Cover image for Byron--child of passion, fool of fame
Title:
Byron--child of passion, fool of fame
Author:
Eisler, Benita.
Personal Author:
Edition:
First edition.
Publication Information:
New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.
Physical Description:
xii, 837 pages, 16 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations ; 25 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780679412991
Format :
Book

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Central Library PR4381 .E37 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Popular Materials-Biography
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Summary

Summary

Benita Eisler'sByronis a masterful portrait of the poet who dazzled an era and pre-figured the modern age of celebrity--an absorbing, illuminating, and wonderfully entertaining account of Lord Byron's spectacular life, monumental work, and lasting heroic legacy. Drawing on previously unavailable material--including family papers only recently brought to light--Eisler offers us a more complex vision of Byron than any we've had before: a man who rose from the depths of poverty and the humiliation of childhood lameness to a pinnacle of success and fame unlike anything the world had ever seen, and whose bravura identity as renegade aristocrat, political revolutionary, mythic lover, and Romanticism's galvanizing hero and antihero was surpassed in brilliance only by his poetic genius. With grace, erudition, and insight, Eisler captures the passions and obsessions that consumed Byron, the fierce devotions and the outsized ego that fired his work, and the despair and self-loathing that plagued his short life. Eisler gives us a richly detailed drama of a childhood of abandonment and shame; of Byron's early days at Harrow and Cambridge; of his humiliating entry into the House of Lords at eighteen; of his adventures in the East, where he consorted with pashas and prostitutes; of his relationships with his contemporaries, among them the twenty-four-year-old Shelley and his wife, Mary; of the instant celebrity that attended the publication of the first cantos of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage; and of the almost vengeful determination with which Byron recast himself as the elegant figure that glided through Regency drawing rooms, plotted with Italian Carbonari, loved men and women, and drew sensation to him like a cloak until his death, alone and in exile, at the age of thirty-six. Here also are the first in-depth portraits of the women--and men--Byron loved: his guilty relations with John Edleston, a young Cambridge chorister; his tempestuous affair with Lady Caroline Lamb, who was driven to madness by her love for him; his catastrophic marriage to the lovely Annabella Milbanke; his passionate incestuous relationship with his half sister, Augusta, and the tormented menage a trois they shared with his young wife; and the gentler love of his later life, Teresa Guiccioli, whom he abandoned for his life's last adventure in Missolonghi. Throughout, Eisler offers incisive analysis of Byron's poetry in the context of his extraordinary life--as hero and martyr, aristocratic aesthete and dandy, transgressive rebel fueled by forbidden substances and exiled for forbidden passions--examining in detail the stanzas that inspired his own and succeeding generations as no other writer has since Shakespeare. A magnificent record of a towering figure, sure to stand as the definitive biography for years to come.


Reviews 4

Booklist Review

Lord Byron's tempestuous life has never lacked for chroniclers, but most have consigned his poetry to the literary critic. The strength of Eisler's masterful biography lies in her rare insight into how the embattled poet distilled from his life of scandal and betrayal a literary art of soaring power. When probing Byron's callous abandonment of his lovers (male and female) and his illegitimate children, investigating his incestuous liaison with his half-sister, or detailing his abuse of his wife, Eisler shreds the self-pitying rationalizations Byron manufactured to minimize his guilt. But when analyzing his poetry, she marvels at how "the lava of imagination" burned away the dross of a heedless life and so freed an explosive genius. Though at times that genius cooled, as Byron lapsed into depression and lassitude, it blazed forth in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, which astonished the world with its emotional intensity, and even more spectacularly in Don Juan, which Eisler recognizes as a daringly modern experiment in irony. As Eisler emphasizes in the concluding chapter, despite his early death, the presciently modern Byron has captivated generations of writers, artists, composers--and readers. The many readers still attracted to this complex and multifaceted poet will find no truer portrait. (Reviewed March 15, 1999)0679412999Bryce Christensen


