Cover image for Common plants of the mid-Atlantic coast : a field guide
Title:
Common plants of the mid-Atlantic coast : a field guide
Author:
Silberhorn, Gene M.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Revised edition.
Publication Information:
Baltimore, MD : Johns Hopkins University Press, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xiii, 294 pages : illustrations, map ; 24 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780801860805

9780801860812
Format :
Book

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Central Library QK122.5 .S54 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
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Summary

Summary

Beggar's ticks and marsh pink. Tearthumbs and chairmaker's rush. Live oak, pitch pine, wild black cherry, sassafras, and loblolly pine. From eelgrass rooted in wrack lines on windswept back shores to hardy maritime forests sculpted by strong winds and salt spray, the Mid-Atlantic coast is rich with a variety of habitats and an abundance of common, if not always familiar, plants. In Common Plants of the Mid-Atlantic Coast, Gene M. Silberhorn provides a field guide to the plants found along the coast from Long Island Sound to North Carolina's barrier islands. This introduction to the fragile ecology and remarkable beauty of the flora of the coastal region was highly praised by reviewers when it was first published in 1982. This revised edition retains the features that earned it acclaim and provides a wealth of new information. The three sections of the book correspond to the natural divisions of the landscape: Section One covers beaches, dunes, and marine forests; Section Two includes salt and brackish marshes; and Section Three reviews plants found in tidal and nontidal freshwater wetlands. Each section of Common Plants begins with an introduction that describes the characteristics of the area and the flora to be found there. Individual plant entries follow. Delicate illustrations accompany facing page descriptions that aid in identification and provide concise background information, as well as delightful anecdotes. Plant entries now includes the subheadings: "Growth Habit and Diagnostic Characteristics," where the reader will find descriptions of general appearance, "Distribution," which tells where along the coast the plant is found, "Habitat," and, particularly important in this age of heightened environmental awareness, "Ecological Value/Benefits." The author has also added each plant's "Wetland Indicator Status," which estimates a species' frequency of occurrence in wetland habitats. Seventeen species have been added to this fully updated second edition. The appendices now include websites for various federal and state, coastal parks, refuges, and natural areas. An easy- to-use key helps readers identify plants in the field according to physical features. Praise for the first edition: "Will quickly become a standard work for professionals and casual beach strollers alike." -- Chesapeake Bay Magazine"In a guide of pleasant surprises, perhaps the greatest discovery is that so much wildness and beauty -- things that are more and more associated with wilderness and remoteness -- can still be found so near at hand, nearly in the back pocket of most of the large cities of the mid-Atlantic... [Silberhorn] has arranged his guide much like the coastal landscape itself, moving naturally from beaches to dunes and marine forests, then to salt and brackish marshes, and finally to the plants of the freshwater wetlands." -- Philadelphia Inquirer "A superb guidebook for amateur naturalists, students in a variety of ecology-oriented courses, and gardeners who wish to assess new species." -- American Horticulturist "Illustrates superbly with black-and-white drawings the many species of plants in this coastal region." -- Baltimore Sun


Summary

Beggar's ticks and marsh pink. Tearthumbs and chairmaker's rush. Live oak, pitch pine, wild black cherry, sassafras, and loblolly pine.

From eelgrass rooted in wrack lines on windswept back shores to hardy maritime forests sculpted by strong winds and salt spray, the Mid-Atlantic coast is rich with a variety of habitats and an abundance of common, if not always familiar, plants. In Common Plants of the Mid-Atlantic Coast , Gene M. Silberhorn provides a field guide to the plants found along the coast from Long Island Sound to North Carolina's barrier islands. This introduction to the fragile ecology and remarkable beauty of the flora of the coastal region was highly praised by reviewers when it was first published in 1982.

