Cover image for The complete idiot's guide to lost civilizations
Title:
The complete idiot's guide to lost civilizations
Author:
Ryan, Donald P.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
New York : Alpha Books, [1999]

©1999
Physical Description:
xviii, 350 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780028629544
Format :
Book

Available:*

Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library CC165 .R93 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Kenmore Library CC165 .R93 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
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Anna M. Reinstein Library CC165 .R93 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
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Audubon Library CC165 .R93 1999 Adult Non-Fiction Open Shelf
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Summary

Summary

Separating fact from fiction, this work shows the reader where to find the civilizations that have vanished or exist with only slight clues left among ruins. As well as stories of lost civilizations, it presents news on the latest and most exciting archaeological finds.


Author Notes

Donald P. Ryan, Ph.D., is an archaeologist and faculty fellow at Pacific Lutheran University. He is best known for his research in Egypt, most notably in the Valley of the Kings. Dr. Ryan's many discoveries include the finding of lost tombs and controversial mummies. He is the author of many scientific and popular articles on archaeological subjects, and has been featured in several television documentaries. Dr. Ryan lives in Tacoma, Washington.


Table of Contents

Part 1 Tools for Discovering the Pastp. 1
1 Archaeology: Establishing a Foundationp. 3
Archaeology and Yesterday's Garbagep. 3
Archaeology: What It Ain'tp. 5
Speaking of Hollywoodp. 5
It's About Timep. 7
Apocalypse When?p. 7
More Confusing Calendricsp. 8
Time Terms to Reckon Withp. 8
How Long Ago?p. 9
Round About Thenp. 9
History Before Historyp. 10
Two Questions for the Professorp. 10
The Secret of Lifep. 11
Lessons of Historyp. 11
2 Looking Backp. 13
The Old Digging Up the Oldp. 13
Who Invented History?p. 14
Modern Archaeology: The View from the Westp. 15
The Bible Tells Me Sop. 15
Antiquarians and Collectorsp. 17
Free-for-All!p. 17
Order Descendsp. 19
Three Agesp. 20
New Views of an Old Earthp. 20
Digging Correctlyp. 21
Into the Twentieth Centuryp. 22
3 The Search Is Onp. 25
What's a Site?p. 25
Taking a Lookp. 26
Up in the Air: Aerial Photographyp. 26
Under the Ground: Remote Sensingp. 27
Taking a Samplep. 27
Random Samplingp. 27
Non-random Samplingp. 28
Let's Look at a Sitep. 28
The Archaeological Record: What Survivesp. 29
The Destructive Art of Diggingp. 30
Everything in Its Placep. 30
Don't Hurt Me!p. 32
It's Expedition Time!p. 32
Making Plansp. 32
Getting Permitsp. 33
Assembling a Teamp. 34
Paying the Billsp. 35
4 The Lowdown on Datingp. 37
Relative Dating: Nothing to Do with Your First Cousinp. 37
Stratigraphy: Stack 'Em Up!p. 38
Watch Out for Wormsp. 38
Who's in My Bed?p. 39
Stylin'p. 40
You're My Typep. 40
Style and Substancep. 41
Bones and Black Stonesp. 41
Absolute Dating: That's Commitmentp. 42
Dendrochronology: Tree Ring Datingp. 42
Radiocarbon Datingp. 44
More Radiation, Please!p. 47
Light and Magnetismp. 47
Part 2 Sifting Through the Evidencep. 49
5 Tales from the Earthp. 51
Let's Talk Dirtp. 51
How Does Your Garden Grow?p. 52
Sticks, Leaves, and Seedsp. 53
Pollen Is My Palp. 54
Bug Storyp. 54
Bone Jour!p. 54
Harvesing Informationp. 56
Fish That Talkp. 57
Artistic Cluesp. 57
Clues from Dungp. 58
A World of Changep. 58
Where'd They Go?p. 58
Adios to the Mammothp. 59
6 Voices from the Gravep. 61
That Which Remainsp. 61
Young or Old?p. 62
Boy or Girl?p. 64
Tall or Small?p. 65
