Cover image for Nursing diagnosis : application to clinical practice
Nursing diagnosis : application to clinical practice
Carpenito, Lynda Juall.
Eighth edition.
Publication Information:
Philadelphia : Lippincott, [2000]

Physical Description:
xxii, 1226 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Subject Term:
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
RT48.6 .C386 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

On Order



Students and nurses alike will treasure this usable, useful guide Cli nically oriented, this comprehensive reference addresses nursing diagn oses and their use within the nursing process. Focus is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of client situations that can be treated indep endently; and differentiates nursing diagnoses from other clinical pro blems. A special section defines and examines collaborative problems a nd covers situations where treatment is coordinated by both nurse and physician. The text also offers guidelines on: assessment data and res ulting nursing diagnoses; tailoring diagnoses for special cases; diffe rentiating nursing diagnoses from medical diagnoses and other problems; intervention after formulation of a nursing diagnosis; developing ca re plans; controversies surrounding nursing diagnosis; and nursing dia gnosis and critical pathways. Special features: Authors Notes; Key Co ncepts & Interventions (grouped according to specific populations); Er rors in Diagnostic Statements; and much more.

Table of Contents

Section 1 Nursing Diagnosis in the Nursing Processp. 1
Introductionp. 3
1 Development of Nursing Diagnosisp. 4
Nursing Diagnosis: Definedp. 4
Nursing Diagnosis: Process or Outcome?p. 5
The North American Nursing Diagnosis Associationp. 5
NANDA Taxonomyp. 6
Summaryp. 7
2 Types and Components of Nursing Diagnosesp. 8
Actual Nursing Diagnosesp. 8
Risk and High-Risk Nursing Diagnosesp. 10
Possible Nursing Diagnosesp. 11
Wellness Nursing Diagnosesp. 12
Syndrome Nursing Diagnosesp. 13
Non-NANDA-Approved Diagnosesp. 14
Diagnostic Statementsp. 14
Summaryp. 16
3 Nursing Diagnosis: What It Is, What It Is Notp. 17
Understanding Collaborative Problemsp. 19
Collaborative Problem Diagnostic Statementsp. 19
Differentiating Nursing Diagnoses From Collaborative Problemsp. 20
Summaryp. 24
4 Nursing Diagnoses: Assessment and Diagnosisp. 26
Assessmentp. 26
Diagnosisp. 35
Summaryp. 37
5 Planning Care With Nursing Diagnosisp. 38
Are Care Plans Necessary?p. 38
The Care Planning Processp. 38
Planningp. 38
Implementationp. 46
Evaluationp. 46
Multidisciplinary Care Planningp. 49
Care Planning Systemsp. 50
Case Study Applications of Care Planningp. 57
6 Nursing Diagnoses: Issues and Controversiesp. 68
Why Can't We Just Use the Words We've Always Used?p. 68
Other Disciplines Will Not Understand Our Diagnosesp. 69
Clients Will Not Understand Our Diagnosesp. 70
Nurse Practitioners, Nurse Anesthetists, and Nurse Midwives Do Not Need Nursing Diagnosesp. 71
Nursing Diagnoses Are Not Culturally Sensitivep. 72
Nursing Diagnosis Is Unethicalp. 73
Nursing Diagnoses Can Violate Confidentialityp. 73
Summaryp. 75
Section 2 Manual of Nursing Diagnosesp. 77
Introductionp. 78
Activity Intolerancep. 80
Related to Insufficient Knowledge of Adaptive Techniques Needed Secondary to COPDp. 86
Related to Insufficient Knowledge of Adaptive Techniques Needed Secondary to Impaired Cardiac Functionp. 89
Related to Bed Rest Deconditioningp. 92
