp. 115
Conclusionp. 116
6 The Online Editing Processp. 117
Making Sure You're Readyp. 117
The Online Editing Bayp. 117
Editing Bay Aestheticsp. 118
Multiformat Videotape Editingp. 119
Video Program Formattingp. 119
Sample Online Sessionp. 121
Preliminary Checkp. 121
Additional Facilitiesp. 121
Initial Facilities Set-Upp. 121
Horizontal Sync Timingp. 122
Record Machine Audio/Video Levelsp. 122
Playback VTR Set-Upp. 122
Setting up the Component Digital Online Editing Bayp. 122
Entering Edit Pointsp. 123
Manual Entry of Hand-Logged Listsp. 123
Floppy Disk Entryp. 123
Automatic Assemblyp. 124
Special Conditions and Concerns during Online Editingp. 124
Match-Frame Editingp. 124
Editing with Mixed Time-Code Formatsp. 126
Master/Slave Editingp. 126
Sync Roll Editingp. 127
Editing into Previously Edited Materialp. 127
Proper Color Frame Editsp. 127
Adding Titles and Graphics during Video Editingp. 128
The Key Processp. 128
Post-Production Graphics Techniquesp. 128
Electronic Graphicsp. 130
Videotape Editing in Palp. 131
Wrapping up the Editing Sessionp. 132
Conclusionp. 133
7 Digital Video Effectsp. 134
Electronic Digital Frame Storesp. 134
Applications of Digital Frame Storesp. 135
Use and Misusep. 135
Features of Digital Effects Devicesp. 135
Tektronix Grass Valley DPM-700 Digital Picture Manipulatorp. 136
Video Toasterp. 136
IMPACT Variable Image Transformerp. 138
Conclusionp. 139
8 Audio Post-Production for Videop. 141
Understanding the Audio Post-Production Mixing Roomp. 142
Acoustics and Aestheticsp. 142
The Audio Mixing Consolep. 143
The Input Sectionp. 143
The Output Sectionp. 144
The Monitoring Sectionp. 144
The Editor/Controllerp. 145
External Signal Processing Equipmentp. 145
Loudspeaker Systemsp. 146
Color Video Monitorsp. 147
Source Audio Equipmentp. 147
Audiotape Recordersp. 148
Compact Disc Playersp. 148
The Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)p. 149
Understanding ADR, Foley, and Narration Studiosp. 150
Charting the Audio Post-Production Processp. 151
The Laydownp. 151
The Spotting Sessionp. 151
Methods for Spottingp. 152
Spotting Cues and Acquiring the Materialp. 153
Sound Effectsp. 153
Library Sound Effectsp. 154
Foley Sound Effectsp. 155
Automatic Dialogue Replacementp. 156
Audience Reaction Sound Effectsp. 157
Narrationp. 157
Music Cuesp. 157
Library Musicp. 158
Recording Original Musicp. 158
Multitrack Recordingp. 158
Assigning Tracks on the Master Multitrack Recordingp. 158
Assembling the Dialogue Tracksp. 159
Assembling the ADR Tracksp. 160
Assembling the Narration Tracksp. 161
Mixing Down Multitrack Musicp. 161
Music Track Conformationp. 161
Preparing the Rerecording Cue Sheetp. 162
Mixing and Rerecordingp. 164
Monaural Mixingp. 164
Stereo Mixingp. 164
Stereo-to-Mono Compatibilityp. 165
The Laybackp. 165
Conclusionp. 166
9 The Future: Trends and Directionsp. 167
Advantages of Digital Videop. 167
Digital Nonlinear Onlinep. 167
Editorial Teleconferencingp. 168
Television and the Internetp. 168
Electronic Imagery: High Definition Televisionp. 168
Design Compatibility and Standardizationp. 169
Conclusionp. 169
Appendixp. 170
Broadcast Transmission Standards Worldwide
Glossaryp. 173
Bibliographyp. 188
Indexp. 189
About the Authorp. 196