The Race Is Onp. 65
It Was a Tough Lifep. 65
Untimely Endsp. 66
Radical Surgeryp. 67
Beautiful Bonesp. 67
DNA: Unzipping Your Genesp. 67
Who are You?p. 67
On Your Mom's Sidep. 68
Mummies and Grand-mummiesp. 69
Faces of the Pastp. 70
7 Artifacts with Tales to Tellp. 71
What's an Artifact?p. 71
Stone Faces: Lithicsp. 72
Knapping the Flintp. 73
What Was It Good For?p. 73
Pots: Making 'Em and Breaking 'Emp. 74
Sorting It Outp. 75
Tracing the Sourcep. 76
Metallicap. 76
Rope Storyp. 77
Trade: Swapping Goods from Near and Farp. 78
Experimental Archaeologyp. 78
Moving the Big Stonesp. 78
Seeing if It Will Floatp. 79
Back on the Farmp. 80
Not for the Queasyp. 80
8 Some Like It Wetp. 83
Archaeology Underwaterp. 83
Searching the Depthsp. 84
Hazards and Limitations: The Bad Newsp. 85
The Good Newsp. 86
Your Technique Is All Wetp. 86
Finding Underwater Sitesp. 87
Treasure Hunting vs. Archaeologyp. 88
Some Wrecks of Famep. 90
Ulu Burun--Making the Rounds in the Mediterraneanp. 90
Lake Nemi--Caligula's Party Barges?p. 91
The Vasa--Barely Out of the Harborp. 92
Titanic--So Famous They Made Movies About Itp. 92
Sunken Citiesp. 93
Port Royal: Shakin' at the Seashorep. 93
Alexandria: Sphinxes in the Harborp. 94
Part 3 Cardles of Civilizationp. 95
9 Questions on the Road to Civilizationp. 97
Out of Africap. 97
Wise Guysp. 98
Meet the Flintstonesp. 99
Settling Downp. 100
Cereal in My Bowlp. 100
Taming the Beastp. 101
Life in the New Stone Agep. 101
Catal Huyuk: Urban Legendp. 102
Why a Revolution?p. 102
Let's Get Urbanp. 102
Mean Theories from the Privileged Fewp. 103
But Seriously, Folksp. 104
10 The Mud-Brick Civilizations of Mesopotamiap. 107
Land Between the Riversp. 107
Who Was Whop. 108
Palaces of Mudp. 109
The Sumerians: Creative Typesp. 109
Writing It Downp. 110
Love Those Wedgies!p. 110
Deciphering Cuneiformp. 111
Life in Ancient Sumerp. 112
Land of Zigguratsp. 112
The Death Pits of Urp. 113
From Akkad to Babylonp. 113
The Assyrians: Bad Boys of Mesopotamiap. 114
The War Machinep. 115
Digging Up the Assyriansp. 115
The New Babyloniansp. 116
Nebuchadrezzar, of Biblical Famep. 116
The Hanging Gardensp. 117
11 Land of the Pharaohsp. 119
Egypt: The Gift of the Nilep. 119
Ancient Historyp. 121
The Age of the Pyramidsp. 121
Shifting Sandsp. 121
Napoleon and the Birth of Egyptologyp. 122
Deciphering the Hieroglyphsp. 123
Glyph by Glyphp. 123
The Pyramids: Making Mountains for Their Majestiesp. 124
Public Worksp. 125
A Big Wooden Surprisep. 126
The Valley of the Kingsp. 126
King Tut's Tomb--One in a Millionp. 127
The Working Classp. 127
Places of Worshipp. 128
Karnakp. 129
The Drowning Temples of Abu Simbelp. 129
Archaeology Todayp. 130
12 Digging Up the Biblep. 131
What Is Biblical Archaeology?p. 132
The Books of the Biblep. 132
Define Your Territoryp. 133
The Land of the Biblep. 134
A History of Biblical Proportionsp. 135
The Twelve Tribesp. 135
Babylon and Backp. 135
Romans Rulep. 135
Tell Me an Old, Old Storyp. 136
The Walls of Jerichop. 137
The Siege of Lachishp. 137
Looking for Mosesp. 138
The Egyptian Connectionp. 138
The Exodusp. 139
Searching for Milk and Honeyp. 139
The Dead Sea Scrolls Come Alivep. 140
Essenes and Other Theoriesp. 140
Studying the Scrollsp. 141
Masada and the Hilltop Defendersp. 141
Raiders of the Lost Arksp. 142
Noah's Arkp. 143
The Ark of the Covenantp. 143
Where Jesus Walkedp. 144
13 A Near Eastern Grab-Bagp. 147
Ugaritic, Anyone?p. 147
Don't Mess with the Hittitesp. 148
Meet the Philistines!p. 148
The Phoenicians: Traders Extraordinairep. 149
Alphabetically Speakingp. 150
Early Explorersp. 151
Those Well-Spoken Arameansp. 151
Empire-Building with the Persiansp. 151
Troubles with the Greeksp. 152
Empire Maintenancep. 152
Yet Another Wonderp. 153
The Nabateans and the Lost City of Petrap. 153
Ubar: A Lost City Foundp. 155