Decreased Intracranial Adaptive Capacityp. 95
Impaired Adjustmentp. 96
Anxietyp. 97
Related to Insufficient Knowledge of Preoperative Routines, Postoperative Exercises/Activities, Postoperative Alternations/Sensationsp. 106
Death Anxietyp. 109
Risk for Imbalanced Body Temperaturep. 111
Hyperthermiap. 115
Hypothermiap. 117
Ineffective Thermoregulationp. 120
Related to Newborn Transition to Extrauterine Environmentp. 121
Bowel Incontinencep. 123
Effective Breast-feedingp. 126
Ineffective Breast-feedingp. 127
Interrupted Breast-feedingp. 133
Decreased Cardiac Outputp. 134
Caregiver Role Strainp. 136
Risk for Caregiver Role Strainp. 143
Impaired Comfortp. 146
Acute Painp. 153
Chronic Painp. 165
Nauseap. 169
Impaired Communicationp. 172
Related to Effects of Hearing Lossp. 179
Related to Effects of Aphasia on Expression or Interpretationp. 181
Related to Foreign Language Barrierp. 183
Impaired Verbal Communicationp. 185
Confusionp. 187
Acute Confusionp. 188
Chronic Confusionp. 196
Constipationp. 202
Related to Effects of Immobility on Peristalsisp. 210
Perceived Constipationp. 211
Ineffective Copingp. 213
Defensive Copingp. 223
Ineffective Denialp. 226
Related to Impaired Ability to Accept Consequences of Own Behavior as Evidenced by Lack of Acknowledgment of Substance Abuse/Dependencyp. 229
Disabled Family Copingp. 233
Related to (Specify), as Evidenced by Domestic Abusep. 241
Related to (Specify), as Evidenced by Child Abuse/Neglectp. 244
Related to Multiple Stressors Associated with Elder Care: High Risk forp. 247
Compromised Family Copingp. 249
Readiness for Enhanced Family Copingp. 250
Ineffective Community Copingp. 250
Readiness for Enhanced Community Copingp. 255
Related to Availability of Community Programs to Augment (Specify)p. 258
Decisional Conflictp. 260
Diarrheap. 268
Disuse Syndromep. 272
Deficient Diversional Activityp. 280
Dysreflexiap. 286
Risk for Dysreflexiap. 290
Energy Field Disturbancep. 290
Impaired Environmental Interpretation Syndromep. 293
Family Processes, Interruptedp. 295
Related to Impact (Specify) of Ill Member on Family Systemp. 302
Family Processes, Dysfunctional: Alcoholismp. 304
Fatiguep. 309
Fearp. 316
Deficient Fluid Volumep. 324
Related to Abnormal Fluid Lossp. 330
Excess Fluid Volumep. 332
Risk for Imbalanced Fluid Volumep. 338
Grievingp. 339
Grieving, Anticipatoryp. 347
Grieving, Dysfunctionalp. 351
Growth and Development, Delayedp. 354
Development, Risk for Delayedp. 362
Growth, Risk for Disproportionatep. 363
Adult Failure to Thrivep. 363
Ineffective Health Maintenancep. 366
Related to Insufficient Knowledge of Effects of Tobacco Use and Self-Help Resources Availablep. 377
Related to Increased Food Consumption in Response to Stressors and Insufficient Energy Expenditure for Intakep. 381
Health-Seeking Behaviorsp. 385
Impaired Home Maintenancep. 391
Hopelessnessp. 396
Infant Behavior, Disorganizedp. 405
Infant Behavior, Risk for Disorganizedp. 412
Infant Behavior, Readiness for Enhanced Organizedp. 413
Infection, Risk forp. 416
Infection Transmission, Risk forp. 425
Related to Lack of Knowledge of Reducing the Risk of Transmitting the AIDS Virusp. 430
Injury, Risk forp. 432
Related to Lack of Awareness of Environmental Hazardsp. 441
Related to Lack of Awareness of Environmental Hazards Secondary to Maturational Agep. 446
Related to Vertigo Secondary to Orthostatic Hypotensionp. 448
Risk for Aspirationp. 450
Risk for Fallsp. 454
Risk for Poisoningp. 455
Risk for Suffocationp. 456