This revised edition retains the features that earned it acclaim and provides a wealth of new information. The three sections of the book correspond to the natural divisions of the landscape: Section One covers beaches, dunes, and marine forests; Section Two includes salt and brackish marshes; and Section Three reviews plants found in tidal and nontidal freshwater wetlands. Each section of Common Plants begins with an introduction that describes the characteristics of the area and the flora to be found there. Individual plant entries follow. Delicate illustrations accompany facing page descriptions that aid in identification and provide concise background information, as well as delightful anecdotes.

Plant entries now includes the subheadings: "Growth Habit and Diagnostic Characteristics," where the reader will find descriptions of general appearance, "Distribution," which tells where along the coast the plant is found, "Habitat," and, particularly important in this age of heightened environmental awareness, "Ecological Value/Benefits." The author has also added each plant's "Wetland Indicator Status," which estimates a species' frequency of occurrence in wetland habitats. Seventeen species have been added to this fully updated second edition. The appendices now include websites for various federal and state, coastal parks, refuges, and natural areas. An easy- to-use key helps readers identify plants in the field according to physical features.


Author Notes

Gene M. Silberhorn is a professor of marine science at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, School of Marine Science, the College of William and Mary.
Mary Warinner holds a bachelor's degree in fine arts and biology and a master's degree in landscape architecture, both from the University of Virginia.


