Cover image for Research in psychology : methods and design
Title:
Research in psychology : methods and design
Author:
Goodwin, C. James.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Second edition.
Publication Information:
New York : J. Wiley, [1998]

©1998
Physical Description:
xxi, 528 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780471199861
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
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Status
Central Library BF76.5 .G64 1998 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

This is an experimental psychology text focusing on experimental methodology and the scientific way of thinking. Provides comprehensive information on current research methods, yet remains readable and engaging. Specifically, topics include data handling, idea generation, experimentation, and research design and methods. Updated to include new sections on estimating subject needs, and survey information on the use of animals in research.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Scientific Thinking in Psychologyp. 1
Why Take This Course?p. 3
Ways of Knowingp. 5
Tenacityp. 6
Authorityp. 6
Discourse and Logicp. 7
Experiencep. 7
The Ways of Knowing and Sciencep. 8
Attributes of Scientific Thinking in Psychologyp. 9
Determinismp. 9
Objectivityp. 10
Data-Drivenp. 11
Empirical Questionp. 13
Psychological Science and Pseudosciencep. 14
Recognizing Pseudosciencep. 15
Associates with True Sciencep. 16
Relies on Anecdotal Evidencep. 20
Sidesteps Disproofp. 20
Reduces Complexity to Simplicityp. 21
The Goals of Research in Psychologyp. 21
Describing Behaviorp. 22
Predicting Behaviorp. 22
Explaining Behaviorp. 22
Controlling Behaviorp. 23
A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part I)p. 23
Eleanor Gibsonp. 24
B. F. Skinnerp. 26
Chapter 2 Ethics in Psychological Researchp. 31
Developing the APA Code of Ethicsp. 32
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humansp. 37
Planning the Studyp. 37
Ensuring That Participants Are Volunteersp. 40
Treating Participants Wellp. 46
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animalsp. 50
The Issue of Animal Rightsp. 50
Using Animals in Psychological Researchp. 53
The APA Code for Animal Researchp. 55
Caring for the Animalsp. 55
Justifying the Studyp. 55
Using Animals for Educational Purposesp. 56
Scientific Fraudp. 56
Data Falsificationp. 57
Chapter 3 Developing Ideas for Research in Psychologyp. 63
Varieties of Psychological Researchp. 65
Basic versus Applied Researchp. 65
The Setting: Laboratory versus Field Researchp. 67
Asking Empirical Questionsp. 69
Operational Definitionsp. 71
Developing Research from Observations of Behavior and Serendipityp. 72
Developing Research from Theoryp. 75
The Nature of Theoryp. 75
The Relationship between Theory and Datap. 78
Attributes of Good Theoriesp. 80
Falsificationp. 80
Parsimonyp. 84
Developing Research from Other Researchp. 84
Research Teams and the "What's Next?" Questionp. 85
Replication and Extensionp. 86
Creative Thinking in Sciencep. 87
Reviewing the Literaturep. 90
Computerized Database Searchesp. 90
Search Tipsp. 92
Chapter 4 Measurement, Sampling, and Data Analysisp. 99
What to Measure--Varieties of Behaviorp. 100
Developing Measures from Constructsp. 101
Evaluating Measuresp. 106
Reliabilityp. 107
Validityp. 108
Reliability and Validityp. 110
Scales of Measurementp. 111
Nominal Scalesp. 111
Ordinal Scalesp. 112
Interval Scalesp. 113
Ratio Scalesp. 115
Who to Measure--Samplingp. 116
Probability Samplingp. 116
Random Samplingp. 117
Stratified Samplingp. 119
Cluster Samplingp. 119
Non-probability Samplingp. 120
Convenience Samplingp. 120
Statistical Analysisp. 121
