Cover image for Encyclopedia of volcanoes
Encyclopedia of volcanoes
Sigurdsson, Haraldur.
Publication Information:
San Diego, Calif. ; London : Academic, [2000]

Physical Description:
xxiv, 1417 pages, 16 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 28 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
QE522 .E53 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Reference material
QE522 .E53 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Reference
QE522 .E53 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf

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Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, if sometimes deadly, destructiveness.
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes. Through its thematic organization around the melting of the earth, it provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions--both the destructive as well as the beneficial aspects.
The majority of the chapters focus on the geoscience-related aspects of volcanism (radioactive heat source, melting rock, ascent of magma, surface phenomena associated with exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). In addition, complementary chapters discuss the multidisciplinary aspects of volcanism; these include the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.

In addition to its appeal to educators, students, and professional and amateur scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes functions as an important information resource for administrators and officials responsible for developing and implementing volcanic hazard mitigation around the world.

Author Notes

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.

Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology.

Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.

John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

Reviews 3

Booklist Review

The centrality of volcanic processes in the history of our planet would be hard to overstate. Further, their impact on our environment continues to be significant. This volume is the first sophisticated attempt at a comprehensive reference work about volcanoes and volcanic processes. The editors are respected scientists who have published and lectured extensively on volcanology (the study of volcanoes). Articles were contributed by more than 100 international experts. Structure is thematic, with the 82 extensive articles organized into nine sections. After two very informative introductory articles that give an overview of volcanism and the history of volcanology, the first eight sections address the physical processes and materials produced by those processes. Part one is a discussion of magma; parts two through four address various types of volcanoes, eruptions, and materials flows. Volcanism elsewhere in the solar system, an area of growing interest, is the subject of part five. Parts six through eight address the interaction of volcanic events with other physical systems on Earth, such as the atmosphere, oceans, glaciers, and lakes. The final major section treats the economic and cultural aspects of volcanoes, with interesting essays on such topics as art, literature and film, economics, and archeology. The nine sections are followed by two appendixes. One lists units of measurement and conversion factors. The second is a comprehensive catalog of known volcanoes. A very thorough alphabetical index completes this outstanding presentation. The articles average about 16 pages in length. Each article is a full-length treatment of a concept or set of concepts and begins with an outline of the article and a glossary of terms. At the end of each article is a list of cross-references to other articles within the encyclopedia and a brief bibliography. The entries are liberally illustrated with photographs, maps, diagrams, and graphs. Also included are 12 color plates. The articles can be quite technical but not any more than they need to be in giving serious academic treatment to the topic. Readers who are less familiar with this area of geology will find the glossary in each article to be very useful. However, the book will likely not be accessible to most readers below the college level. For readers who are looking for a simpler overview of many of the topics treated here, Facts On File's Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes [RBB Ap 15 94] is probably a better choice. This volume is indispensable for anyone who is serious about understanding volcanoes on a sophisticated level. From the highly useful overview of specific topics and processes to the definitions of particular terms, there is no better or more comprehensive work available--nor is there likely to be. Given the high quality of the material, it is unfortunate that the publisher did not choose to offer a higher quality of binding. Even so, this valuable resource is highly recommended for larger public and academic libraries.

Library Journal Review

This impressive work covers all aspects of volcanism. Written by over 100 international scholars in the field, the articles are arranged in nine thematic sections, beginning in the center of the earth with the origin and transport of magma, moving through the different types of eruptions, and finally investigating volcanic interactions, hazards, and economics. There is even a section on extraterrestrial volcanism. Geared for college students and researchers, the well-written articles include a glossary that defines terms within the context of the article, which is very helpful to readers unfamiliar with the terminology. A list of related articles and a bibliography of further readings provide users with additional sources of information. The encyclopedia also includes a catalog of historically active volcanoes on Earth. Works such as The Encyclopedia of Earthquakes & Volcanoes (Facts on File, 1994) are nowhere near as comprehensive as this volume. The thematic organization allows the user the choice of reading a single article on a limited topic or reading the entire section for a full overview. In fact, the entire work could be read from beginning to end, if desired. An excellent source for those who want more than general information on any aspect of volcanology, this volume is highly recommended for academic libraries.--Teresa Berry, Univ. of Tennessee Lib., Knoxville (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.