Gene M. Silberhorn is a professor of marine science at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, School of Marine Science, the College of William and Mary.
Mary Warinner holds a bachelor's degree in fine arts and biology and a master's degree in landscape architecture, both from the University of Virginia.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 3
A Key to Common Plants of the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 13
Part 1 Plants of the Beach, Dunes, and Maritime Forestp. 21
American beach grass Ammophila breviligulata Fernp. 29
Sea oats Uniola paniculata L.p. 31
Seaside goldenrod Solidago sempervirens L.p. 33
Dusty miller Artemisia stelleriana Besserp. 35
Short dune grass Panicum amarum Ellp. 37
Sea rocket Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hookerp. 39
Seaside spurge Euphorbia polygonifolia L.p. 41
Russian thistle Salsola kali L.p. 43
Cocklebur Xanthium strumarium L.p. 45
Sand bur Cenchrus tribuloides L.p. 47
Switch grass Panicum virgatum L.p. 49
Dune bean Strophyostyles helvola (L). Ellp. 51
Prickly pear cactus Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) Macbrp. 53
Pinweed Lechea maritima Leggettp. 55
Beach sandwort Arenaria lanuginosa (Michaux) Rohrbackp. 57
Beach heather Hudsonia tomentosa Nuttallp. 59
Three-awn grass Aristida tuberculosa Nuttallp. 61
Mexican tea Chenopodium ambrosiodes L.p. 63
Yucca Yucca filamentosa L.p. 65
Croton Croton punctatus Jacquinp. 67
Beach pea Lathyrus maritimus (L.) Bigelp. 69
Dwarf palmetto Sabal minor (Jacquin) Persoonp. 71
Seaside primrose Oenothera humifusa Nuttallp. 73
Beach plum Prunus maritima Marshp. 75
Yaupon Ilex vomitoria Aitonp. 77
Pitch pine Pinus rigida Millp. 79
Loblolly pine Pinus taeda L.p. 81
American holly Ilex opaca Aitonp. 83
Bayberry Myrica pensylvanica Loiselp. 85
Wax myrtle Myrica cerifera L.p. 87
Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Neesp. 89
Red bay Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengelp. 91
Wild black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrhartp. 93
Live oak Quercus virginiana Millerp. 95
Red cedar Juniperus virginiana L.p. 97
Part 2 Plants of Salt and Brackish Marshesp. 99
Saltmarsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loiselp. 105
Salt grass Distichlis spicata (L.) Greenep. 107
Saltmeadow hay Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhlp. 109
Black needlerush Juncus roemerianus Scheelep. 111
Black grass Juncus gerardi Loiselp. 113
Orach Artiplex patula L. var. hastata (L.) Gray; Seabeach orach A. arenaria Nuttalp. 115
Saltwort, glasswort Salicornia virginica L., S. europaea L., S. bigelovii Torreyp. 117
Marsh fimbristylis Fimbristylis castanea (Michaux) Vahlp. 119
Sea lavender Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Brittonp. 121
Sea oxeye Borrichia frutescens (L.) DCp. 123
Sea blite Suaeda linearis (Ell.) Moqp. 125
Saltmarsh aster Aster tenuifolius L.p. 127
Maritime gerardia Agalinis maritima (Raf.) Raf.p. 129
Marsh pink Sabatia stellaris Purshp. 131
Saltmarsh loosestrife Lythrum lineare L.p. 133
Marsh elder Iva frutescens L.p. 135
Groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia L.p. 137
American threesquare Scirpus pungens Vahlp. 139
Saltmarsh bulrush Scirpus robustus Purshp. 141
Saltmarsh foxtail grass Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelenp. 143
Saltmarsh fleabane Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var. odorata auct. non. (L.) Cassp. 145
Marsh mallow Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Perslp. 147
Big cordgrass Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Rothp. 149
Waterhemp Amaranthus cannabinus (L.) J. D. Sauerp. 151
Germander Teucrium canadense L. var. canadensep. 153
Part 3 Plants of Freshwater Wetlands, Tidal and Nontidal (Including Forested Wetlands)p. 155
Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata L.p. 161
Arrow arum Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunthp. 163
Yellow pond lily Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibthrop and Smithp. 165
Bultongue Sagittaria lancifolia L.p. 167
Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia Willdp. 169
American lotus Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Persoonp. 171
Narrow-leaved cattail Typha angustifolia L.; Broad-leaved cattail T. latifolia L.p. 173
Lizard's tail Saururus cernuus L.p. 175
Water willow Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. var. verticilatusp. 177
Giant bulrush Scirpus tabernaemontani K. C. Gmelp. 179
Soft rush Juncus effusus L.p. 181
Smartweeds: Polygonum punctatum Ell., P. densiflorum Meissner, P. hydropiperoides Michauxp. 183
Sagittate tearthumb Polygonum sagittatum L.; Hastate tearthumb P. arifolium L.p. 185
Water dock Rumex verticillatus L.p. 187
Marsh hibiscus Hibiscus moscheutos L.p. 189
Northern wild rice Zizania aquatica L.; Southern wild rice Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michaux) Doell and Aschersonp. 191
Rice cutgrass Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartzp. 193