Descriptive and Inferential Statisticsp. 122
Descriptive Statisticsp. 122
Inferential Statisticsp. 128
Hypothesis Testingp. 130
Type I and Type II Errorsp. 132
Inferential Analysisp. 133
Power and Effect Sizep. 134
Chapter 5 Introduction to Experimental Researchp. 139
Essential Features of Experimental Researchp. 141
Establishing Independent Variablesp. 141
Varieties of Independent Variablesp. 142
Control Groupsp. 142
Controlling Extraneous Variablesp. 143
Measuring Dependent Variablesp. 145
Manipulated versus Subject Variablesp. 145
Drawing Conclusions When Using Subject Variablesp. 147
The Validity of Experimental Researchp. 151
Statistical Conclusion Validityp. 151
Construct Validityp. 152
External Validityp. 152
Other Populationsp. 152
Other Environmentsp. 153
Other Timesp. 156
Internal Validityp. 156
Threats to Internal Validityp. 157
Pre-post Studiesp. 157
History and Maturationp. 158
Regressionp. 158
Testing and Instrumentationp. 160
Evaluating Pretests--The Solomon Designp. 161
Subject Problemsp. 161
Subject Selection Effectsp. 162
Attritionp. 162
Chapter 6 Control Problems in Experimental Researchp. 169
Between-Subjects Designsp. 171
The Problem of Creating Equivalent Groupsp. 172
Random Assignmentp. 172
Matchingp. 174
Within-Subjects Designsp. 178
The Problem of Controlling Sequence Effectsp. 181
Testing Once per Conditionp. 182
Complete Counterbalancingp. 182
Partial Counterbalancingp. 183
Testing More Than Once per Conditionp. 183
Reverse Counterbalancingp. 185
Block Randomizationp. 186
Problems with Counterbalancingp. 187
Control Problems in Developmental Researchp. 189
Problems with Biasingp. 192
Experimenter Biasp. 192
Controlling for Experimenter Biasp. 194
Participant Biasp. 195
Controlling for Participant Biasp. 198
Chapter 7 Experimental Design I: Single-Factor Designsp. 205
Single Factor--Two Levelsp. 207
Between-Subjects, Single-Factor Designsp. 208
Within-Subjects, Single-Factor Designsp. 211
Analyzing Single-Factor, Two-Level Designsp. 215
Control Group Designsp. 216
Placebo Control Groupsp. 216
Waiting List Control Groupsp. 217
Yoked Control Groupsp. 217
Single Factor--More Than Two Levelsp. 221
Between-Subjects, Multilevel Designsp. 221
Within-Subjects, Multilevel Designsp. 226
Presenting the Datap. 227
Types of Graphsp. 229
Analyzing Single-Factor, Multilevel Designsp. 231
Chapter 8 Experimental Design II: Factorial Designsp. 237
Factorial Essentialsp. 238
Identifying Factorial Designsp. 238
Outcomes--Main Effects and Interactionsp. 241
Main Effectsp. 241
Interactionsp. 245
Combinations of Main Effects and Interactionsp. 248
Varieties of Factorialsp. 252
Mixed Factorial Designsp. 253
Factorials with Subject Variables: P X E Designsp. 256
Recruiting Participants for Factorial Designsp. 260
Analyzing Factorial Designsp. 260
Chapter 9 Correlational Researchp. 269
Psychology's Two Disciplinesp. 271
Correlation and Regression--The Basicsp. 273
Positive and Negative Correlationsp. 274
Scatterplotsp. 275
Assuming Linearityp. 275
Restricting the Rangep. 278
Regression Analysis--Making Predictionsp. 279
Interpreting Correlationsp. 281
Correlations and Causalityp. 282
Directionalityp. 282
Third Variablesp. 284
Structural Modelingp. 286
Caution: Correlational Statistics versus Correlational Researchp. 287
Using Correlationsp. 288
The Need for Correlational Researchp. 288
Varieties of Correlational Researchp. 289
Multivariate Analysisp. 295
Multiple Regressionp. 295
Factor Analysisp. 296
Chapter 10 Quasi-Experimental Designs and Applied Researchp. 303
Beyond the Laboratoryp. 305
Applied Psychology in Historical Contextp. 307
Design Problems in Applied Researchp. 308
Quasi-Experimental Designsp. 311
