Cover image for Steam-plant operation
Title:
Steam-plant operation
Author:
Woodruff, Everett B. (Everett Bowman), 1900-1982.
Edition:
Seventh edition.
Publication Information:
New York : McGraw-Hill, [1998]

©1998
Physical Description:
xiv, 818 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
Subject Term:
ISBN:
9780070361508
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library TJ405 .L36 1998 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

This guide has been revised to cover the latest facts and data on steam-plant equipment including, design, installation, operation, and maintenance. It gives information on safe practices, code requirements, and practical know-how on day-to-day operating procedures.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Chapter 1 Steam and Its Importancep. 1
1.1 The Use of Steamp. 2
1.2 The Steam-Plant Cyclep. 5
1.3 The Power Plantp. 7
1.4 Utility Boilers for Electric Powerp. 12
1.4.1 Coal-Fired Boilersp. 14
1.4.2 Oil- and Gas-Fired Boilersp. 19
1.4.3 Steam Considerationsp. 19
1.4.4 Boiler Feedwaterp. 20
1.5 Industrial and Small Power Plantsp. 20
1.5.1 Fluidized Bed Boilersp. 23
1.5.2 Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Systemsp. 25
1.6 Power Plant Costsp. 28
1.7 Summaryp. 31
Questions and Problemsp. 31
Chapter 2 Boilersp. 35
2.1 The Boilerp. 35
2.2 Fundamentals of Steam Generationp. 37
2.2.1 Boilingp. 37
2.2.2 Circulationp. 38
2.2.3 Steam-Water Separationp. 40
2.3 Fire-Tube Boilersp. 40
2.4 Water-Tube Boilersp. 46
2.5 Steam-Water Separationp. 56
2.6 Principles of Heat Transferp. 60
2.7 Superheatersp. 61
2.8 Superheat Steam Temperature Controlp. 65
2.8.1 Attemperationp. 65
2.8.2 Flue Gas Bypassp. 66
2.8.3 Flue Gas Recirculationp. 66
2.9 Heat-Recovery Equipmentp. 67
2.10 Furnace Design Considerationsp. 75
2.11 Furnace Constructionp. 75
2.12 Industrial and Utility Boilersp. 84
2.13 Considerations for Coal Firingp. 97
2.13.1 Spreader Stokersp. 98
2.13.2 Pulverized-Coal Firingp. 98
2.13.3 Stoker versus Pulverized-Coal Firingp. 99
2.14 Pressurized versus Balanced-Draft Boiler Designsp. 100
2.15 Fluidized Bed Boilersp. 101
2.15.1 The Processp. 102
2.15.2 Comparison with Pulverized-Coal and Stoker Firingp. 102
2.15.3 Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustionp. 103
2.15.4 Descriptions of Fluidized Bed Boilersp. 104
2.15.5 Emissions Control with Fluidized Bed Boilersp. 118
2.15.6 Bed Materialp. 119
2.15.7 Heat Transferp. 119
2.16 Modern Coal-Fired Plants-Summaryp. 120
2.17 Process Steam and Its Applicationp. 121
2.18 Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Systemsp. 122
2.19 Nuclear Steam Generationp. 128
Questions and Problemsp. 136
Chapter 3 Design and Construction of Boilersp. 139
3.1 Materials Used in Boiler Constructionp. 140
3.2 Stresses in Tubes and Drumsp. 143
3.3 Drum Constructionp. 148
3.4 Welded Constructionp. 150
3.5 Structural Support Componentsp. 155
3.6 Manholes, Handholes, and Fittingsp. 157
3.7 Boiler Assemblyp. 158
3.8 Heating Surface and Capacityp. 160
3.9 Boiler Capacity Calculationp. 164
Questions and Problemsp. 171
Chapter 4 Combustion of Fuelsp. 175
4.1 The Combustion Processp. 175
4.2 The Theory of Combustionp. 179
4.3 The Air Supplyp. 192
4.4 Coalp. 198
4.5 Fuel Oilp. 214