Risk for Traumap. 456
Injury, Risk for Perioperative Positioningp. 456
Deficient Knowledgep. 461
Latex Allergy Responsep. 463
Latex Allergy Response, Risk forp. 465
Loneliness, Risk forp. 466
Therapeutic Regimen Management, Effective: Individualp. 471
Therapeutic Regimen Management, Ineffectivep. 474
Therapeutic Regimen Management, Ineffective: Familyp. 481
Therapeutic Regimen Management, Ineffective: Communityp. 482
Mobility, Impaired Physicalp. 487
Impaired Bed Mobilityp. 494
Impaired Walkingp. 495
Impaired Wheelchair Mobilityp. 496
Impaired Wheelchair Transfer Abilityp. 497
Noncompliancep. 498
Nutrition, Imbalanced: Less Than Body Requirementsp. 505
Related to Anorexia Secondary to (Specify)p. 516
Related to Difficulty or Inability to Procure Foodp. 518
Altered Dentitionp. 520
Impaired Swallowingp. 520
Ineffective Infant Feeding Patternp. 525
Nutrition, Imbalanced: More Than Body Requirementsp. 530
Nutrition, Imbalanced: Potential for More Than Body Requirementsp. 533
Parenting, Impairedp. 534
Parent-Infant Attachment, Risk for Impairedp. 539
Parental Role Conflictp. 544
Related to Effects of Illness and/or Hospitalization of a Childp. 548
Peripheral Neurovascular Dysfunction, Risk forp. 551
Post-Trauma Syndromep. 557
Post-Trauma Syndrome, Risk forp. 562
Rape Trauma Syndromep. 562
Powerlessnessp. 571
Protection, Ineffectivep. 578
Tissue Integrity, Impairedp. 579
Skin Integrity, Impairedp. 586
Related to the Effects of Pressure, Friction, Shear, Macerationp. 590
Oral Mucous Membrane, Impairedp. 592
Related to Inadequate Oral Hygiene or Inability to Perform Oral Hygiene: Risk forp. 597
Relocation Stress [Syndrome]p. 601
Related to Changes Associated with Health Care Facility Transfers or Admission to Long-Term Care Facilityp. 608
Respiratory Function, Risk for Ineffectivep. 612
Related to Allergic Responsep. 619
Dysfunctional Ventilatory Weaning Responsep. 623
Dysfunctional Ventilatory Weaning Response, Risk forp. 629
Ineffective Airway Clearancep. 632
Ineffective Breathing Patternsp. 634
Impaired Gas Exchangep. 636
Impaired Spontaneous Ventilationp. 637
Role Performance, Ineffectivep. 638
Self-Care Deficit Syndromep. 639
Feeding Self-Care Deficitp. 645
Bathing/Hygiene Self-Care Deficitp. 647
Dressing/Grooming Self-Care Deficitp. 649
Toileting Self-Care Deficitp. 652
Instrumental Self-Care Deficitp. 654
Self-Concept, Disturbedp. 657
Body Image, Disturbedp. 666
Personal Identity, Disturbedp. 671
Self-Esteem, Disturbedp. 671
Chronic Low Self-Esteemp. 673
Situational Low Self-Esteemp. 676
Situational Low Self-Esteem, Risk forp. 679
Risk for Self-Harmp. 680
Risk for Self-Abusep. 692
Self-Mutilationp. 693
Risk for Self-Mutilationp. 694
Risk for Suicidep. 695
Disturbed Sensory Perceptionp. 700
Sexuality Patterns, Ineffectivep. 706
Related to Prenatal and Postpartum Changesp. 717
Related to Fear of Pregnancy and/or Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Risk forp. 721
Sexual Dysfunctionp. 722
Disturbed Sleep Patternp. 723
Sleep Deprivationp. 730
Social Interaction, Impairedp. 731
Social Isolationp. 739
Sorrow, Chronicp. 740
Spiritual Distressp. 743
Related to Conflict Between Religious or Spiritual Beliefs and Prescribed Health Regimenp. 755
Related to (Specify), as Evidenced by Inability to Practice Spiritual Ritualsp. 757
Spiritual Distress, Risk forp. 759
Spiritual Well-Being, Readiness for Enhancedp. 760
Risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndromep. 761