Walter's millet Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) Nashp. 195
Silver plume grass Saccharum brevibarbe (Michaux) Pers.; Giant beard grass S. giganteum (Walter) Persp. 197
Squarestem spikerush Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michaux) R. and S.; Dwarf spikerush E. parvula (R. and S.) Link.; Blunt spikerush E. obtusa (Willd.) Schultesp. 199
Royal fern Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Grayp. 201
Marsh fern Thelypteris palustris Schottp. 203
Beggar's ticks Bidens coronata (L.) Brittp. 205
Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale L.p. 207
Reed grass Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steudp. 209
Swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata L. var. pulchra (Willd.) Woodsonp. 211
Sweet flag Acorus calamus L.p. 213
Jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meerbp. 215
Asian spiderwort Murdannia keisak Hasskp. 217
Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michauxp. 219
Saw grass Cladium jamaicense Crantzp. 221
Water hemlock Cicuta maculata L.p. 223
Climbing hempweed Mikania scandens (L.) Willdp. 225
Sedges Carex vulpinoidea Michaux; C. lurida Wahlenbergp. 227
Chufa Cyperus esculentus L.p. 229
False nettle Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.p. 231
Sweetpepper bush Clethra alnifolia L.p. 233
Button bush Cephalanthus occidentalis L.p. 235
Bald cypress Taxodiun distichum (L.) Richardp. 237
Black gum Nyssa biflora (Walter) Sargent; Tupelo N. aquatica L.p. 239
Red maple Acer rubrum L.p. 241
Spicebush Lindera benzoinp. 243
Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshp. 245
Swamp rose Rosa palustris Marshp. 247
Common elderberry Sambucus canadensis L.p. 249
American elm Ulmus americana L.p. 251
Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSPp. 253
Swamp dogwood Cornus amomum Millp. 255
Virginia willow Itea virginica L.p. 257
Netted chain fern Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moorep. 259
Cane Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhlp. 261
Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Walterp. 263
Wool grass Scripus cyperinus (L.) Kunthp. 265
Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Marshp. 267
Smooth alder Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willdp. 269
River birch Betula nigra L.p. 271
Highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L.p. 273
Black willow Salix nigra Marshp. 275
Appendix A National Seashores and Wildlife Refuges along the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 277
Appendix B Coastal State Parks and Wildlife Areas along the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 279
Glossaryp. 283
Bibliographyp. 287
Indexp. 291
Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 3
A Key to Common Plants of the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 13
Part 1 Plants of the Beach, Dunes, and Maritime Forestp. 21
American beach grass Ammophila breviligulata Fernp. 29
Sea oats Uniola paniculata L.p. 31
Seaside goldenrod Solidago sempervirens L.p. 33
Dusty miller Artemisia stelleriana Besserp. 35
Short dune grass Panicum amarum Ellp. 37
Sea rocket Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hookerp. 39
Seaside spurge Euphorbia polygonifolia L.p. 41
Russian thistle Salsola kali L.p. 43
Cocklebur Xanthium strumarium L.p. 45
Sand bur Cenchrus tribuloides L.p. 47
Switch grass Panicum virgatum L.p. 49
Dune bean Strophyostyles helvola (L). Ellp. 51
Prickly pear cactus Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) Macbrp. 53
Pinweed Lechea maritima Leggettp. 55
Beach sandwort Arenaria lanuginosa (Michaux) Rohrbackp. 57
Beach heather Hudsonia tomentosa Nuttallp. 59
Three-awn grass Aristida tuberculosa Nuttallp. 61
Mexican tea Chenopodium ambrosiodes L.p. 63
Yucca Yucca filamentosa L.p. 65
Croton Croton punctatus Jacquinp. 67
Beach pea Lathyrus maritimus (L.) Bigelp. 69
Dwarf palmetto Sabal minor (Jacquin) Persoonp. 71
Seaside primrose Oenothera humifusa Nuttallp. 73
Beach plum Prunus maritima Marshp. 75
Yaupon Ilex vomitoria Aitonp. 77
Pitch pine Pinus rigida Millp. 79
Loblolly pine Pinus taeda L.p. 81
American holly Ilex opaca Aitonp. 83
Bayberry Myrica pensylvanica Loiselp. 85
Wax myrtle Myrica cerifera L.p. 87
Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Neesp. 89
Red bay Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengelp. 91
Wild black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrhartp. 93
Live oak Quercus virginiana Millerp. 95
Red cedar Juniperus virginiana L.p. 97
Part 2 Plants of Salt and Brackish Marshesp. 99
Saltmarsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loiselp. 105
Salt grass Distichlis spicata (L.) Greenep. 107
Saltmeadow hay Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhlp. 109
Black needlerush Juncus roemerianus Scheelep. 111
Black grass Juncus gerardi Loiselp. 113
Orach Artiplex patula L. var. hastata (L.) Gray; Seabeach orach A. arenaria Nuttalp. 115
Saltwort, glasswort Salicornia virginica L., S. europaea L., S. bigelovii Torreyp. 117
Marsh fimbristylis Fimbristylis castanea (Michaux) Vahlp. 119