Part 4: The Old Worldp. 157
14 Europe Before There Were Airportsp. 159
Europe in the Ice Agep. 159
Europe Through the Agesp. 160
The Tribes of Europep. 160
Cavemen Drawp. 161
Otzi the iceman: Feeling No Painp. 163
Stonehenge: Circle in Stonep. 163
Circles Within Circlesp. 164
More Megalithsp. 165
Roll Out the Barrowsp. 165
Ruins of Runesp. 166
Permanent Dry Dockp. 167
Sutton Hoo--Ghost Ship in the Sandp. 167
Viking Boat Burialsp. 168
Bog Bodiesp. 169
15 Those Classy, Classic Greeksp. 171
The Land of the Greeksp. 171
History Fast and Furiousp. 173
Homer and the Search for Troyp. 173
Schliemann Finds Goldp. 174
Myth and Realityp. 175
The Myceneansp. 175
The Minoansp. 176
Land of the Minotaurp. 176
Let's Get Linearp. 178
The End of an Erap. 178
The Classical Lifep. 179
A Tale of Two Citiesp. 179
War and Peacep. 180
The Tomb of Phillip II?p. 181
Alexander the Great Spreads the Wordp. 181
A World-Class Tragedy: The Library of Alexandriap. 182
The Seven Wondersp. 183
16 The Romans: Conquering the World for Fun and Profitp. 185
Geography and History in a Nutshellp. 185
The Mysterious Etruscansp. 186
Trojans and Wolf-Babiesp. 187
They've Been Hellenized!p. 187
The First Republicansp. 188
The Senate and the Roman Peoplep. 188
Good Idea Gone Badp. 188
Building the Empire: Romans, Romans Everywhere!p. 189
Elephants over the Alpsp. 189
Conquering the Greeksp. 189
Heading Northp. 190
Running the Empire: All Roads Led to Romep. 190
Feats in Concretep. 190
Life and Death: Vesuvius Eruptsp. 191
Those Wacky Roman Emperors!p. 192
The Five Good Emperorsp. 192
Constantine Cleans Housep. 194
The Sporting Lifep. 194
The Fall of the Roman Empirep. 195
What's in Store for Us?p. 196
17 Africa: Where They Say It All Beganp. 197
The African Connectionp. 198
Early Explorersp. 198
The Europeans Arrivep. 199
The Hunt for Early Humansp. 199
Hadar, Ethiopiap. 200
Olduvai Gorgep. 201
Footprints in the Ashp. 201
The Sahara Never Looked So Goodp. 202
Nubia: Egypt's Southern Neighborp. 203
The Land of the Bowp. 203
Pyramids and Hieroglyphsp. 204
The Sturdy Stele of Axump. 204
Great Zimbabwep. 205
Kingdoms of Goldp. 206
Pyramids in the Atlanticp. 207
Black Athenap. 207
18 Big Things Going On in Asiap. 211
The Indus Valley: Civilization on the Flood Plainp. 211
Harappan Civilizationp. 212
World-Class Tradersp. 213
An Ancient Mysteryp. 213
Welcome to Chinap. 214
Real Cave Menp. 215
The Early Dynastiesp. 215
The Qin Dynastyp. 216
The Dead March Onp. 216
As Seen from Outer Space: The Great Wallp. 217
The Han Dynastyp. 218
Opening the Imperial Tombsp. 218
Writing It Downp. 219
White Folks in the Desertp. 220
It's Cold Up Therep. 220
"Lost" Cities in the Junglep. 220
Part 5: The New Worldp. 223
19 Archaeology in Paradise: The South Pacificp. 225
The Great Oceanp. 225
The Polynesiansp. 226
Island Bountyp. 227
Canoes and Kingsp. 227
The Europeans Venture Outp. 227
The Original Polynesiansp. 228
Let's Start Digging!p. 228
You Will Know Them by Their Potsp. 229
American Indians in the Pacific?p. 230
Hey, Sailorp. 231
Sailing Like They Used Top. 231
Island of the Big Headsp. 231
The Headsp. 232
Moving the Moaip. 233
Say It in Rongo-Rongop. 234
Who Were The Islanders?p. 234
What Happened to the Rapa Nui People?p. 235
Environmental Issuesp. 235
War and Europeansp. 235
20 The Ancient Cultural Mosaic of North Americap. 237
Peopling the New World: Fellow That Mammouthp. 237
The Earliest Immigrantsp. 238
The Age Barrierp. 238
Who Were You?p. 239
An Odd Skeletonp. 240
Family Squabblesp. 240
Spreading Out on the Great Plainsp. 240
The mound Builders Pile It Upp. 241
Cahokia: Meet Me Near St. Louisp. 242
Confused Europeans Explain the Nativesp. 243
Making a Living in the Desertp. 243
The Mogollon: Farmers and Artisansp. 244
The Hohokom: Making the Desert Bloomp. 244
