Cover image for We are still here : American Indians in the twentieth century
We are still here : American Indians in the twentieth century
Iverson, Peter.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Wheeling, Ill. : Harlan Davidson, [1998]

Physical Description:
xii, 255 pages : illustrations, map ; 21 cm.
Format :


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E77 .I94 1998 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Too often textbook accounts of American Indians end with the massacre at Wounded Knee, but the story of American Indians is an ongoing one. In this remarkable feat of inclusion, Professor Iverson begins at Wounded Knee and tells the stories of Indian communities throughout the United States, including not only political leaders and activists, but also professionals, artists, soldiers and athletes-men and women who have throughout this century worked to carry on time-honored traditions even as they created new ones.

Though appropriate attention is paid to federal officials and policies, We Are Still Here centers on Indian country-on the decisions and actions of Indian individuals-in its discussion of urbanization, economic development, cultural revitalization, identity, and sovereignty.

Author Notes

Peter Iverson is Professor of History at Arizona State University and has also taught at Navajo Community College. He is the author or editor of ten books, including Indians in American History , Second Edition (edited with Frederick E. Hoxie), When Indians Became Cowboys, Carlos Mantezuma , and The Navajo Nation, Professor Iverson serves on the Advisory Council of the D'Arcy McNickle Center for American Indian History. He has held fellowships from the Newberry Library, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and has received the Carleton College Alumni Association Award for Distinguished Achievement.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

In 1890, when the Seventh Cavalry massacred 300-plus Lakota at Wounded Knee, most white Americans confidently expected American Indians to disappear or assimilate. But by the late 1920s, Iverson explains, they had not disappeared and it had become clear that they would continue to maintain their distinct cultural identities. The book's theme is how Native Americans endured in the face of pressure to assimilate, frequent (and frequently disastrous) changes in federal Indian policy, disruptive economic forces, and internal divisions. The author also emphasizes the diversity and complexity of Native American history and the difficulty of generalizing about it. He surveys all aspects of 20th-century American Indian life, including artistic, religious, economic, and political developments, and describes both Indian peoples' often creative responses to challenges and the setbacks many experienced. He concludes with an excellent bibliographical essay. Although designed primarily for use in undergraduate and graduate American history courses, this book also provides what is undoubtedly the best overview of the subject now in print. All levels. M. C. Mangusso University of Alaska Fairbanks

Table of Contents

Forewordp. V
Acknowledgmentsp. IX
Introductionp. 1
Chapter 1 "We Indians Will Be Indians All Our Lives," 1890-1920p. 10
Disappearing People?p. 13
Educationp. 19
Religionsp. 26
Landp. 30
Identitiesp. 37
World War Ip. 49
Chapter 2 Confronting Continuation, 1921-1932p. 53
Failed Policiesp. 54
Collier and the Pueblo Indiansp. 58
Rights, Opportunities, and Identityp. 62
Tourism and the Artsp. 65
Work, Community, and Governmentp. 69
Moving Toward Reformp. 74
Chapter 3 Initiatives and Impositions, 1933-1940p. 77
Cultural Considerationsp. 80
Education, Health Care, and Land Usep. 86
The Indian Reorganization Actp. 89
Alaska and Oklahomap. 98
Land Bases and Recognitionp. 99
Chapter 4 The War, Termination, and the Start of Self-Determination, 1914-1961p. 103
World War II and Its Consequencesp. 105
The NCAI, the ICC, and Legal Representationp. 113
The Termination Erap. 119
Dimensions of Terminationp. 125
Urban Migration and Relocationp. 132
Toward Self-Determinationp. 135
Chapter 5 The Struggles for Sovereignty, 1962-1980p. 139
Restorationp. 142
Fishing Rights and the Growth of Activismp. 146
Lands and Recognitionp. 155
Education and Economiesp. 159
Rights and Restrictionsp. 169
Writers, Musicians, and Artistsp. 171
Chapter 6 "We Are All Indians," 1981-1997p. 175
Contemporary Identityp. 176
New Voices, New Imagesp. 182
Museums and Repatriationp. 187
Gamingp. 190
Communitiesp. 196
Tribal Membership and Indian Rightsp. 198
Economies and Educationp. 203
"We Are Still Here"p. 205
Epilogue: The Memorial Ridep. 210
Appendix: American Indian Communitiesp. 212
Bibliographical Essayp. 225
Indexp. 228
Map: State and Federally Recognized Reservation 8-9