Sea lavender Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Brittonp. 121
Sea oxeye Borrichia frutescens (L.) DCp. 123
Sea blite Suaeda linearis (Ell.) Moqp. 125
Saltmarsh aster Aster tenuifolius L.p. 127
Maritime gerardia Agalinis maritima (Raf.) Raf.p. 129
Marsh pink Sabatia stellaris Purshp. 131
Saltmarsh loosestrife Lythrum lineare L.p. 133
Marsh elder Iva frutescens L.p. 135
Groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia L.p. 137
American threesquare Scirpus pungens Vahlp. 139
Saltmarsh bulrush Scirpus robustus Purshp. 141
Saltmarsh foxtail grass Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelenp. 143
Saltmarsh fleabane Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var. odorata auct. non. (L.) Cassp. 145
Marsh mallow Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Perslp. 147
Big cordgrass Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Rothp. 149
Waterhemp Amaranthus cannabinus (L.) J. D. Sauerp. 151
Germander Teucrium canadense L. var. canadensep. 153
Part 3 Plants of Freshwater Wetlands, Tidal and Nontidal (Including Forested Wetlands)p. 155
Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata L.p. 161
Arrow arum Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunthp. 163
Yellow pond lily Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibthrop and Smithp. 165
Bultongue Sagittaria lancifolia L.p. 167
Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia Willdp. 169
American lotus Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Persoonp. 171
Narrow-leaved cattail Typha angustifolia L.; Broad-leaved cattail T. latifolia L.p. 173
Lizard's tail Saururus cernuus L.p. 175
Water willow Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. var. verticilatusp. 177
Giant bulrush Scirpus tabernaemontani K. C. Gmelp. 179
Soft rush Juncus effusus L.p. 181
Smartweeds: Polygonum punctatum Ell., P. densiflorum Meissner, P. hydropiperoides Michauxp. 183
Sagittate tearthumb Polygonum sagittatum L.; Hastate tearthumb P. arifolium L.p. 185
Water dock Rumex verticillatus L.p. 187
Marsh hibiscus Hibiscus moscheutos L.p. 189
Northern wild rice Zizania aquatica L.; Southern wild rice Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michaux) Doell and Aschersonp. 191
Rice cutgrass Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartzp. 193
Walter's millet Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) Nashp. 195
Silver plume grass Saccharum brevibarbe (Michaux) Pers.; Giant beard grass S. giganteum (Walter) Persp. 197
Squarestem spikerush Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michaux) R. and S.; Dwarf spikerush E. parvula (R. and S.) Link.; Blunt spikerush E. obtusa (Willd.) Schultesp. 199
Royal fern Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Grayp. 201
Marsh fern Thelypteris palustris Schottp. 203
Beggar's ticks Bidens coronata (L.) Brittp. 205
Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale L.p. 207
Reed grass Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steudp. 209
Swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata L. var. pulchra (Willd.) Woodsonp. 211
Sweet flag Acorus calamus L.p. 213
Jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meerbp. 215
Asian spiderwort Murdannia keisak Hasskp. 217
Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michauxp. 219
Saw grass Cladium jamaicense Crantzp. 221
Water hemlock Cicuta maculata L.p. 223
Climbing hempweed Mikania scandens (L.) Willdp. 225
Sedges Carex vulpinoidea Michaux; C. lurida Wahlenbergp. 227
Chufa Cyperus esculentus L.p. 229
False nettle Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.p. 231
Sweetpepper bush Clethra alnifolia L.p. 233
Button bush Cephalanthus occidentalis L.p. 235
Bald cypress Taxodiun distichum (L.) Richardp. 237
Black gum Nyssa biflora (Walter) Sargent; Tupelo N. aquatica L.p. 239
Red maple Acer rubrum L.p. 241
Spicebush Lindera benzoinp. 243
Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshp. 245
Swamp rose Rosa palustris Marshp. 247
Common elderberry Sambucus canadensis L.p. 249
American elm Ulmus americana L.p. 251
Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSPp. 253
Swamp dogwood Cornus amomum Millp. 255
Virginia willow Itea virginica L.p. 257
Netted chain fern Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moorep. 259
Cane Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhlp. 261
Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Walterp. 263
Wool grass Scripus cyperinus (L.) Kunthp. 265
Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Marshp. 267
Smooth alder Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willdp. 269
River birch Betula nigra L.p. 271
Highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L.p. 273
Black willow Salix nigra Marshp. 275
Appendix A National Seashores and Wildlife Refuges along the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 277
Appendix B Coastal State Parks and Wildlife Areas along the Mid-Atlantic Coastp. 279
Glossaryp. 283
Bibliographyp. 287
Indexp. 291

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