Publisher's Weekly Review

On May 17, 1824, one month after George Gordon Lord Byron (b. 1788) caught fever in a Missolonghi rainstorm while fighting for the liberation of Greece, the cautious publisher John Murray, with the blessing of Byron's ex-wife, Annabella, and his beloved half-sister, Augusta, took a match to an unpublished work by the famous poetÄthe two-volume manuscript that was his memoirs. Perhaps it was this act that opened the flue for Byron biography, for as more and more of the seamy details of the poet's highly dissolute life come to light, the abiding hope remains that the destroyed work contained still more. Eisler's (O'Keeffe and Stieglitz: An American Romance) exhaustive biography portrays Byron as a restless, brilliant man in thrall: he is, in her view, the puppet of his own extravagant passions and even in his lifetime was so fictionalized and mythologized by others that he found it hard to maintain his own sense of self. Whereas Phyllis Grosskurth's study of two years ago, Byron: The Flawed Angel, used psychoanalytic arguments to show the poet's state of mind and possible manic depression, Eisler is more interested in the interaction between his amorous attachments and his poems. She quotes from his oeuvre liberally and with the good timing of an able literary critic, as she details the romances of the great Romantic, from his childhood crushes, through secret schoolboy encounters, affairs with other men and with the society belles and salonistes like the Ladies Oxford and Lamb, his marriage to Annabella, his incest with Augusta, dalliances with countless other women he would ultimately spurn, and his final, protracted involvement with Teresa Guiccioli. There are moments when Eisler's tight rein on her prose slackens to clich‚, as when, having described so many of the beauties Byron bedded, Teresa is given the proverbial "little white teeth like perfectly matched pearls." But in the main, Eisler's lusty enjoyment of her subject's many escapades animates the story she tells in words both elegant and provocative. The mind-boggling array of quotations, excerpts, and eyewitness and historical accounts she has amassed give face and flesh not only to the poet born under a bad, bright star, but to those whose lives he illuminated briefly. (Apr.) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved


Library Journal Review

If Byron learned poetry from Pope and the classical poets, he learned wickedness from his father, the drunken, incestuous Mad Jack Byron, who died penniless at 36. And although there is no doubt that the poet himself sought "moral suicide," it is also true that his energies were ethereal as well as diabolicÄif he was adept at ruining the happiness of others, he was also capable of writing some of the most sublime poetry of his time and ours. With a life like his, the biographer need only stand aside, which Eisler does, for the most part; she psychologizes occasionally but unnecessarily, since Byron hid nothing in his quest to become the hero of his own life. Ultimately, that life upstaged the poetry, as Eisler (author of O'Keeffe and Stieglitz: An American Romance, LJ 4/15/91) notes toward the end of this thoroughly engaging study. Byron too died when he was only 36, and his autopsy report noted many signs of disease, including the fact that, "strangest of all, the sutures of the skull had fused together, a sign of immense age." Eisler pays ample attention to Byron's work, making this an excellent complement to Grosskurth's purely biographical Byron (LJ 4/15/97). Highly recommended.ÄDavid Kirby, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.


Choice Review

By the end of the 19th century more books and articles had been written on Byron's life than on all the other English Romantic poets combined. After a brief abatement during the hegemony of the new criticism, the flood has resumed, powered primarily by the freedom of biographers today to deal openly with Byron's spectacularly active, bisexual love life. Eisler's shrewd, lively, and well-written blockbuster focuses precisely on what was suppressed for generations. Frank, forthright, and nonpartisan, the book describes the extreme complexities of Byron's character with unusual vividness. Particularly admirable is the author's insightful account of Byron's brief and turbulent marriage, which ended in a horrendous scandal and Byron's permanent, self-imposed exile from England. Regrettably, the book is weakest in dealing with Byron the poet and dazzlingly gifted prose writer, which, after all, is why he is remembered at all. For that the student's best resource remains Leslie Marchand's great three-volume biography, Byron: A Biography (1957), or one-volume condensation, Byron: A Portrait (CH, Jun'71). Nonetheless, Eisler's beautifully printed, lavishly illustrated book--with its copious notes and excellent index--is recommended for all collections. N. Fruman; University of Minnesota


