Cover image for The DHCP handbook : understanding, deploying, and managing automated configuration services
Title:
The DHCP handbook : understanding, deploying, and managing automated configuration services
Author:
Droms, Ralph.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Indianapolis, Ind. : Macmillan Technical, 1999.
Physical Description:
xxiv, 534 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9781578701377
Format :
Book

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Status
Central Library TK5105.585 .D86 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

DHCP is an authoritative overview and expert guide to the set up and management of a DHCP server. The book begins with a thorough technical introduction to DHCP--how it was developed, how it interacts with other protocols such as TCP/IP, etc. Part II discusses how DHCP operates; including initial configurations, handling rebooting and lease extension, and DHCP relay agents. In Part III, the authors share their expertise on the efficient use of DHCP in different environments. Part IV covers the technical intricacies of the interaction between DHCP servers and clients, and how to optimally manage each relationship. The final section covers network hardware, inter-server communication, security, SNMP, and IP mobility. The book concludes with several appendices that provide a rich resource for networking professionals working with DHCP.


Author Notes

Ralph Droms, Ph.D., is an educator, consultant, and author. He is the chair of the IETF Dynamic Host Configuration (DHC) Working Group on automated configuration of networked computers and is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at Bucknell University. Ralph organized the DHC Working Group in 1989. He has chaired the working group since its inception and is a key contributor to the design and development of DHCP. Ralph is also editor of the DHCP RFCs and continues to participate in the evolution of DHCP. Previously, Ralph was a member of the computer science faculty at Pennsylvania State University. He has also been on the research staff at IBM and Burroughs (Unisys). Since joining the Computer Science Department at Bucknell in 1987, Ralph has guided students through the study of TCP/IP internet-working, operating systems, and computer architecture. He also served as Co-Director of the computer center at Bucknell, where he supervised the design and implementation of the campus-wide multi-protocol network. As a consultant in network architecture and infrastructure design, Ralph works with large and small companies on a variety of TCP/IP issues including network architecture, server strategies and configurations, and the use of DHCP, DNS, and other technologies in network management.
Ted Lemon is the author of the Internet Software Consortium DHCP Distribution, a popular Open Source distribution that includes a DHCP server, DHCP client, and relay agent. He started programming in 1977, when he decided to make a few changes to the Star Trek game, and has been working in the computer industry since 1983. Ted first encountered the DHCP protocol while working as a network administrator at Digital Equipment Corporation in the early 1990s, and he has been active in the IETF DHC Working Group since 1996. He is convinced that, while answering questions on the ISC DHCP mailing lists, he has answered roughly half of the questions ever asked about DHCP, and he was motivated to work on this book in hopes of being able to help answer these questions more efficiently. He currently works for Internet Engines, Inc., developing the latest version of the ISC DHCP distribution.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. 1
Objectives of this Bookp. 2
Audiencep. 3
Organizationp. 3
Background on DHCPp. 4
Part I Introduction to DHCPp. 7
1 An Introduction to DHCPp. 9
1.1 Configuring Devices on the Networkp. 9
1.2 A First Attempt at Automating Device Configurationp. 13