4.6 Gasp. 220
4.7 By-Product Fuelsp. 222
4.8 Control of the Combustion Processp. 225
Questions and Problemsp. 231
Chapter 5 Boiler Settings, Combustion Systems, and Auxiliary Equipmentp. 235
5.1 Boiler Settingsp. 235
5.2 Hand Firingp. 238
5.3 Stokersp. 240
5.3.1 Underfeed Stokersp. 241
5.3.2 Overfeed Stokersp. 251
5.4 Pulverized Coalp. 273
5.4.1 Contact Millsp. 277
5.4.2 Ball Millsp. 284
5.4.3 Impact Millsp. 285
5.4.4 Mill Feedersp. 286
5.4.5 Gravimetric Feedersp. 288
5.4.6 Burnersp. 290
5.4.7 Lightersp. 296
5.4.8 Flame Safety Systemp. 296
5.4.9 Operationp. 298
5.5 Fuel Oilp. 305
5.5.1 Steam- or Air-Atomizing Burnersp. 309
5.5.2 Pressure-Type Burnersp. 310
5.5.3 Oil Burning Characteristicsp. 312
5.6 Gasp. 318
5.7 Oil- and Gas-Firing Safety Precautionsp. 322
5.8 Automatic Operation of Boilersp. 323
5.9 Stacksp. 327
5.10 Mechanical Draft: Fansp. 331
5.11 Steam and Air Jetsp. 340
5.12 Flues and Ductsp. 341
5.13 Ash Handling Systemsp. 341
Questions and Problemsp. 345
Chapter 6 Boiler Accessoriesp. 351
6.1 Water Columnsp. 351
6.2 Pressure Measurementp. 359
6.3 Temperature Measurementp. 362
6.4 Feedwater Regulatorsp. 362
6.5 Safety Valvesp. 369
6.6 Blowdown Equipmentp. 382
6.7 Nonreturn Valvesp. 387
6.8 Steam Pipingp. 390
6.9 Sootblowersp. 391
6.10 Valvesp. 399
6.11 Instruments and Automatic Control Systemsp. 403
Questions and Problemsp. 416
Chapter 7 Operation and Maintenance of Boilersp. 419
7.1 Boiler Startupp. 420
7.2 Normal Operationp. 423
7.2.1 Combustion Controlp. 424
7.2.2 Ash Handlingp. 425
7.2.3 Water Supplyp. 426
7.2.4 Boiler Efficiencyp. 439
7.2.5 Insulation and Laggingp. 443
7.3 Operating Characteristics of Fluidized Bed Boilersp. 443
7.3.1 Circulating Fluid Bed (CFB) Boilersp. 444
7.3.2 Bubbling Fluid Bed (BFB) Boilersp. 445
7.4 Abnormal Operationp. 446
7.5 Idle Boilersp. 450
7.6 Maintenancep. 454
7.7 Boiler Internal Inspectionp. 462
7.8 Evaluating the Condition of a Boilerp. 465
7.9 Making Repairsp. 468
7.10 Inspection and Maintenance Requirements of Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)p. 470
Questions and Problemsp. 472
Chapter 8 Pumpsp. 477
8.1 Pumpsp. 478
8.2 Injectorsp. 479
8.3 Duplex Pumpsp. 481
8.4 Power Pumpsp. 489
8.5 Vacuum Pumpsp. 492
8.6 Rotary Pumpsp. 493
8.7 Centrifugal Pumpsp. 497
8.8 Facts about Fluids and Pumpingp. 509
8.9 Factors Affecting Pump Operationp. 512
8.10 Considerations for Pump Selectionp. 513
8.11 Pump Installation and Operationp. 514
8.12 Pump Testing and Calculationsp. 517
8.13 Pump Maintenancep. 523
Questions and Problemsp. 530
Chapter 9 Steam Turbines, Condensers, and Cooling Towersp. 533
9.1 Steam Turbinesp. 533
9.1.1 Turbine Types and Applicationsp. 539
9.1.2 Turbine Stage Designp. 546
9.1.3 Major Components of a Turbinep. 547
9.2 Turbine Design and Constructionp. 553
9.2.1 Thrust Bearingp. 563
9.2.2 Packingp. 565
9.2.3 Governorsp. 567
9.2.4 Lubricationp. 573
9.2.5 Turbine Controlp. 574
9.2.6 Erection of the Steam Turbinep. 577
9.2.7 Relief Valves and Rupture Disks for Turbinesp. 579
9.2.8 Turbine Pipingp. 581
9.3 Electric Generatorsp. 582
9.4 Condensersp. 585
9.4.1 Surface Condensersp. 586
9.4.2 Air-Cooled Condensersp. 589
9.4.3 Condenser Materials and Constructionp. 590
9.5 Cooling Towersp. 593
9.5.1 Types of Cooling Towersp. 594
