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### Summary

### Summary

This work provides a tutorial for those who want to perform statistical quality control using the spreadsheet of choice, Excel. It provides screen dumps to help the reader, particularly those making the transition from Lotus 1-2-3, and presents real world applications.

### Author Notes

Steven M. Zimmerman is the Vice President of Research for Biomedical Quality Control of America. He is the author of over 100 articles and more than 20 books including SPC Using Lotus 1-2-3 (ASQ Quality Press, 1992). Zimmerman has also developed a wide array of software materials and spoken at nearly 150 quality and software events. He received his Ph.D. in Industrial and Management Engineering from the University of Arkansas.

Marjorie L. Icenogle is an Assistant Professor in the Management Department at the University of South Alabama. She has over ten years of experience in consulting in the areas of process design and improvement and has published over fifteen articles in several professional journals. Icenogle holds a Ph.D. from Georgia State University.

### Table of Contents

Preface | p. xvii |

Part I Starting | p. 1 |

Chapter 1 Introduction | p. 3 |

Introduction | p. 3 |

What Is Statistical Quality Control? | p. 4 |

Why Use Spreadsheets? | p. 6 |

How to Use This Text | p. 6 |

Organization and Features | p. 8 |

Summary | p. 9 |

Chapter 2 SQC and Spreadsheet Programs | p. 11 |

Introduction | p. 11 |

History of Quality Control | p. 12 |

Structure of SQC Problems | p. 12 |

Using Spreadsheet (Worksheet) Templates as Software | p. 16 |

Editing the Templates | p. 16 |

Locking Worksheet Cells for Other Users | p. 16 |

Excel Capabilities | p. 18 |

Summary | p. 18 |

Part II Fundamentals of Excel 7 for Windows 95 | p. 19 |

Chapter 3 Microsoft Excel Basics | p. 21 |

What Are Worksheet Programs? | p. 22 |

Warning | p. 23 |

Operating in the Microsoft Windows 95 Environment | p. 23 |

Understanding the Excel Operating Environment | p. 24 |

Opening, Creating, Saving, and Closing Workbooks | p. 33 |

Entering Text, Numbers, and Formulas in Excel | p. 38 |

Manipulating Worksheet Contents | p. 43 |

Using Help | p. 47 |

Summary | p. 49 |

Chapter 4 Learning More About Excel | p. 51 |

Introduction | p. 52 |

Checking Your Spelling | p. 52 |

Sorting Data | p. 52 |

Creating Charts and Graphs | p. 56 |

Formatting a Chart | p. 62 |

Creating Text Boxes | p. 66 |

Printing Worksheets and Graphs | p. 67 |

Customizing with Add-ins | p. 72 |

Importing Data from Other Sources | p. 74 |

Hypertext Capabilities | p. 78 |

Summary | p. 78 |

Part III Fundamentals of Statistical Quality Control | p. 79 |

Chapter 5 Statistical Fundamentals Using Excel | p. 81 |

Statistical Fundamentals | p. 82 |

Central Tendency | p. 82 |

Variation | p. 84 |

Shape of the Frequency Distribution | p. 86 |

Using Excel to Understand Distributions | p. 89 |

Standardized Normal Distribution | p. 90 |

Binomial Distribution (BINOMDIST) | p. 95 |

Using Excel Functions | p. 99 |

Summary | p. 100 |

Chapter 6 Talking Statistical Quality Control | p. 103 |

Introduction | p. 103 |

Specifications | p. 104 |

Inspection | p. 104 |

Acceptance Sampling | p. 104 |

Statistical Process Control | p. 106 |

Summary | p. 109 |

Chapter 7 Distributions | p. 111 |

Introduction | p. 112 |

Probability | p. 112 |

Uniform Distribution | p. 113 |

Central Limit Theorem | p. 115 |

Normal Distribution | p. 117 |

Exponential Distribution | p. 121 |

Poisson Distribution | p. 123 |

Summary | p. 124 |

Chapter 8 Selected Functions and Data Analysis Tools | p. 127 |

Introduction | p. 127 |

Excel 7 Functions | p. 128 |

Data Analysis Tools | p. 135 |

Summary | p. 141 |

Part IV Statistical Process Control | p. 143 |

Chapter 9 X and Range Control Charts | p. 145 |

What Is Statistical Process Control? | p. 146 |

Why Use X and Range Control Charts? | p. 147 |

Calculating and Creating X and Range Worksheets | p. 147 |

Graphing the X Control Chart | p. 157 |

Graphing the Range Control Chart | p. 161 |

Formatting Text | p. 163 |

Tools and Spelling | p. 164 |

Template | p. 165 |

Expanding the X and Range Control Charts | p. 165 |

Creating a Comparison Graph | p. 168 |

Using X and Range Control Charts | p. 171 |

Real Life | p. 173 |

Summary | p. 177 |

Exercises | p. 177 |

Chapter 10 X and Sigma Control Charts | p. 179 |