The Anasazi: Real Cliff Hangersp. 244
Living in Style in the Pacific Northwestp. 246
Ozette: There Goes the Neighborhood!p. 246
Where'd They Go?p. 247
21 Viva Mexico!p. 249
Civilizations Built on Maizep. 249
The Olmecs: Stories in Stonep. 251
Giant Headsp. 251
Baby Facesp. 252
The Maya: Highly Culturedp. 253
Tikal My Fancyp. 253
The Pyramids of Palenquep. 254
The End of an Erap. 254
Rediscovering the Mayap. 254
Lost Cities in the Junglep. 255
Deciphering the Glyphsp. 256
Teotihuacan, Tula, and Toltecsp. 256
They Came from Atzlanp. 257
The Aztec Empirep. 257
The Spaniards Shut Things Downp. 258
Aftermathp. 259
22 South America: Antiquities in the Andesp. 261
The Early Daysp. 262
Adapting to Agriculturep. 263
Early Birdsp. 263
The Chavin Stylep. 263
The Artistic Mochep. 264
The Lords of Sipanp. 264
Destroyed by El Nino?p. 265
Chan Chan and the Chimusp. 265
The Nazca and Their Linesp. 266
Alien Runwaysp. 266
Going Sailingp. 267
Highland Lifep. 267
Here Come the Incas!p. 267
All Roads Lead to Cuzcop. 268
There Go the Incas!p. 268
The Lost City of Machu Picchup. 269
Part 6 Controversial Issuesp. 271
23 We need to Talkp. 273
Who Owns the Past?p. 274
One Man's Trashp. 274
Bring It on Homep. 275
Grave Robbers?p. 275
Bones of Contentionp. 276
Digging Up Grannyp. 276
National Treasure or World Heritage?p. 277
A Little Something for Me?p. 277
Finding the Greater Goodp. 278
How Old Is Old?p. 278
Phony Baloney!p. 278
The Monkey Manp. 279
Stone Cold Giantp. 279
Dr. Beringer's Fossilsp. 279
It Sounded Good When I Read It!p. 280
A Bad Scam Gone Worsep. 280
Real, Fake, Realp. 281
Sorting It Outp. 281
Saving the Pastp. 282
The Past Meets the Presentp. 282
Faking It in a Good Causep. 283
An International Interestp. 283
24 Lost Continents and Ancient Astronautsp. 285
"Way Down, Beneath the Ocean"p. 286
Blame It on Platop. 286
It's Over Here, It's Over Therep. 286
The Real Atlantis?p. 287
Turn Back Timep. 287
Making Sense of It Allp. 288
The Atlanteans Speak Upp. 288
Edgar Cayce Tells It Like It Wasp. 288
Words of the Wise Warrior?p. 289
Lemuria: Monkey-faced Ancestors of the Atlanteansp. 289
They Came from Outer Spacep. 290
Who's Driving the Chariot?p. 290
Extraterrestrial Archaeologyp. 291
Egypt: A Veritable Magnet for Odd Theoriesp. 292
Pyramid Powerp. 292
The Sphinx-Peoplep. 293
The Mummy's Cursep. 293
Fulfilling a Needp. 294
Dealing with This Funny Businessp. 295
An Open Mindp. 295
25 You Mean Columbus Wasn't Here First?p. 297
The Taboo Topicp. 297
The Diffusion Conspiracyp. 298
Outside Influencesp. 298
The Oceans: Scary Waters of Doom or Super-Highway?p. 299
The Terrifying Atlanticp. 299
The Impenetrable Pacificp. 299
Diffusion or Isolation?p. 300
Finding the Old World in the Newp. 300
African Olmecsp. 301
Tales of Bearded Godsp. 301
Show Me Some Proof!p. 301
Setting Standardsp. 302
Bird Toes and Sweet Potatoesp. 302
Viking in Americap. 303
The Kensington Rune Stonep. 303
Controversial Claimsp. 304
Inscriptions Everywhere!p. 305
The Strange Case of the Bat Creek Stonep. 306
A Meeting of Minds?p. 307
What's It Going to Take?p. 307
26 The Real Dirt on Archaeologyp. 309
So You Want to Be an Archaeologist?p. 309
The Temple of Gloomp. 309
Nice Work If You Can Get Itp. 310
Professing: Passing the Torchp. 311
Getting the Basicsp. 311
Grad Schoolp. 311
Get a Jobp. 312
On the Tenure Trackp. 312
Community Workp. 313
Museums: Minding the Warehousep. 313
Preceding the Bulldozersp. 314
Cultural Resource Managementp. 314
Salvage Archaeologyp. 314
Getting a Piece of the Action Anywayp. 316
Volunteering Your Servicesp. 316
Have Some Funp. 317
See You Laterp. 318
Appendices
A Technical Talkp. 321
B Exploring on Your Own: A Select Bibliographyp. 327
C Resources for Further Explorationp. 333
Indexp. 341

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