9.5.2 Design Considerationsp. 602
9.5.3 Materials of Constructionp. 603
9.6 Condenser Auxiliariesp. 603
Questions and Problemsp. 607
Chapter 10 Operating and Maintaining Steam Turbines, Condensers, Cooling Towers, and Auxiliariesp. 611
10.1 Turbinesp. 611
10.1.1 Turbine Operationp. 617
10.1.2 Turbine Maintenancep. 621
10.1.3 Turbine Performancep. 627
10.2 Condensersp. 628
10.2.1 Surface Condenser Operationp. 628
10.2.2 Surface Condenser Maintenancep. 630
10.2.3 Air-Cooled Steam Condenser Operationp. 632
10.3 Cooling Towersp. 633
10.3.1 Operation of Cooling Towersp. 635
10.3.2 Maintenance of Cooling Towersp. 639
10.4 Auxiliariesp. 639
10.4.1 Traveling Screensp. 639
10.4.2 Pumpsp. 641
10.4.3 Steam-Jet Ejectors and Vacuum Pumpsp. 642
10.4.4 Vacuum Gaugesp. 642
Questions and Problemsp. 643
Chapter 11 Auxiliary Steam-Plant Equipmentp. 647
11.1 Condensate Systemp. 649
11.2 Feedwater Heatersp. 650
11.2.1 Closed Feedwater Heatersp. 651
11.2.2 Open Feedwater Heaters (Deaerators)p. 654
11.2.3 Operation and Maintenance of Feedwater Heatersp. 667
11.3 Condensate Polishing Systemsp. 668
11.4 Raw Water Treatmentp. 670
11.4.1 Ion-Exchange Water Conditionersp. 671
11.4.2 Evaporatorsp. 675
11.5 Boiler Blowdownp. 677
11.6 Piping Systemp. 680
11.7 Steam Trapsp. 689
11.8 Pipeline Separators and Strainersp. 695
11.9 Lubricants and Lubricating Devicesp. 698
Questions and Problemsp. 705
Chapter 12 Environmental Control Systemsp. 709
12.1 Introductionp. 709
12.2 Environmental Considerationsp. 709
12.3 Sources of Plant Emissionsp. 710
12.4 Available Technologies for the Control of Emissionsp. 712
12.4.1 SO[subscript 2] Controlp. 712
12.4.2 NO[subscript x] Controlp. 713
12.4.3 Particulate Controlp. 714
12.5 Regulatory Requirementsp. 715
12.6 Particulate and Sulfur Dioxide Removal Requirementsp. 716
12.6.1 Particulate Removalp. 716
12.6.2 Sulfur Dioxide Removalp. 718
12.6.3 Industrial Boilersp. 719
12.7 Equipment for Particulate Emission Controlp. 720
12.7.1 Mechanical Collectorsp. 720
12.7.2 Electrostatic Precipitatorsp. 722
12.7.3 Bag Filterhousesp. 729
12.8 Equipment for Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber Systemsp. 735
12.8.1 Wet Scrubbersp. 736
12.8.2 Dry Scrubbersp. 741
12.9 Systems for Control of Nitrogen Oxides (NO[subscript x])p. 751
Questions and Problemsp. 752
Chapter 13 Waste-to-Energy Plantsp. 755
13.1 Introductionp. 755
13.2 Waste Disposal-A Worldwide Problemp. 759
13.3 Potential Energy from MSWp. 761
13.4 Landfillsp. 762
13.5 Solid Waste Compositionp. 763
13.6 Types of Energy-Recovery Technologiesp. 767
13.7 Mass Burningp. 768
13.8 Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Burningp. 778
13.9 Operation and Maintenance of Refuse Boilersp. 784
13.10 Recyclingp. 788
13.10.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Recyclingp. 789
13.10.2 Economics and Quality Products from Recyclingp. 791
13.11 Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs)p. 792
13.12 Waste-to-Energy Plants and Recyclingp. 799
Questions and Problemsp. 800
Appendix A Unit Conversionsp. 803
Appendix B Geometric Formulasp. 809
Appendix C Steam Tables and Chartsp. 811
Appendix D Answers to Problemsp. 825
Glossaryp. 829
Indexp. 839

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