Why Use X and Sigma Control Charts? | p. 180 |

Calculating and Creating X and Sigma Control Worksheets | p. 181 |

Creating the X Control Chart | p. 187 |

Creating the Sigma Control Chart | p. 190 |

Support Capabilities | p. 191 |

Template | p. 191 |

Using X and Sigma Control Charts | p. 192 |

Expanding the Worksheet for Additional Observations | p. 193 |

Real Life | p. 195 |

Summary | p. 195 |

Exercises | p. 196 |

Chapter 11 p and np Control Charts | p. 199 |

Why Use p and np Control Charts? | p. 200 |

Calculating and Creating p and np Worksheets | p. 201 |

Creating the p Control Chart | p. 208 |

Template | p. 208 |

Worksheet Design Improvements | p. 208 |

Revising the Worksheet for the np Control Chart | p. 212 |

Creating the np Control Chart | p. 214 |

p Control Charts Based on Variable Lot Size | p. 215 |

Using p Control Charts | p. 218 |

Real Life | p. 220 |

Summary | p. 222 |

Exercises | p. 222 |

Chapter 12 c and u Control Charts | p. 225 |

Why Use c and u Control Charts? | p. 226 |

Poisson Distribution--Random Number | p. 227 |

c Chart Formulas | p. 227 |

Creating the c Chart Worksheet | p. 228 |

Creating the c Control Chart | p. 235 |

Changes in [lambda] (Lambda) | p. 236 |

u Chart Formulas | p. 238 |

Creating the u Chart Worksheet | p. 239 |

Real Life | p. 243 |

Summary | p. 243 |

Exercises | p. 244 |

Chapter 13 Process Capability | p. 245 |

Capability of a Process | p. 246 |

Testing for the Normal Distribution | p. 247 |

Creating a Process Capability Worksheet | p. 248 |

Graphing Data for a Visual Test | p. 254 |

Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Test | p. 256 |

Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Graph | p. 260 |

Issues in KS Testing | p. 260 |

Indexes and Ratios | p. 262 |

Real Life | p. 264 |

Summary | p. 266 |

Exercises | p. 266 |

Chapter 14 Pareto and Fishbone Diagrams | p. 267 |

Why Use Pareto Analysis? | p. 268 |

Calculating and Creating a Worksheet for a Pareto Diagram | p. 268 |

Creating the Pareto Diagram | p. 271 |

Revising the Pareto Worksheet to Include Costs | p. 272 |

Creating the Pareto Cost Diagram | p. 273 |

Why Use a Fishbone Diagram? | p. 274 |

Creating a Fishbone Worksheet | p. 275 |

Summary | p. 276 |

Exercises | p. 277 |

Chapter 15 Individual, Moving Average, and Moving Range Control Charts | p. 279 |

Introduction to Individual, Moving Average, and Moving Range Control Charts | p. 280 |

Why Use Individual Control Charts? | p. 281 |

Assumptions of Normality | p. 282 |

Creating and Calculating Individual Process Control Worksheets | p. 282 |

Graphing the Individual Control Chart | p. 286 |

Revising the Worksheet for the Moving Range Control Chart | p. 287 |

Graphing the Moving Range Control Chart | p. 287 |

Revising the Worksheet for the Moving Average Control Chart | p. 287 |

Graphing the Moving Average Control Chart | p. 287 |

Using Individual, Moving Range, and Moving Average Control Charts | p. 289 |

Real Life | p. 290 |

Summary | p. 292 |

Exercises | p. 293 |

Part V Acceptance Sampling | p. 295 |

Chapter 16 Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions | p. 297 |

Introduction | p. 298 |

Binomial Distribution | p. 299 |

Hypergeometric Distribution | p. 299 |

Creating and Calculating the Binomial and Hypergeometic Worksheet | p. 300 |

Graphing the Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions | p. 302 |

Summary | p. 304 |

Exercises | p. 305 |

Chapter 17 Operating Characteristic and Power Curves (Measuring Average Incoming Quality) | p. 307 |

The Operating Characteristic Curve and Power Curve | p. 308 |

Creating an Operating Characteristic Worksheet | p. 310 |

Graphing the Operating Characteristic Curve | p. 313 |

Graphing the Power Curve | p. 314 |

Hypergeometric Operating Characteristic Curves | p. 314 |

Graphing the Hypergeometric Operating Characteristic and Power Curve | p. 316 |

Deming's All-or-None Inspection Rule | p. 316 |

Real Life | p. 318 |

Summary | p. 320 |

Exercises | p. 320 |

Chapter 18 Average Outgoing Quality | p. 323 |

Outgoing Quality | p. 323 |

Creating the Average Outgoing Quality Worksheet | p. 324 |

Creating the Average Outgoing Quality Graph | p. 326 |

Real Life | p. 328 |

Summary | p. 328 |

Exercises | p. 329 |

Appendix A Reference List | p. 331 |

Appendix B Tables of Factors and Formulas | p. 333 |

Index | p. 336 |