Surgical Recovery, Delayedp. 763
Thought Processes, Disturbedp. 764
Memory, Impairedp. 775
Tissue Perfusion, Ineffective (Specify: Renal, Cerebral, Cardiopulmonary, Gastrointestinal)p. 779
Tissue Perfusion, Ineffective Peripheralp. 780
Unilateral Neglectp. 786
Urinary Elimination, Impairedp. 791
Maturational Enuresisp. 797
Functional Incontinencep. 800
Reflex Incontinencep. 804
Stress Incontinencep. 806
Total Incontinencep. 809
Urge Incontinencep. 812
Urinary Retentionp. 815
Violence, Risk forp. 818
Wanderingp. 827
Section 3 Manual of Collaborative Problemsp. 831
Introductionp. 833
Potential Complication: Cardiac/Vascularp. 834
PC: Decreased Cardiac Outputp. 835
PC: Dysrhythmiasp. 836
PC: Pulmonary Edemap. 838
PC: Deep Vein Thrombosisp. 839
PC: Hypovolemiap. 840
PC: Compartmental Syndromep. 842
PC: Pulmonary Embolismp. 843
Potential Complication: Respiratoryp. 846
PC: Hypoxemiap. 847
PC: Atelectasis, Pneumoniap. 848
PC: Tracheobronchial Constrictionp. 850
PC: Pneumothoraxp. 852
Potential Complication: Metabolic/Immune/Hematopoieticp. 853
PC: Hypo/Hyperglycemiap. 854
PC: Negative Nitrogen Balancep. 857
PC: Electrolyte Imbalancesp. 858
PC: Sepsisp. 865
PC: Acidosis (Metabolic, Respiratory)p. 866
PC: Alkalosis (Metabolic, Respiratory)p. 868
PC: Allergic Reactionp. 870
PC: Thrombocytopeniap. 872
PC: Opportunistic Infectionsp. 874
PC: Sickling Crisisp. 875
Potential Complication: Renal/Urinaryp. 877
PC: Acute Urinary Retentionp. 878
PC: Renal Insufficiencyp. 880
PC: Renal Calculip. 883
Potential Complication: Neurologic/Sensoryp. 885
PC: Increased Intracranial Pressurep. 886
PC: Seizuresp. 888
PC: Increased Intraocular Pressurep. 890
PC: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndromep. 891
PC: Alcohol Withdrawalp. 893
Potential Complication: Gastrointestinal/Hepatic/Biliaryp. 895
PC: Paralytic Ileusp. 896
PC: GI Bleedingp. 897
PC: Hepatic Dysfunctionp. 898
PC: Hyperbilirubinemiap. 901
Potential Complication: Muscular/Skeletalp. 903
PC: Pathologic Fracturesp. 904
PC: Joint Dislocationp. 905
Potential Complication: Reproductivep. 907
PC: Prenatal Bleedingp. 908
PC: Preterm Laborp. 909
PC: Pregnancy-Associated Hypertensionp. 911
PC: Fetal Distressp. 912
PC: Postpartum Hemorrhagep. 914
Potential Complication: Medication Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 916
PC: Anticoagulant Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 917
PC: Antianxiety Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 919
PC: Adrenocorticosteroid Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 921
PC: Antineoplastic Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 923
PC: Anticonvulsant Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 925
PC: Antidepressant Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 927
PC: Antiarrhythmic Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 929
PC: Antipsychotic Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 930
PC: Antihypertensive Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 933
PC: [beta]-Adrenergic Blocker Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 933
PC: Calcium Channel Blocker Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 935
PC: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy Adverse Effectsp. 937
Appendix A List of NIC Interventions and NOC Outcomesp. 939
Appendix B Nursing Diagnoses Grouped Under Functional Health Patternsp. 947
Appendix C Health-Promotion/Wellness Diagnosesp. 951
Bibliographyp. 955
Indexp. 985