Cover image for Finland in the new Europe
Finland in the new Europe
Jakobson, Max.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 1998.
Physical Description:
xiv, 176 pages ; 25 cm.
General Note:
"Published with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C."

Format :


Call Number
Material Type
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DL1066.5 .J35 1998 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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Jakobson tells the story of a small nation that has emerged a winner from the ordeals of the 20th century. Finland is still widely remembered for its successful resistance against Soviet attempts to subjugate it during World War II, but less is known about the skillful balancing act by which Finns preserved their independence and way of life during the Cold War.

Author Notes

George F. Kennan, February 16, 1904 - March 17, 2005 George Kennan was born Feb. 16, 1904, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He attended Saint John's Military Academy and then Princeton University, graduating in 1926 and entering the diplomatic corps. He travelled to Genoa in 1927, and in 1929 was assigned as third secretary attached to all of the Baltic Republics. In 1933, he went to Moscow with Ambassador William Bullitt, where he remained until 1937. He then spent a year in the U. S., a year in Prague, and then went to the U. S. Embassy in Berlin where he helped to develop a peace settlement. Kennan was in Berlin when Nazi Germany declared war on the U. S., and was interned for several months, before finally returning to the States in May of 1942.

During the war, he represented the U. S. in Portugal, and was part of the delegation to the European Advisory Commission. In 1944 he returned to the embassy in Moscow. In April 1947, after returning to the States, Kennan became chairman of the Policy Planning Staff at the State Department. It was there that he penned an anonymous article, titled "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" but better known as the "X article", in the July 1947 Foreign Affairs, which advocated a containment policy. He is considered to have been the "architect" of the Cold War.

Kennan was appointed Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1952, but was recalled in October after a diplomatic incident in Berlin where he compared the Soviet Union to Nazi Germany. Kennan retired from the Foreign Service in 1953, and joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he remained until retirement. During that time he also served as Ambassador to the USSR and to Yugoslavia for a short time.

Kennan has continued to write and lecture on foreign policy and the Soviet Union into the '90s. In 1981 he was awarded the Albert Einstein Peace Prize for his efforts to improve U.S.-Soviet relations. He also won the Pulitzer Prize twice, initially in 1957 for Russia Leaves the War: Soviet-American Relations, 1917-192O, and then again in 1968 for Memoirs. At age 85, he received the Medal of Freedom.

George F. Kennan died on March 17, 2005 at the age of 101.

(Bowker Author Biography) George F. Kennan has won both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. He is professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Reviews 1

Choice Review

Finland's accession to the European Union in 1995 has prompted considerable and renewed interest in the small country nestled uncomfortably between Scandinavia and Russia. Jakobson's new book is among the best works to address Finland's past and future in the post-Cold War world. Jakobson, a former diplomat who had a hand in shaping his native Finland's foreign policy during the Cold War, authoritatively traces the country's emergence from Moscow's shadow and into the thick of Continental integration. In a well-written albeit brief (6 chapters, 161 pages) book, Jakobson effectively links Finland's past with its present and future challenges--e.g., insecurities of globalization, threats to national identity, uncertainties emanating from beyond its eastern border with Russia. In its focus, accessibility, and insight, the book compares quite favorably to other recent works in this area, including T. Michael Ruddy's Charting an Independent Course (1998), Hans Mouritzen's edited volume Bordering Russia: Theory and Prospects for Europe's Baltic Rim (Ashgate, 1998), and Jussi M. Hõnhimaki's Containing Coexistence: America, Russia, and the Finnish Solution (CH, Nov. 97). The book should be of considerable value to those interested in European integration, Nordic security, and Russia's evolving foreign relations. W. M. Downs; Georgia State University

Table of Contents

George Kennan
Forewordp. ix
Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
1. Nationalismp. 9
A Nation Is Bornp. 15
Prelude to Warp. 21
2. Survivalp. 27
The Second Roundp. 35
Postmortemp. 40
3. Neutralityp. 49
The Finnish-Soviet Treatyp. 55
Enter Urho Kekkonenp. 64
The Dag Hammarskjold Syndromep. 73
The Communist Splitp. 77
The European Security Conferencep. 80
Finlandizationp. 84
Appearance and Substancep. 87
The Other Neighborp. 94
4. Integrationp. 100
Finland Joins the Unionp. 104
Toward a Single Currencyp. 111
5. Securityp. 120
The Grand Designp. 121
The Balkan Warp. 124
The New Enemyp. 129
New NATO and New Russiap. 133
The Open Doorp. 136
Finland and Sweden: In or Out?p. 140
6. Russiap. 146
Conclusionp. 156
Notesp. 162
Selected Bibliographyp. 167
Indexp. 169
About the Authorp. 177