1.3 The Benefits of DHCPp. 13
1.4 Assigning IP Addresses Using DHCPp. 15
1.5 Perceived Problems of DHCPp. 17
1.6 Address Allocation Policiesp. 20
2 An Example of DHCP in Operationp. 23
2.1 Setting Up the GSI Intranetp. 23
2.2 Using the DHCP Server to Obtain a New IP Addressp. 25
2.3 DHCP Address Leasesp. 30
3 Configuring the DHCP Serverp. 33
3.1 Specifying the Basic Intranet Architecturep. 33
3.2 Required Configuration Parametersp. 36
3.3 Specifying Leasesp. 38
3.4 Other DHCP Optionsp. 41
3.5 Extending a Lease and Moving Between Subnetsp. 43
3.6 Other Configuration Informationp. 44
4 Configuring TCP/IP Stacksp. 47
4.1 The TCP/IP Protocol Suitep. 48
4.2 The Physical Layerp. 48
4.3 The Data Link Layerp. 49
4.4 The Internet Layerp. 49
4.5 The Transport Layerp. 56
4.6 The Application Layerp. 58
Part II DHCP Theory of Operationp. 61
5 DHCP Client-Server Modelp. 63
5.1 DHCP Goals and Design Decisionsp. 63
5.2 Related TCP/IP Protocolsp. 68
5.3 DHCP Client-Server Architecturep. 70
6 The Format of DHCP Messagesp. 73
6.1 Format Overviewp. 73
6.2 Fixed-Format Sectionp. 74
6.3 options Sectionp. 76
6.4 Example Message Formatsp. 80
6.5 Design Constraintsp. 85
7 Transmitting DHCP Messagesp. 87
7.1 Using UDP for DHCPp. 88
7.2 Relay Agentsp. 91
7.3 Reliable Delivery of DHCP Messagesp. 94
7.4 Other Transmission Methodsp. 96
8 DHCP Message Exchangesp. 99
8.1 Client Statesp. 100
8.2 Working with Multiple Serversp. 111
8.3 Other Message Exchangesp. 114
9 DHCP Optionsp. 117
9.1 DHCP-Specific Optionsp. 118
9.2 Host Configuration Parameters Optionsp. 124
9.3 TCP/IP Stack Configuration Parametersp. 126
9.4 Service Parameters Optionsp. 132
Part III DHCP Servers and Clientsp. 145
10 Theory of Operation of a DHCP Serverp. 147
10.1 Address Allocation Strategyp. 147
10.2 Address Renewal Strategyp. 150
10.3 DHCP Message Handlingp. 151
10.4 Abandoned Lease Address Reclaimationp. 152
11 The Microsoft DHCP Serverp. 155
11.1 Server Installationp. 155
11.2 Managing DHCP Serversp. 157
11.3 Configuring a DHCP Serverp. 158
11.4 Server Controlp. 168
12 The ISC DHCP Serverp. 171
12.1 Obtaining the ISC DHCP Serverp. 171
12.2 Prerequisites to Operation of the ISC DHCP Serverp. 178
12.3 Configuring the ISC DHCP Serverp. 181
12.4 Invoking the ISC DHCP Serverp. 190
12.5 Server Operationp. 193
13 Configuring a DHCP Serverp. 197
13.1 The Configuration of an Individual Subnetp. 197
13.2 Supporting Multiple Network Segmentsp. 201
13.3 Multiple IP Subnets per Network Segmentp. 209
14 Client Identification and Fixed-Address Allocationp. 219
14.1 Identifying Clientsp. 219
14.2 Static Allocationp. 226
14.3 Mixing Static and Dynamic Allocationp. 228
14.4 Automatic Allocationp. 232
14.5 Access Controlp. 232
15 Setting Up a Reliable DHCP Servicep. 235
15.1 Determining Your Level of DHCP Service Reliabilityp. 235
15.2 Specific Failures in DHCP Servicep. 237
15.3 Improving Reliability Through Long Leasesp. 243
15.4 Setting Up a Secondary DHCP Serverp. 244
15.5 Problems with Setting Up Redundant Serversp. 247
16 Tuning Your DHCP Servicep. 251
16.1 Network Device Configuration and Address Assignment Strategiesp. 251
16.2 Configuring Lease Lengthsp. 257
16.3 Monitoring the Serverp. 264
17 Conditional Behaviorp. 269
17.1 Differentiating Between Clientsp. 270
17.2 Controlling Address Allocationp. 275
17.3 class identifier Optionsp. 279
18 Automatic DHCP Client Registrationp. 285
18.1 Registration Issuesp. 286
18.2 A Registration Applicationp. 287
18.3 Authenticating the User Registration Processp. 294
18.4 Future Workp. 296
19 DHCP Clientsp. 297
19.1 Theory of Operationp. 297
19.2 The Microsoft DHCP Clientp. 301
19.3 The ISC DHCP Clientp. 309
20 Setting Up DHCP in a Small Office or Homep. 315
20.1 Small Office Network Architecturesp. 316
20.2 Network Address Translation (IP Masquerading)p. 318
20.3 Running a DHCP Server and Client on the Same Computerp. 319
20.4 Running the DHCP Server on your Firewallp. 323
