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### Summary

### Summary

Stop EMI, EMD and RFI cold! Now you can get the newest, most effective weapons to fight costly and potentially devastating electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic discharge (EMD), and radio frequency interference (RFI) in the field or on the bench. EMI Troubleshooting Techniques, by Michel Marduian, arms you with an arsenal of fail-safe, time- and labor-saving diagnostic routines to help you pinpoint and lock out even the most persistent interference problems. Its 4-step approach lets you 1) identify specific (and even hidden) trouble symptoms, 2) find the matching solutions, 3) implement them and 4) understand their strengths and limitations. From power line filters and conduction type fixes to transient suppressors and radiation control, this time-and money-saving guide streamlines robust designs, speeds on-site troubleshooting for industrial-strength applications, and simplifies EMC lab testing for optimal result. Plus, you get a variety of recommended filters, isolation transformers, shields, varistors, grounding and impedance devices, tapes, foils, and more.

### Table of Contents

Preface | p. ix |

Introduction | p. xi |

About the Author | p. xiii |

Chapter 1 Introduction: Brush-Up on Some EMI/EMC Basics | p. 1 |

1.1 Terminology | p. 1 |

1.2 EMI/EMC Glossary | p. 2 |

1.3 Units of Measurement: the Bel | p. 5 |

1.4 Time-to-Frequency Conversions | p. 8 |

1.5 Sources, Victims, and Coupling Paths | p. 14 |

1.6 EMI Coupling Paths | p. 14 |

1.7 Victim Rejection | p. 20 |

Chapter 2 Optimal Selection of EMI Fixes | p. 23 |

Chapter 3 Diagnostics, Troubleshooting Techniques, and Instrumentation | p. 29 |

3.1 EMI Problems during Prototype and Qualification Phases | p. 29 |

3.2 Checking for Compliance with Emissions Specifications | p. 32 |

3.3 Checking for Compliance with Immunity Specifications | p. 59 |

3.4 EMI Problems in the Field (What to Do When Equipment Fails) | p. 77 |

3.5 How to Evaluate Fix Results: Current and Field Probes | p. 90 |

Chapter 4 Conduction-Type Fixes | p. 103 |

4.1 Mode of Operation of Conduction Fixes | p. 103 |

4.2 Series Attenuation Devices vs. Shunt Attenuation | p. 104 |

Chapter 5 Capacitive Types of EMC Solutions | p. 111 |

5.1 Theoretical Brief | p. 111 |

5.2 Dielectric Materials and Tolerances | p. 113 |

5.3 Capacitors for Differential-Mode (Line-to-Line) Filtering | p. 113 |

5.4 PC Board Capacitive Bus Bars and Flat Pack Capacitors | p. 117 |

5.5 Capacitors for Common-Mode (Line-to-Ground/Chassis) Filtering | p. 120 |

5.6 Prescriptions, Installation | p. 126 |

5.7 Filtered Connectors and Adaptors | p. 128 |

Chapter 6 Inductive, Series-Loss EMC Solutions | p. 135 |

6.1 Theoretical Brief | p. 135 |

6.2 Core Materials | p. 137 |

6.3 Ferrites and Ferrite-Loaded Cables | p. 139 |

6.4 Inductors, DM and CM | p. 152 |

6.5 Ground Chokes | p. 156 |

6.6 Common-Mode Bifilar Chokes (Longitudinal Transformers) | p. 158 |

6.7 Combined L,C Element | p. 159 |

Chapter 7 Power-Line Filters | p. 167 |

Chapter 8 Power-Line Isolation Transformers, Power Conditioners, and Uninterruptible Power Supplies | p. 175 |

8.1 Power-Line Isolation Transformers | p. 175 |

8.2 Faraday-Shielded Transformers | p. 177 |

8.3 Power Conditioners and UPSs | p. 179 |

Chapter 9 Signal-Type Isolation Transformers | p. 185 |

Chapter 10 Transient Suppressors | p. 191 |

10.1 Solid State Varistors, Transzorbs | p. 191 |

10.2 Gas Tubes | p. 197 |

Chapter 11 Bonding, Ground Continuity, and RF Impedance Reduction | p. 203 |

11.1 Grounding Braids and Straps | p. 203 |

11.2 PCB Grounding Spacers | p. 204 |

11.3 Metallic Cable Raceways and Companion Braids | p. 206 |

11.4 Floor Impedance Reduction, RMF Grounding Pads | p. 210 |

11.5 Transient Plate | p. 215 |

Chapter 12 Radiation-Type Fixes | p. 219 |

12.1 Conductive Tapes | p. 219 |

12.2 Shielding Mesh Bands and Zipper Jackets | p. 223 |

12.3 Cable Shields, Connections, and Fittings | p. 225 |

12.4 EMI Gaskets | p. 238 |

12.5 EMI Screens for Windows and Ventilation Panels | p. 244 |

12.6 Conductive Paint | p. 247 |

12.7 Conductive Foil | p. 251 |

12.8 Conductive Fabric | p. 253 |

Chapter 13 EMI Problems During EMC Tests: Practical Hints | p. 259 |

13.1 Validation of the Measurements | p. 259 |

13.2 Instrument-Related Errors | p. 260 |

13.3 Problems with Weak Signals and Strong Background Noise | p. 260 |

13.4 Setup- and Accessory-Related Errors | p. 261 |

13.5 LISN-Related Errors | p. 264 |

13.6 Mismatch and VSWR-Related Errors | p. 264 |

13.7 Background Noise Carried by the Instrumentation Setup | p. 264 |

Appendix A Receiver Sensitivity versus Bandwidth and Noise Figure | p. 269 |

Appendix B EMI from Switched-Mode Power Converters | p. 271 |

B.1 Conducted EMI (CM and DM) into 50 [Omega]/50 [mu]H LISN (or Translated Equivalent) with CISPR Receiver | p. 271 |

Appendix C Ambient Fields from Radio Transmitters | p. 273 |

Appendix D Impedance of Copper and Steel Planes | p. 275 |

Appendix E Voltage Induced by a Field into a Loop | p. 277 |

Appendix F Wire-to-Wire Capacitance and Mutual Inductance for Crosstalk Estimation | p. 279 |

F.1 Wire-to-Wire Capacitance for Crosstalk Estimation | p. 279 |

F.2 Wire-to-Wire Mutual Inductance for Magnetic Crosstalk Estimation (courtesy of AEMC) | p. 281 |

Appendix G Conversion of Radiated Emission Limits into CM Current Limits | p. 283 |

Appendix H Filter and Input Circuit Universal Rejection Curves | p. 285 |

Appendix I EMI Fixes Toolbox: Recommended Parts List | p. 287 |

I.1 Instruments and Accessories | p. 287 |

I.2 Components | p. 288 |

Appendix J Test Data Report Forms for Conducted and Radiated Emissions, ESD, and EFT | p. 289 |

J.1 Conducted EMI Test Log Sheet | p. 290 |

J.2 Radiated EMI Test Log Sheet | p. 291 |

J.3 ESD Test Log Sheet | p. 292 |

J.4 Electrical Fast Transient (EFT) Test Log Sheet | p. 293 |

Appendix K HF Losses with Coaxial Cables | p. 295 |

References | p. 297 |

Index | p. 299 |