Choice Review

The emergence of plate tectonic theory in the 1970s and the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 combined to capture the public's attention and make volcanology an increasingly dynamic and important branch of science. This monumental volume, authored by more than 100 leading specialists, dwarfs all previous works. It is arranged thematically in 82 peer-reviewed articles with extensive cross-referencing and an overall subject index. Each article contains a glossary and bibliography. Figures, tables, and illustrations are profuse. Highly technical articles are balanced by more general ones, which nonspecialists can easily understand. Multidisciplinary influences are brought to bear on volcanic activity and demonstrate its crucial role in the creation of the environment. Treatment is extremely broad, from how a volcano functions to volcanoes and tourism, art, and literature. The publisher has done a remarkable job in keeping the price within any library's budget. This milestone in volcanology is highly recommended for all academic libraries. S. D. Johnson; Clemson University

Table of Contents

Origin and Transport of MagmaH. Sigurdsson and B. Houghton and H. Rymer and J. Stix and S. McNutt
IntroductionH. Sigurdsson
The History of VolcanologyR. Jeanloz
Mantle of the EarthP. Asimov
Melting the MantleM. Daines
Migration of MeltM. Perfit and J. Davidson
Tectonics and VolcanismN.W. Rogers and C.J. Hawkesworth
Composition of MagmasT.L. Grove
Origin of MagmasP.J. Wallace and A.T. Anderson
Volatiles in MagmasF.J. Spera
Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of MagmasB.D. Marsh
Reservoirs of Magma and Magma ChambersM.J. Rutherford and J. Gardner
Rates of Magma AscentC. Carrigan
Plumbing SystemsC. Jaupart
Magma at Shallow LevelsEruption: T. Simkin and L. Siebert
Active Volcanoes on the EarthD.M. Pyle
Sizes of Volcanic EruptionsH. Sigurdsson
Episodes of Volcanism Effusive VolcanismG.P.L. Walker
Basaltic Volcanoes and Volcanic SystemsC. Kilburn and Lava Flows and J. Fink and S. Anderson
Domes and CouleesJ. Wolff and J. Sumner
Spatter-Fed Lavas and Fire-FountainingC. Conner and M. Conway
Basaltic Volcanic FieldsP. Hooper
Flood Basalt ProvincesR. Batiza and J. White
Submarine Lavas and HyaloclastiteR. Schmidt and H.-U. Schmincke
Seamounts, Submarine Volcanoes, and Volcanic IslandsJ. Smellie
Sub-Glacial Eruptions Explosive VolcanismCashman, B. Sturtevant and P. Papale and O. Navon
Magmatic FragmentationM.M. Morrisey and B. Zimoriski and K. Wohletz and R. Buettner
Phreatomagmatic FragmentationS. Vergniolle and M. Mangan
Strombolian and Hawaiian EruptionsM.M. Morrissey and L.G. Mastin
Vulcanian EruptionsCioni, P. Marianelli and R. Santecroce and A. Sbrana
Plinian EruptionsJ.D.L. White and B. Houghton
Pyroclastic EruptionsB.F. Houghton and C.J.N. Wilson and R.T. Smith and J.S. Gilbert
Phreatoplinian EruptionsS. Carey and M.I. Bursik
Volcanic PlumesC.J.N. Wilson and B.F. Houghton
Pyroclastic Transport and DepositionB.F. Houghton and C.J.N. Wilson and D.M. Pyle
Fall DepositsG. Valentine and R.V. Fisher
Deposits of Surges and Directed BlastsA. Freundt and S.N. Carey and C.J.N. Wilson
Ignimbrites and Deposits of Block-and-Ash FlowsJ.W. Vallance
Lahar DepositsT. Ui and M. Yoshimoto
Debris Avalanche DepositsS. Carey
Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around Island ArcesP.W. Lipman
CalderasJ.P. Davidson and S. Da Silva
Composite ConesD. Vespermann and H.U. Schmincke
Scoria Cones and Tuff Rings Extraterrestrial VolcanismP.D. Spudis
Volcanism on the MoonR. Lopes-Gautier
Volcanism on IOL. Crumpler
Volcanism on VenusJ.R. Zimbelman
Volcanism on MarsP. Geissler
Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System Volcano InteractionsP. delMelle and J. Stix
Volcanic GasesF. Goff and C. Janik
Geothermal SystemsP. Browne and M. Hochstein
Surface ManifestationsD. Butterfield
Submarine Hydrothermal VentsP. delMelle and A. Bernard
Volcanic Lakes