20.5 Problems with DSL Routersp. 324
21 Authentication of DHCP Clients and Serversp. 327
21.1 Reasons for Authenticating the DHCP Protocolp. 327
21.2 Objectives the DHCP Authentication Protocol Cannot Accomplishp. 331
21.3 Protocol Designp. 332
21.4 Statusp. 338
22 DHCP/DNS Interactionp. 341
22.1 The Domain Name Systemp. 342
22.2 Dynamic Updates to the DNS Databasep. 343
22.3 Dynamic Updates and DHCPp. 344
23 Debugging Problems with DHCPp. 353
23.1 The Debugging Processp. 353
23.2 Establishing Connectivityp. 356
23.3 When the Server Does Not Respondp. 361
23.4 Server DHCPNAK Behaviorp. 362
23.5 Incorrect Option Valuesp. 365
23.6 Uniqueness of Client Identifiersp. 365
23.7 Dual-Boot Client Systemsp. 365
23.8 Duplicate IP Addressesp. 366
23.9 Client Fails to Get Reserved IP Addressp. 367
24 The DHCP Databasep. 369
24.1 The Lease Databasep. 370
24.2 Accessing Information from a Running Processp. 373
25 Communication between DHCP Serversp. 387
25.1 Why Should DHCP Servers Communicate?p. 388
25.2 Inter-Server Protocolp. 389
26 Guiding the Evolution of DHCPp. 397
26.1 Motivation for Review of DHCP Optionsp. 397
26.2 DHC Panel Recommendationsp. 400
27 DHCP for IPv6p. 407
27.1 An Introduction to IPv6p. 408
27.2 Motivation for DHCPv6p. 412
27.3 Design of DHCPv6p. 412
27.4 Client-Server Transactions in DHCPv6p. 415
Part IV Appendixesp. 419
A Microsoft DHCP Server Examplesp. 421
A.1 Examples 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4p. 422
A.2 Examples 3.5 and 3.6p. 422
A.3 Example 3.7p. 424
A.4 Examples 3.8 and 3.9p. 424
A.5 Example 3.10p. 425
A.6 Example 3.11p. 425
A.7 Examples 10.1 and 10.2p. 426
A.8 Example 11.1p. 426
A.9 Examples 12.1 through 12.6p. 426
A.10 Example 12.7p. 426
A.11 Example 12.8p. 426
A.12 Example 12.9p. 427
A.13 Examples 12.10 and 12.11p. 427
A.14 Example 12.12p. 427
A.15 Example 12.13p. 427
A.16 Example 12.14p. 427
A.17 Examples 12.15 and 12.16p. 428
A.18 Examples 13.1 and 13.2p. 428
A.19 Examples 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, and 13.6p. 428
A.20 Example 13.7p. 429
A.21 Example 13.8p. 430
A.22 Example 13.9p. 430
A.23 Examples 13.10 and 13.11p. 430
A.24 Example 13.12p. 430
A.25 Example 13.13p. 430
A.26 Example 13.14p. 430
A.27 Example 13.15p. 431
A.28 Example 13.16p. 431
A.29 Example 13.17p. 431
A.30 Example 13.18p. 431
A.31 Example 14.1 and 14.2p. 431
A.32 Example 14.3p. 432
A.33 Example 14.4p. 432
A.34 Example 14.5p. 432
A.35 Example 14.6p. 432
A.36 Example 14.7p. 434
A.37 Examples 14.8 and 14.9p. 434
A.38 Examples 14.10, 14.11, and 14.12p. 435
A.39 Examples 15.1 and 15.2p. 435
A.40 Examples 17.1 through 17.10p. 435
A.41 Examples 17.11 through 17.14p. 435
A.42 Examples 18.1 through 18.6p. 436
A.43 Example 20.1p. 436
A.44 Example 20.2p. 436
A.45 Example 20.3p. 436
A.46 Example 20.4p. 436
A.47 Examples 20.5 and 20.6p. 436
A.48 Examples 24.1 through 24.7p. 436
A.49 Examples in Appendixesp. 436
B ISC DHCP Server Configuration File Referencep. 437
B.1 How to Use this Appendixp. 437
B.2 File Organizationp. 439
B.3 The shared-network Declarationp. 439
B.4 The subnet Declarationp. 440
B.5 The range Declarationp. 440
B.6 The host Declarationp. 441
B.7 The pool Declarationp. 443
B.8 The class Declarationp. 444
B.9 The subclass Declarationp. 446
B.10 The group Declarationp. 446
B.11 The option space Declarationp. 446
B.12 Conditional Statementsp. 447
B.13 Expressionsp. 448
B.14 Parameter Statementsp. 451
B.15 Statements Defining Values to Send to Clientsp. 457
B.16 The option Definitionp. 458
B.17 The Standard DHCP Optionsp. 460
C The DHCP Message Formatp. 463
C.1 Fixed-Format Sectionp. 463
C.2 Variable-Format Sectionp. 464
D DHCP Options Summaryp. 467
E Other DHCP Resourcesp. 481
F Bibliographyp. 485
G Lists of Related RFCsp. 489
H DHCP Server and Operating System Versionsp. 491
H.1 Choosing a DHCP Serverp. 491
H.2 ISC DHCP Server Operating System Dependenciesp. 494
I Glossaryp. 499
Indexp. 513

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