Nonequivalent Control Group Designsp. 311
Outcomesp. 312
Regression and Matchingp. 314
Interrupted Time Series Designsp. 318
Outcomesp. 319
Program Evaluationp. 323
Planning for Programsp. 326
Monitoring Programsp. 328
Evaluating Outcomesp. 328
Weighing Costsp. 330
Chapter 11 Small N Designsp. 337
Research in Psychology Began with Small Np. 339
Reasons for Small N Designsp. 344
Misleading Results from Grouped Datap. 344
Practical Problems with Large N Designsp. 346
The Experimental Analysis of Behaviorp. 347
Operant Conditioningp. 347
Applied Behavior Analysisp. 352
Small N Designs in Applied Behavioral Researchp. 355
Elements of Single-Subject Designsp. 355
Withdrawal Designsp. 356
Multiple Baseline Designsp. 358
Alternating Treatments Designsp. 361
Other Designsp. 364
Evaluating Single-Subject Designsp. 364
Psychophysicsp. 367
Thresholdsp. 367
Methods of Psychophysicsp. 367
Psychophysics and Small Np. 368
Chapter 12 Descriptive Research Methodsp. 373
Observational Researchp. 375
Varieties of Observational Researchp. 375
Naturalistic Observationp. 375
Participant Observationp. 376
Evaluating Observational Methodsp. 378
Absence of Controlp. 378
Observer Biasp. 379
Subject Reactivityp. 380
Ethicsp. 381
Survey Researchp. 384
Varieties of Survey Methodsp. 385
Interviewsp. 385
Written Surveysp. 386
Phone Surveyingp. 387
Evaluating Survey Researchp. 388
Case Studiesp. 393
Evaluating Case Studiesp. 395
Archival Researchp. 397
Varieties of Archival Researchp. 397
Evaluating Archival Researchp. 400
Epiloguep. 405
A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part II)p. 405
Robert Sternbergp. 405
Elizabeth Loftusp. 407
Appendix A Communicating the Results of Research in Psychologyp. 409
Research Reports, APA Stylep. 409
General Guidelinesp. 410
Writing Stylep. 410
Word Processing Toolsp. 411
Reducing Bias in Languagep. 413
Academic Honestyp. 414
Miscellaneousp. 415
Main Sections of the Lab Reportp. 415
Title Pagep. 417
The Manuscript Page Header/Page Numberp. 417
Running Headp. 417
Title/Author/Affiliationp. 417
Abstractp. 418
Introductionp. 419
APA Citation Formatp. 419
Methodp. 420
Resultsp. 420
Reporting the Data: Statisticsp. 421
Portraying the Data: Tables and Figuresp. 421
Discussionp. 422
Referencesp. 423
Presentations and Postersp. 423
A Sample Research Reportp. 425
Appendix B Developing Surveys for Research in Psychologyp. 441
Survey Research--General Planning Guidelinesp. 441
Survey Constructionp. 442
Attitudesp. 443
Knowledge and Memoryp. 445
Demographic Informationp. 446
Miscellaneous Tipsp. 447
Appendix C Using Statisticsp. 449
Making Intelligent Use of Statisticsp. 450
Assessing Relationshipsp. 450
Example 1. Pearson's rp. 450
Example 2. Regression Analysisp. 452
Assessing Differencesp. 453
Example 3. X[superscript 2]--Goodness of Fitp. 453
Example 4. X[superscript 2]--Two Samplesp. 455
Example 5. Mann-Whitney U Testp. 457
Example 6. t Test--Independent Groupsp. 459
Example 7. t Test--Dependent Groupsp. 461
Example 8. 1-Way ANOVA--Independent Groupsp. 463
Example 9. 1-Way ANOVA--Repeated Measuresp. 466
Example 10. 2-Way ANOVA--Independent Groupsp. 469
Appendix D Statistical Tablesp. 475
Table D.1. Random Numbersp. 476
Table D.2. Critical Values for Pearson's rp. 478
Table D.3. Critical Values for Chi-Square (X[superscript 2])p. 478
Table D.4. Critical Values for the Mann-Whitney U Testp. 479
Table D.5. Critical Values from the t Distributionp. 481
Table D.6. Critical Values from the F Distributionp. 482
Appendix E Answers to Student Review Questionsp. 487
Glossaryp. 493
Referencesp. 503
Name Indexp. 515
Subject Indexp. 519
Photo Creditsp. 523
Text and Illustration Creditsp. 525

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