Excerpts

Excerpts

From Chapter One "Shades of the Dead! Have I Not Heard Your Voices?" On Monday, May 17, 1824, near noon, six men gathered in the high-ceilinged drawing room at 50 Albemarle Street, off Piccadilly, in a house that served as both home and office to the publisher John Murray. For days the group had been quarreling among themselves. Alliances shifted. Messages flew back and forth, and meetings between pairs continued through the morning. Once they were finally assembled, an argument flared between two of their number, John Cam Hobhouse, a rising young parliamentarian from a wealthy Bristol family, and Thomas Moore, a Dublin-born poet and grocer's son. Angry words threatened to turn into physical violence. Finally, the decision of the host prevailed, and calm was restored. Murray then asked his sixteen-year-old son to join them. Introduced as heir to his father's business, the boy was invited to witness a momentous event. A servant appeared, carrying two bound manuscript volumes. While the group drew closer to the fire blazing in the grate, two others, Wilmot Horton and Colonel Doyle, took the books and, tearing them apart, fed the pages, covered with handwriting familiar to all those present, to the crackling flames. Within minutes, the memoirs of George Gordon, sixth Lord Byron, were reduced to a mound of ashes. Byron had been dead for one month to the day. The ship carrying the poet's embalmed body (vital organs removed and packed separately) had taken four weeks to sail from Greece to England. In the interval, furious debates had exposed enmities old and new among those who were to be present at the burning of the manuscript. Quarreling had flared over the ownership of the manuscript, intensifying with arguments about potential damage to the poet's already seamy reputation and the pain his unexpurgated memories would cause his former wife, their daughter, and his half sister. Each of the six men had his own stake in the dispute. John Cam Hobhouse, a Whig M.P. and Byron's executor and oldest friend, wanted only to sanitize the poet's name for posterity. In the last years of his life, Byron had given his memoirs to his fellow poet Tom Moore. The needy Moore had, with Byron's approval, promptly sold the copyright to Murray. Then, at the burning, he tried to save the manuscript. But it was too late. Finally, Horton and Doyle, the two responsible for the actual destruction of the volumes, represented the interests of Lady Byron, the poet's estranged wife and the mother of his child, and his half sister, Augusta Leigh, respectively. "The most timid of God's booksellers," Byron had once called Murray, his publisher and now enthusiastic host of the auto-da-fe. Still, the decision to destroy the most personal words of his best-selling author (which, in the event, Murray had not even read), weighed against the enormous profit potential of publishing the memoirs, underlines the fear that the known facts of Byron's life inspired in those who loved him--and their horror of revelations yet unknown. Byron's fame as a poet and his notoriety as a man were one; the scandals of his life--whoring, marriage, adultery, incest, sodomy--became the text or subtext of his poems, made more shocking by the poet's cynicism shading into blasphemy. The heroes of the poems might be pirates or princes, but Byron's voice--the passionate sorrowing youth turned world-weary libertine--made his works instant best-sellers. Editions of his first advertisement for himself, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, sold out within three days. And this was not even the most frankly autobiographical of Byron's works. Penned from self-imposed exile in Italy, published in eagerly awaited installments, Don Juan delighted London gossipmongers with plentiful allusions to the scandal surrounding the poet's divorce from his young wife of one year and his subsequent flight from English "hypocrisy and cant." In the few years left to him, Byron added the glamour of revolutionary politics to his erotic and literary engagements. In exile, he joined the underground secret society called the Carbonari in the struggle to rid Italy of the Austrians, before dying at Missolonghi, bled to death by his doctors, while training troops for the liberation of Greece. Mourned throughout the world, the poet would not have shared the belief that his end was untimely. He had lived so hard and fast, he said, that before his death at age thirty-six, he felt himself to be an old man. Indeed, the brief arc of his life spanned an era whose turbulence mirrored the poet's own stormy existence. In 1788, the year of Byron's birth, George III succumbed to the first attack of madness, the violent symptoms of which required the appointment of his oldest son, the Prince of Wales, as Regent. The King regained his reason the following year and resumed power, but already the high living "Prinnie" and his dissolute friends had changed the tone of the court. Twenty years before he was officially declared Prince Regent, George Frederick Augustus of Hanover's indulgences in food, drink, gambling, and women, along with more durable interests in architecture and decor, ushered in the glittering froth of brilliance, luxury, and vice we know as the Regency. Its sensibility--at once restless, sensual, melancholy, and exuberant--might be characterized by a term invented a hundred years later to describe a strangely similar spirit: fin-de-siecle. In 1789, the year after Byron was born, the French Revolution fired the dreams--and fueled the nightmares--of all Europe. Its bloody overthrow of the old order was the crucial event that continued to haunt Byron's generation, shaping his choice of heroes and villains among his elders. Charles James Fox, the leader of the radical Whig opposition and the idol of Byron's youth, had declared the fall of the Bastille "the greatest and best event in the history of the world." For the Tory government, however, in power for most of Byron's lifetime, the French Revolution gave legitimacy to the politics of reaction. The excesses of the Terror turned fiery young republican sympathizers among the first generation of Romantic poets, notably Wordsworth and Southey, into middle-aged monarchists, reviled by Byron as turncoat opportunists. Fear of revolutionary contagion provided the excuse for repressive measures; in 1794 habeas corpus was suspended, the first in a series of acts amputating the civil rights of Englishmen. Censorship and spying became the order of the day; any form of association, especially among the dispossessed, could be prosecuted as a crime. Starting in 1793, when the Girondist government declared war on England, patriotism was invoked to justify further curtailing of individual freedoms. The political reality that permitted the Regency to waltz on unafraid was that England had become a police state. Byron, the newly crowned king of London drawing rooms in 1814, saw clearly that as a poet who was also a satirist and social critic, as a peer who spoke out for the rights of starving weavers or Irish Catholics, he would not long be indulged for his youth, talent, and title. War with France began when Byron was five years old; it would continue until 1815, when he was twenty-seven. Like that of other ardent youths throughout Europe, the poet's political consciousness was shaped by an idealized image of Napoleon as the personification of heroic conquest in the name of republican principles. Besides, for the adolescent rebel, Tory England's demonized enemy was a natural ally. Less consciously, Byron absorbed another Napoleonic lesson: The little corporal who declared himself Emperor was the herald of a new era, the age of the self-made man. In England, too, this new breed was increasingly prominent. The war with France had galvanized a sluggish economy, ushering in the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, which would change the face of England. The first of England's dark satanic mills helped to float the Regency extravaganza. While the poor suffered more, a new class of entrepreneur-inventors--ironmasters and coal barons, pottery manufacturers and bankers--rode to dazzling fortunes. Their sons, like the two brilliant Peel brothers (one of whom became Prime Minister), were among Lord Byron's few commoner classmates at Harrow. And there would be more. Great landowning grandees were still the most visible stars on the brilliant stage of the Regency, but new money and talent were joining the featured players. It was a febrile age. Social, political, and cultural certainties were shifting, like tectonic plates, under the feet of young men starting out in life. Mobility, then as now, had its price. The pressures of public life destroyed individuals as never before. Between 1790 and 1820, nineteen members of Parliament committed suicide and twenty others went mad; two of those who took their own lives, Sir Samuel Romilly and Sir Samuel Whitbread, were closely associated with Byron. "In every class there is the same taut neurotic quality," the historian J. H. Plumb observed, "the fantastic gambling and drinking, the riots, brutality and violence, and everywhere and always a constant sense of death." Byron was a child of his age and subject to all its fissures. The great Regency portraitist Sir Thomas Lawrence met the poet only once, but where others found simply beauty, the painter saw all the conflicts of Byron's character: "its keen and rapid genius, its pale intelligence, its profligacy, and its bitterness; its original symmetry distorted by the passions, his laugh of mingled merriment and scorn; the forehead clear and open, the brow boldly prominent, the eyes bright and dissimilar, the nose finely cut, and the nostril acutely formed; the mouth well made, but wide and contemptuous even in its smile, falling singularly at the corners, and its vindictive and disdainful expression heightened by the massive firmness of the chin, which springs at once from the centre of the full under-lip; the hair dark and curling but irregular in its growth; all this presents to you the poet and the man; and the general effect is heightened by a thin spare form, and, as you may have heard, by a deformity of limb." Heir to instability, Byron clung to the certainty of inherited land and ancient title, even as he vowed to seize the rewards of talent and energy. "The way to riches, to Greatness, lies before me," Byron wrote to his mother at age fifteen. "I can, I will cut myself a path through the world or perish." Excerpted from Byron: Child of Passion, Fool of Fame by Benita Eisler All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

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